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Rajasthan - राजस्थान
Rajasthan coat of arms
status State
Capital Jaipur
surface 342,239 km²
Residents 68,548,437 (2011)
Population density 200 inhabitants per km²
languages Hindi
governor Kalraj Mishra
Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot ( INC )
Website www.rajasthan.gov.in
ISO code IN-RJ
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Rajasthan ( Hindi राजस्थान IAST Rājasthān [ ˈrɑːʤʌstʰɑːn ], German 'Land of Kings' ) is an Indian federal state with an area of ​​342,239 km² and 68.5 million inhabitants (2011 census). The capital of Rajasthan is Jaipur and the official language is Hindi.


The city of Pushkar on the edge of the Thar Desert

Rajasthan borders the states of Punjab , Haryana , Uttar Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat (clockwise, starting in the north), as well as the Pakistani provinces of Sindh and Punjab . With 342,239 square kilometers, Rajasthan is India's largest state by area and only slightly smaller than Germany .

The state is formed from the early region of the Rajputana Agency (Land of the Rajputs ).

The northwest of Rajasthan is characterized by the Thar Desert, which merges into the Cholistan in Pakistan . Between the desert and the more fertile plains in the east and south-east lies the Aravalli Mountains , which act as a climate and watershed. The southeast of Rajasthan gradually merges into the highlands of Dekkan .

Biggest cities

(Status: 2011 census)

city Residents city Residents
1 Jaipur 3,073,350 8th Alwar 315.310
2 Jodhpur 1,033,918 9 Bharatpur 252.109
3 Kota 1,001,365 10 Sikar 237,579
4th Bikaner 647,804 11 Pali 229,956
5 Ajmer 542,580 12 Sri Ganganagar 224.773
6th Udaipur 451.735 13 Tonk 165.363
7th Bhilwara 360.009 14th Kishangarh 155.019

Effects of climate change

Rajasthan is regularly affected by intense heat in the summer months. In the last few years, however, extreme temperatures that exceed 45 ° C have increased. In the summer of 2019, 51 ° C was measured on the edge of the desert in Rajasthan and 50 ° C in the city of Churu on May 17, 2020 .



A group of Rajasthani women
A Rajasthani from Jodhpur
A young Muslim woman in the Thar Desert near Jaisalmer, 2009

According to the 2011 Indian census, Rajasthan has 68,621,012 inhabitants. In terms of population, Rajasthan is India's seventh largest state. The population is growing rapidly: between 2001 and 2011, the population grew by 21 percent, faster than the national average (18 percent). Compared to the rest of India, Rajasthan is relatively sparsely populated because of the extensive desert areas: the population density of 200 inhabitants per square kilometer is well below the national average (382 inhabitants per square kilometer), but still corresponds to the population density of Germany. A large part of the population is concentrated in the rural areas: only 25 percent of the population of Rajasthan live in cities. The degree of urbanization is thus below the overall Indian average of 31 percent. The gender ratio is unbalanced: there are only 928 women for every 1,000 men (the Indian average is 943). Among the 0 to 6 year olds, there are only 888 girls for every 1,000 boys (total India: 919).

66 percent of the residents of Rajasthan can read and write (men 79 percent, women 52 percent). The literacy rate is one of the lowest in India and is well below the national average of 73 percent (as of the 2011 census). From 2010 to 2014, the average life expectancy was 67.7 years (the Indian average was 67.9 years). The fertility rate was 2.34 children per woman (as of 2016) while the Indian average was 2.23 children in the same year.

The residents of Rajasthan refer to themselves as Rajasthani . Outside of Rajasthan, the term Marwari , which actually stands for the residents of the Marwar region, is used collectively for all Rajasthanis. The Adivasi (members of the indigenous tribal population) make up a minority of the state's population. 9.2 million residents of Rajasthan (14 percent of the population) are classified as members of the tribal population ( Scheduled Tribes ). The Adivasi population is concentrated in the mountainous areas of the Aravalli Mountains . In the districts of Banswara , Dungarpur and Pratapgarh they make up the majority of the population. By far the two largest Adivasi groups in Rajasthan are the Mina and the Bhil , who together make up over 90 percent of the state's tribal population.

