from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Haryana - हरियाणा
Coat of arms of Haryana.svg
status State
Capital Chandigarh
founding November 1, 1966
surface 44,212 km²
Residents 25,351,462 (2011)
Population density 573 inhabitants per km²
languages Hindi
governor Satyadev Narayan Arya
Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar ( BJP )
Website haryana.gov.in
ISO code IN-HR
Nordteil von Arunachal Pradesh: de-facto Indien - von China beansprucht Teilgebiete von Uttarakhand: de-facto Indien - von China beansprucht de-facto China - von Indien beansprucht de-facto China - von Indien beansprucht de-facto Pakistan - von Indien beansprucht de-facto Pakistan - von Indien beansprucht Siachen-Gletscher (umkämpft zwischen Pakistan und Indien) Jammu und Kashmir: de-facto Indien - von Pakistan beansprucht Ladakh: de-facto Indien - von Pakistan beansprucht Malediven Sri Lanka Indonesien Afghanistan Nepal Bhutan Bangladesch Pakistan China Myanmar Thailand Tadschikistan Delhi Goa Dadra und Nagar Haveli und Daman und Diu Tamil Nadu Kerala Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Telangana Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh Westbengalen Andamanen und Nikobaren Lakshadweepmap
About this picture

Haryana ( Hindi हरियाणा IAST Hariyāṇā [ hʌrɪˈjɑːɳɑː ]) is an Indian state with an area of ​​44,212 square kilometers and a population of 25.4 million (2011 census). The population density is 573 inhabitants per square kilometer.

The capital Chandigarh is also the capital of neighboring Punjab , on whose border it lies, and is directly administered as a union territory by the central government in New Delhi .

With a value of 0.687, Haryana achieved 9th place among the 29 states of India in the Human Development Index in 2015 .


Haryana borders in the north on the state of Himachal Pradesh , in the northwest on the Punjab and Chandigarh , in the southwest on Rajasthan , in the east on Uttar Pradesh and on the Union Territory of Delhi . The largest city in the state is Faridabad .

Biggest cities

(Status: 2011 census)

city Residents city Residents
1 Faridabad 1,404,653 8th Yamunanagar 216,628
2 Gurgaon 876.824 9 Panchkula 210.175
3 Rohtak 373.133 10 Bhiwani 197,662
4th Hisar 301,249 11 Ambala 196.216
5 Panipat 294.150 12 Sirsa 183.282
6th Karnal 286.974 13 Bahadurgarh 170.426
7th Sonipat 277.053 14th Jind 166.225
Source: Census of India 2011. (PDF; 154 kB)


Origin of Haryana from parts of Punjab (PEPSU = Patiala and East Punjab States Union )

In the summer of 1947, India and Pakistan were given independence from the British colonial empire by London , and the Punjab was divided between India and Pakistan. In 1956, the States Reorganization Act followed another large-scale redrawing of the boundaries between the Indian states. The previous state of Patiala and East Punjab States Union was annexed to the Punjab. In this state of Punjab, the Hindus formed the majority of the population. Political leaders of the Sikhs wanted their own state with a Sikh majority. As a result, on November 1, 1966, the part of Indian Punjab, the majority of the residents of which spoke Hindi and adhered to Hinduism , split off from the rest of the state and became a separate Indian state under the name Haryana .

The name Haryana is very old, although the etymological roots are disputed. Different meanings such as “Abode of Vishnu ” or “green land” and others were derived from different Sanskrit roots .

Part of the population of the Punjab and Haryanas are descendants of the Jat people who immigrated centuries ago . The members of the Jat group form a kind of caste or social community in Indian society today. Members of the Jats have repeatedly called for the Indian government to classify them as “other disadvantaged caste” ( Other Backward Classes ). This is associated with privileges such as the reservation of government agencies, university places, etc. In this context, there were repeated unrest, strikes and boycotts, some of which caused considerable economic damage, e. B. in February 2016.