Population development

Census population of Rajasthan (within today's boundaries) since the first census in 1951.

Census year population
1951 15.971.130
1961 20.156.540
1971 25,765,810
1981 34,361,860
1991 44.005.990
2001 56.473.300
2011 68,621,012


Languages ​​in Rajasthan
language percent
Distribution of languages ​​(2001 census)

The official language of Rajasthan is Hindi . According to the 2001 Indian census, it is the language of 91 percent of the state's population. Most people in Rajasthan speak one of the dialects that are grouped under the umbrella term Rajasthani . The relationship between Rajasthani and Hindi is complex: Rajasthani is linguistically sufficiently different from standard Hindi that it could be classified as a separate language, and it has its own literary tradition. At the same time, standard Hindi is gaining ground in Rajasthan as an official and educational language and is increasingly developing into the umbrella language for the Rajasthani dialects. In official statistics, the Rajasthani is counted as a Hindi. In fact, at the census, 32 percent of the population had Rajasthani as their mother tongue, 27 percent Hindi and 33 percent a specific Rajasthani dialect (including 11 percent Marwari , 9 percent Mewari , 4 percent Harauti , 3 percent Dhundhari and 3 percent Bagri ).

Other languages ​​spoken in Rajasthan are Bhili (just under 5 percent), which is common in the form of the Wagdi dialect among the Bhil Adivasi people, Panjabi (2 percent) and Urdu (1.2 percent) among Muslims . As in all of India, English is present as a communication and educational language.


Religions in Rajasthan
religion percent
Distribution of religions (2011 census)

The vast majority of the residents of Rajasthan are Hindus . According to the 2011 census, they make up 89 percent of the population. For Islam to 9 percent of the population profess. Smaller minorities, each around 1 percent, are the Sikhs , who mainly concentrate on the districts on the border with Punjab , and the Jainas , who have made important contributions to the cultural history of Rajasthan despite their small proportion of the population.


Rajasthan at the time of British rule
Administrative division of Rajasthan

In British India , Rajasthan was called Rajputana (Land of the Rajputs). From 1899 to 1902, it was one of the areas most severely affected by a great famine .

In the Rajputana region, in addition to the small British province of Ajmer-Merwara in the center, there were the following 19 princely states (1942 population in brackets):

Jaipur (3,026,000), Marwar (2,454,000), Mewar (1,852,000), Bikaner (1,076,000), Alwar (861,000), Kota (788,000), Bharatpur (559,000), Tonk (365,000), Dholpur ( 292,000), Dungarpur (261,000), Banswara (259,000), Sirohi (254,000), Bundi (24,000), Karauli (161,000), Jhalawar (123,000), Kishangarh (100,000), Jaisalmer (80,000), Pratapgarh (80,000), Shahpura ( 55,000).

The princely states of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Kaurauli merged in March 1948 to form the Matsayas Union (Matsya Sangha). Banswara, Kushalgarh, Bundi, Kota, Tonk, Jhalawar, Partabgarh, Shahpura, Kishangarh and Dungarpur formed the Rajasthan Union (Rajasthan Sangh) with the Rajpramukh Maharao of Kota. In April Mewar (Udaipur) joined this union, which was renamed the United State of Rajasthan (Sanyukta Rajasthan Sangha). Rajpramukh was then Maharana of Udaipur. In January 1949 Sirohis formally joined India.

Jaipur, Marwar (Jodhpur), Jaisalmer and Bikaner, as well as Lawa and Nimrana joined the confederation in March 1949, which was called Greater Rajasthan and was under the Rajpramukh Maharaja of Jaipur. On April 7, 1949, 15 Rajput states formally joined India. Matsya Sangha and Greater Rajasthan united in May 1949 to form United Greater Rajasthan . In September 1949, Banswaras formally joined India. Most of Sirohi came to Rajasthan in January 1950. The province of Ajmer-Merwara and a small border area in what is now the district of Banaskantha followed with the States Reorganization Act in November 1956, for which the exclave around Sironj was ceded to Madhya Pradesh . Since then, the borders of Rajasthan have remained unchanged.


Political system

The legislature of the state of Rajasthan consists of a unicameral parliament , the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly or Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha . The 200 members are elected by direct election every five years . The seat of parliament is Jaipur . In the all-India parliament , Rajasthan has 25 members in the Lok Sabha , the lower house, and ten seats in the Rajya Sabha , the upper house.

The Chief Minister of the State of Rajasthan is elected by Parliament. But is appointed by the President of India Governor (at the head of the State Governor ). Its main tasks are to appoint the Chief Minister and to entrust him with the formation of the government.

The highest court in Rajasthan is the Rajasthan High Court , based in Jodhpur .


Distribution of seats after the
2018 parliamentary elections
INC 100
BJP 73
E.G 6th
CPI (M) 2
Independent 13
total 200
Note: The election in constituency 67-Ramgarh had to be postponed because the BSP candidate died of a heart attack on November 30, 2018. The Congress Party candidate won the by-election on January 28, 2019.

The party politics of Rajasthan is dominated by two supraregional parties, the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). In the decades after independence, the Congress Party provided all of Rajasthan's governments, and since the 1990s it has alternated regularly with the Hindu nationalist BJP in power. In the last parliamentary election in December 2013, the congressional government was voted out of office, while the BJP achieved a clear electoral victory: The BJP won 162 of 199 constituencies. The Congress party fell significantly behind to second place and only entered parliament with 21 members. Three smaller parties were also represented in parliament: The National People's Party (NPP), which sees itself as representing the interests of the Adivasi (tribal peoples) and ran for the first time in Rajasthan, but fell short of its expectations with only four constituencies won. The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), which has a following among the Dalit (casteless), with three seats in the parliament in Rajasthan could not build on its successes in the neighboring state of Uttar Pradesh . The newly founded National Unionist Zamindara Party (NUZP), an advocacy group for guar farmers, moved into parliament with two MPs . In addition, seven independent candidates made it into parliament. As a result of the election, the BJP politician Vasundhara Raje was sworn in as Chief Minister of Rajasthan on December 13, 2013 . Raje was the first woman to hold office between 2003 and 2008.

In the 2014 all- India parliamentary election , the BJP won all 25 Lok Sabha constituencies.

The election to the state parliament on December 7, 2018 was won by the Congress party, which narrowly missed an absolute majority with 99 seats. Another mandate was added later as part of a by-election. The BJP had 73 seats and the BSP 6. In addition to 13 independent MPs, a number of MPs from small parties made it into parliament: a MP from the Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD), a regional party from neighboring Uttar Pradesh , and two MPs from the Bharatiya Tribal Party (BTP), an interest party founded the previous year by the Adivasi politician and former JD (U) MP Chhotubhai Vasava in neighboring Gujarat , two MPs from the communist-Marxists CPI (M) and three MPs from the BJP shortly before the election -Dissident Hanuman Beniwal founded Rashtriya Loktantrik Party (RLP).

Ashok Gehlot was sworn in as the new Chief Minister on December 17, 2018 . He had already held this office from 1998 to 2003 and 2008 to 2013.