Children in Gurgaon

According to the 2011 Indian census, Haryana has 25,351,462 inhabitants. This makes Haryana one of the medium-sized Indian states. In terms of population, it ranks 18th among the 29 states of India. With 573 inhabitants per square kilometer, Haryana is more densely populated than the Indian average, which is 382 inhabitants per square kilometer. Between 2001 and 2011, the population grew by 20 percent, a little faster than the national average (18 percent). The areas bordering Delhi in particular are experiencing rapid population growth due to the expansion of the megacity. Accordingly, Haryana's degree of urbanization is now 35 percent, above the national average of 31 percent. The gender ratio in Haryana is extremely unbalanced: there are only 879 women for every 1000 men, while the corresponding value for India as a whole is 943. Among the 0 to 6 year olds there are only 834 (India: 919). Haryana has the largest surplus of men of any Indian state.

76 percent of the residents of Haryana can read and write (men: 84 percent, women: 66 percent). The literacy rate is only slightly above the Indian average of 73 percent. Between 2010 and 2014, the average life expectancy was 68.6 years (the Indian average was 67.9 years). The fertility rate was 2.12 children per woman (as of 2016) while the Indian average was 2.23 children in the same year.

Population development

Haryana census population (within today's boundaries) since the first census in 1951.

Census year population
1951 5,674,400
1961 7,591,190
1971 10,036,430
1981 12,922,122
1991 16,464,600
2001 21,083,900
2011 25,753,081


Languages ​​in Haryana
language percent
Distribution of languages ​​(2001 census)

The main language of Haryana is Hindi , after which the state was formed in 1966. Hindi is the only official language of Haryana and, according to the 2001 census, is spoken by 87 percent of the state's residents as their mother tongue. Most people in Haryana speak one of the dialects that are grouped under the umbrella term Haryanavi .

In addition to the Hindi-speakers there is a larger minority of speakers of Punjabi (nearly 11 percent). Most of the Punjabi speakers are descendants of Hindus and Sikhs who were expelled from what is now Pakistan's Punjab after the partition of India in 1947. Urdu , the Muslim variant of Hindi, is common among parts of the Muslim Haryanas . As everywhere in India, English is ubiquitous as a lingua franca and educational language.


Hindu temple in Panchkula district
Religions in Haryana
religion percent
Distribution of religions (2011 census)

The vast majority of Haryana's residents are Hindus . According to the 2011 census, they make up 88 percent of the state's population. There are also minorities of Muslims (7 percent) and Sikhs (5 percent).

Around 1900, the proportion of Muslims in today's Haryana was around a quarter. As a result of the violence following the partition of India, the Muslim population was almost completely driven from parts of what is now Haryana. At the same time, many Hindus and Sikhs fled from what is now the Pakistani part of Punjab to Haryana. The Muslim population is particularly high today in the districts of Gurgaon and Mewat in the south of Haryana, where the Meo , a caste of Muslim farmers, settle. The Sikhs are mainly concentrated in the northwestern districts on the border with the state of Punjab.


Distribution of seats after the
2014 parliamentary elections
BJP 47
INC 15th
INLD 19th
E.G 1
Independent 5
total 90

The legislative assembly ( legislative assembly ) of Haryana consists of a single chamber, which comprises 90 deputies. The main political parties in the last elections were, among the national parties, the Congress Party (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI (M)), and by the local parties Indian National Lok Dal (INLD), Haryana Janhit Congress (HJC) and Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD). The last election to the Parliament of Haryana took place in 2014 and was won by the BJP. On October 26, 2014, Manohar Lal Khattar (BJP) was sworn in as the new Chief Minister of Haryana (the first from the ranks of the BJP).

The highest court in Haryana is the Punjab and Haryana High Court in Chandigarh, which also has jurisdiction over the neighboring state of Punjab.