Administrative division

Districts and Divisions

Districts of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is divided into 33 districts , which are divided into the 7 divisions Ajmer , Bharatpur , Bikaner , Jaipur , Jodhpur , Kota and Udaipur (data from the 2011 census):

District Administrative headquarters surface Population
Ajmer Ajmer 000000000008481.00000000008,481 km² 000000002583052.00000000002,583,052 000000000000305.0000000000305 inhabitants / km²
Alwar Alwar 000000000008380.00000000008,380 km² 000000003674179.00000000003,674,179 000000000000438.0000000000438 inhabitants / km²
Banswara Banswara 000000000004522.00000000004,522 km² 000000001797485.00000000001,797,485 000000000000397.0000000000397 inhabitants / km²
Baran Baran 000000000006992.00000000006,992 km² 000000001222755.00000000001,222,755 000000000000175.0000000000175 inhabitants / km²
Barmer Barmer 000000000028387.000000000028,387 km² 000000002603751.00000000002,603,751 000000000000092.000000000092 inhabitants / km²
Bharatpur Bharatpur 000000000005066.00000000005,066 km² 000000002548462.00000000002,548,462 000000000000503.0000000000503 inhabitants / km²
Bhilwara Bhilwara 000000000010455.000000000010,455 km² 000000002408523.00000000002,408,523 000000000000230.0000000000230 inhabitants / km²
Bikaner Bikaner 000000000030239.000000000030,239 km² 000000002363937.00000000002,363,937 000000000000078.000000000078 people / km²
Bundi Bundi 000000000005776.00000000005,776 km² 000000001110906.00000000001.110.906 000000000000192.0000000000192 people / km²
Chittorgarh Chittorgarh 000000000007822.00000000007,822 km² 000000001544338.00000000001,544,338 000000000000197.0000000000197 inhabitants / km²
Churu Churu 000000000013835.000000000013,835 km² 000000002039547.00000000002,039,547 000000000000147.0000000000147 inhabitants / km²
Dausa Dausa 000000000003432.00000000003,432 km² 000000001634409.00000000001,634,409 000000000000476.0000000000476 inhabitants / km²
Dholpur Dholpur 000000000003033.00000000003,033 km² 000000001206516.00000000001,206,516 000000000000398.0000000000398 inhabitants / km²
Dungarpur Dungarpur 000000000003770.00000000003,770 km² 000000001388552.00000000001,388,552 000000000000368.0000000000368 inhabitants / km²
Hanumangarh Hanumangarh 000000000009656.00000000009,656 km² 000000001774692.00000000001,774,692 000000000000184.0000000000184 inhabitants / km²
Jaipur Jaipur 000000000011143.000000000011,143 km² 000000006626178.00000000006,626,178 000000000000595.0000000000595 inhabitants / km²
Jaisalmer Jaisalmer 000000000038401.000000000038,401 km² 000000000669919.0000000000669.919 000000000000017.000000000017 people / km²
Jalor Jalor 000000000010640.000000000010,640 km² 000000001828730.00000000001,828,730 000000000000172.0000000000172 people / km²
Jhalawar Jhalawar 000000000006219.00000000006,219 km² 000000001411129.00000000001,411,129 000000000000227.0000000000227 inhabitants / km²
Jhunjhunu Jhunjhunu 000000000005928.00000000005,928 km² 000000002137045.00000000002,137,045 000000000000361.0000000000361 inhabitants / km²
Jodhpur Jodhpur 000000000022850.000000000022,850 km² 000000003687165.00000000003,687,165 000000000000161.0000000000161 inhabitants / km²
Karauli Karauli 000000000005524.00000000005,524 km² 000000001458248.00000000001,458,248 000000000000264.0000000000264 inhabitants / km²
Kota Kota 000000000005217.00000000005,217 km² 000000001951014.00000000001,951,014 000000000000374.0000000000374 inhabitants / km²
Nagaur Nagaur 000000000017718.000000000017,718 km² 000000003307743.00000000003,307,743 000000000000187.0000000000187 inhabitants / km²
Pali Pali 000000000012387.000000000012,387 km² 000000002037573.00000000002,037,573 000000000000164.0000000000164 inhabitants / km²
Pratapgarh Pratapgarh 000000000004449.00000000004,449 km² 000000000867848.0000000000867.848 000000000000195.0000000000195 inhabitants / km²
Rajsamand Rajsamand 000000000004655.00000000004,655 km² 000000001156597.00000000001,156,597 000000000000248.0000000000248 inhabitants / km²
Sawai Madhopur Sawai Madhopur 000000000004498.00000000004,498 km² 000000001335551.00000000001,335,551 000000000000297.0000000000297 inhabitants / km²
Sikar Sikar 000000000007732.00000000007,732 km² 000000002677333.00000000002,677,333 000000000000346.0000000000346 inhabitants / km²
Sirohi Sirohi 000000000005136.00000000005,136 km² 000000001036346.00000000001,036,346 000000000000202.0000000000202 inhabitants / km²
Sri Ganganagar Sri Ganganagar 000000000010978.000000000010,978 km² 000000001969168.00000000001,969,168 000000000000179.0000000000179 people / km²
Tonk Tonk 000000000007194.00000000007,194 km² 000000001421326.00000000001,421,326 000000000000198.0000000000198 inhabitants / km²
Udaipur Udaipur 000000000011724.000000000011,724 km² 000000003068420.00000000003,068,420 000000000000262.0000000000262 inhabitants / km²

Local self-government

Rajasthan owns 9 Municipal Corporations ( Nagar Nigam ):


The economy of Rajasthan is based on the cultivation of cotton , millet , maize , wheat , pulses and barley . In the desert areas live ranchers who raise sheep , goats and camels . In addition, in Rajasthan lead - zinc - ores , marble , mica and gypsum degraded. The wool industry and carpet weaving are well developed.

With a per capita gross domestic product of 65,974 rupees (1,433 US dollars ) in 2015, Rajasthan was ranked 19th out of 29 Indian states and thus below the Indian average. 31.6% of the population was malnourished in 2005 , which was the third highest rate among the states of India.

With a value of 0.601, Rajasthan achieved 22nd place among the 29 states of India in the human development index in 2015 and is thus below average.

Water recycling tradition

For centuries, the summer rain in India was the direct supplier of water. The people collected the precious liquid in large basins and water tanks in order to have enough water for their fields even in the dry season. To do this, they created artificial lakes that received their water from feeding canals. For this reason, the Thar Desert is considered to be the most populous desert in the world.

Survive in the desert

The desert city of Jaisalmer in western Rajasthan was a flourishing trading city for centuries. And the "Tanka" at the gates of the city played a decisive role in this. This artificial lake named Gadisar was created in the 14th century. Every year before the rainy season, the lake bed and all tributaries were cleaned. The people kept their lake clean. It should provide drinking water all year round. Washing and bathing in the lake were prohibited. Usually the lake even survived the dry season . When the water did evaporate, people would farm in the damp bed.

Khejri tree

Drinking water was then supplied by the numerous fountains in the city around the lake. The rainwater accumulated in the lake had time to slowly seep into the ground and fill the groundwater. In the dry months, the wells still provided enough water to irrigate the fields.

Khejri tree

The most important plant in the desert regions of Rajasthan is the evergreen khejri tree ( Prosopis cineraria ), one of the legumes , whose branches and leaves were used as animal fodder in dry seasons; its use has long been regulated by village laws.

Dams with negative consequences

In recent years, Lake Gadisar has suffered extremely. The traditional rainwater collection systems - not only in Jaisalmer, but also in many other places in Rajasthan - have collapsed. Many experts see the cause in modern irrigation systems. The British once brought water management know-how from Europe to India. After independence, the first Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to set up a modern central water supply in India. He referred to the dams as the "Temple of Progress". Hundreds of huge dams have been built in India over the past 50 years. Kilometers of canals like the Rajasthan Canal also supply dry regions of India with water. The aim of the state central water supply was to have enough water all year round, especially for irrigating agriculture. But the consequences were already visible after a few years. The ground was salinizing. The dams dug the water out of the rivers, and groundwater could hardly be formed. In addition, the reservoirs cannot supply enough water during dry periods. The Thar desert in particular is a typical example. The water in the canal sometimes only flows once a week, if at all. Despite state-organized irrigation, droughts are more common today than they were 40 years ago. And periods of drought are usually followed by famine because the farmers cannot irrigate their fields. The groundwater has not been replenished for years and the wells remain empty. These are self-made droughts, say environmental activists, because there would actually be enough water with the annual rain if one would remember the old traditions.

Environmental organizations promote traditional collection of rainwater

Environmental organizations in India, such as the Center for Science and Environment (CSE), began over 20 years ago to document the old traditional methods of collecting rainwater and to set up pilot projects. In Rajasthan, the simplest solutions for farmers are called Johads.

A Johad is a crescent-shaped pond that is so located in the landscape that it can catch many small streams and springs from a larger area during the rainy season. Each Johad is different in size and shape, depending on the nature of the soil or topography . This small lake is created by piling up earth walls. Their function is to hold back water that people use after the rainy season. However, they are even more important for groundwater. Otherwise the enormous rainfall would be washed away and lead to land erosion. The damming gives the water enough time to slowly seep into the ground and become groundwater. Since the farmers started building Johads again, the groundwater level has risen. It is also worth building wells again. After just a few years, the Johads pay off for the village communities. They can now irrigate their fields again and have enough to eat and forage for their livestock all year round.

There are other traditional collecting techniques in other parts of India. CSE has documented them all and expanded them with modern systems that are suitable for large cities. For some time so-called rain centers have been set up throughout the country, in which traditional and modern rainwater knowledge is imparted.

People are now increasingly involved in the water supply again. This is part of the concept of the CSE and other aid organizations in India. People should take responsibility for their water again.


In the past, most of the Alwar district was listed on the map as a “dark zone”, an area in which there is hardly any groundwater. Today, 15 years and many Johads later, it is again a “white zone” with a lot of water. Since 1985, over 5,000 Johads have been built in more than 850 villages. These areas are green again today, moderate agriculture is possible, and people are returning from the cities to their villages. Every year 400 new Johads are built and many bare ridges are reforested. Experts are convinced that this method of water extraction could also be used in other parts of the world, for example in the drought areas in southern India or in the Sahel region of Africa.


Dancers with Gauri figures at the Gangaur Spring Festival in Udaipur

The rulers of the former princely states were the main promoters of Indian courtly music . Many Muslim and Hindu musicians lived in their vicinity and performed regularly in the palaces. The Rajas of Jaipur emerged as the greatest patrons of music and dance. The court musicians of Jaipur have the roots of the Dagar family of musicians, who trace their tradition of the strict classical singing style Dhrupad back to the 16th century. In Jaipur, further musical traditions ( gharanas ) arose , in which vocal and instrumental forms of the dhrupad and the less strict khyal are cultivated.

Numerous regional folk music styles are more characteristic of Rajasthan than the forms of classical music, especially the religious songs ( bhajan and kirtan ) sung at temples and shrines . The musical culture is largely shaped by professional musicians who belong to different music castes. The musicians follow an old tradition that is inherited in the families, whereby, as elsewhere, the music of women and men differs. Some of these music groups are sedentary and receive regular donations from members of the local upper class, while other groups travel to festivals in distant regions and look for new opportunities to perform. The Langas and Manganiyars are Muslim castes of musicians who live in the Thar desert in the west ( Jaisalmer , Barmer and Jodhpur districts ). Both groups used to take part in the Jajmani system, the traditional relationship between the musicians / performers and a wealthy supporter, whose harvest they shared in and from whom they also received gifts on special occasions. A subset of the Langas plays two variants of the fretless string lute sarangi and the string sounds Surinda to sing along, the other subgroup does not sing, but Kegeloboe plays surnai , the Jew's harp Morchang or double-beak flute Santara (about the algoze ). The Langas have recently taken over the small double-headed cylinder drum dholak from the Manganiyars. The Manganiyars, even if they are Muslims, play religious music in Hindu temples for their clients. Their main string instrument is the kamaica ( kamaicha ) with a round body. The kamaica is now often replaced by an Indian harmonium; The double-headed drums dhol , dholak and the wooden hands rattle kartal provide the rhythm . Some Manganiyar singers also play the box zither swarmandal . Throughout Rajasthan, the four to five-string long-necked lute tandura is used to accompany religious chants.

The narh is an end-blown reed flute that is also found in southern Pakistan . In the villages of the Mina caste in southern Rajasthan, the hourglass drum dhak (related to the name of the dhadd ) is used to carry out rituals of possession. Another caste of musicians of low social standing are the Hindu dholis, named after their bass drum. You travel all over northern India as a dance and music teacher. The Dholis prefer "Kathak" as their own name, because they see themselves as the originator of the classical north Indian dance style Kathak . In addition to the dhol , they play the small pair of kettle drums naqqara , the double- headed dhumsa (not to be confused with the kettle drum of the same name, dhamsa ) and the cone oboe shehnai . These musical instruments belong to the tradition of the Indo-Islamic ceremonial orchestra naubat and have passed into Hindu religious music. Individual street musicians accompany their chants with the bowed long-necked lute ravanahattha .

Traditional professional musicians come from the Dholi and Mirasi musicians or are in the succession of those in the 18th and 19th centuries. Century respected entertainers ( tawaif ) comparable to courtesans at the royal houses. More common are the songs sung by non-professional women's groups at parties and family celebrations. These songs are part of the temple service or are intended to establish contact with the dead or spirits ( bhutas ). In addition, women know entertainment songs on all social topics of everyday life, which, like the classical singing style , are called khyal . The ghumar circle dance is popular across the state and is mainly part of the Gangaur Spring Festival, which women celebrate in March – April to worship Gauri . Colorfully clad dancers wearing ringing anklets ( ghungru ) turn quickly in circles, accompanied by the barrel drum dhol . The male dance kacchi ghori , in which the dancer dressed like a bridegroom acts wildly with a dummy horse, is rooted in the martial tradition. It is performed with drums ( dhol ) and natural trumpets ( bankia ) at weddings and other social events.


  • Hans-Joachim Aubert: Rajasthan, Delhi, Agra. DuMont, Cologne 2001, ISBN 3-7701-5221-2 .
  • Ian Copland: The princes of India in the endgame of empire 1917-47 , Cambridge 1997. ISBN 0-521-57179-0
  • Pauline van Lynden: Rajasthan. Coll. Rolf Heyne, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-89910-286-X (illustrated book).
  • Robert Strasser: Rajasthan - The Land of Kings. Indoculture, Stuttgart 1989.
  • James Tod : Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India , Volume 1. London 1829.
  • James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India , Volume 2. London 1832.

Web links

Commons : Rajasthan  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Rajasthan  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

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  26. Suneera Kasliwal Vyas: Musical Patterns of Kamaicha; A Bowed Folk Instrument of Rajasthan. ( Memento of the original from July 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Proceedings of the International Seminar on 'Creating & Teaching Music Patterns.' Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata, Nov. 16-18 December 2013, pp. 234–242 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / sitardivin.globat.com
  27. ^ David Roche: The "Dḩāk", Devi Amba's Hourglass Drum in Tribal Southern Rajasthan, India. In: Asian Music, Vol. 32, No. 1, Tribal Music of India. Fall 2000 - Winter 2001, pp. 59-99.
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  29. Mekhala Devi Natavar: Rajasthan. In: Alison Arnold (Ed.): The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. South Asia: The Indian subcontinent. Volume 5. Routledge, London 1999, pp. 640-647.
  30. Kacchi Ghori Dance (Momasar Virasat Utsav). Youtube video

Coordinates: 27 ° 0 '  N , 75 ° 0'  E