Administrative division

Districts of Haryana (early 2011, still without the district of Charkhi Dadri )

The state of Haryana is divided into 4 divisions and 22 districts .


division Districts
Ambala Ambala , Kaithal , Kurukshetra , Panchkula , Yamunanagar
Gurgaon Faridabad , Palwal , Gurgaon , Mahendragarh , Mewat , Rewari
Hisar Bhiwani , Fatehabad , Jind , Hisar , Sirsa , Charkhi Dadri
Rohtak Jhajjar , Karnal , Panipat , Rohtak , Sonipat


At the time of the last 2011 census, Haryana was divided into 21 districts. On September 19, 2016, the 22nd district Charkhi Dadri was formed from parts of the Bhiwani district. The population and area data given in the following table come from the 2011 census.

No. District Administrative headquarters Area
( inhabitants / km² )
1 Ambala Ambala 000000000001574.00000000001,574 000000001128350.00000000001,128,350 000000000000717.0000000000717
2 Bhiwani Bhiwani 000000000004778.00000000004,778 000000001634445.00000000001,634,445 000000000000342.0000000000342
3 Charkhi Dadri * Hisar - - -
4th Faridabad Faridabad 000000000000741.0000000000741 000000001809733.00000000001,809,733 000000000002442.00000000002,442
5 Fatehabad Fatehabad 000000000002538.00000000002,538 000000000942011.0000000000942.011 000000000000371.0000000000371
6th Gurgaon Gurgaon 000000000001258.00000000001,258 000000001514432.00000000001,514,432 000000000001204.00000000001,204
7th Hisar Hisar 000000000003983.00000000003,983 000000001743931.00000000001,743,931 000000000000438.0000000000438
8th Jhajjar Jhajjar 000000000001834.00000000001,834 000000000958405.0000000000958.405 000000000000523.0000000000523
9 Jind Jind 000000000002702.00000000002,702 000000001334152.00000000001,334,152 000000000000494.0000000000494
10 Kaithal Kaithal 000000000002317.00000000002,317 000000001074304.00000000001,074,304 000000000000464.0000000000464
11 Karnal Karnal 000000000002520.00000000002,520 000000001505324.00000000001,505,324 000000000000597.0000000000597
12 Kurukshetra Thanesar 000000000001530.00000000001,530 000000000964655.0000000000964.655 000000000000630.0000000000630
13 Mahendragarh Narnaul 000000000001899.00000000001,899 000000000922088.0000000000922,088 000000000000486.0000000000486
14th Mewat Nuh 000000000001507.00000000001,507 000000001089263.00000000001,089,263 000000000000723.0000000000723
15th Palwal Palwal 000000000001359.00000000001,359 000000001042708.00000000001,042,708 000000000000767.0000000000767
16 Panchkula Panchkula 000000000000898.0000000000898 000000000561293.0000000000561.293 000000000000625.0000000000625
17th Panipat Panipat 000000000001268.00000000001,268 000000001205437.00000000001,205,437 000000000000951.0000000000951
18th Rewari Rewari 000000000001594.00000000001,594 000000000900332.0000000000900.332 000000000000565.0000000000565
19th Rohtak Rohtak 000000000001745.00000000001,745 000000001061204.00000000001.061.204 000000000000608.0000000000608
20th Sirsa Sirsa 000000000004277.00000000004,277 000000001295189.00000000001,295,189 000000000000303.0000000000303
21st Sonipat Sonipat 000000000002122.00000000002.122 000000001450001.00000000001,450,001 000000000000683.0000000000683
22nd Yamunanagar Yamunanagar 000000000001768.00000000001,768 000000001214205.00000000001.214.205 000000000000687.0000000000687

*) Newly founded after the 2011 census, figures are not available.

Local self-government

Several cities have been merged in recent years. In early 2016, Haryana had 10 municipal corporations , 18 municipal councils, and 50 municipal committees .

Municipal Corporations :

Municipal Councils :


As the largest recipient of per capita investment in India since 2000 and one of the richest and most developed regions in South Asia, Haryana has the fifth highest per capita income of any Indian state and Union Territory. For the year 2016-17 it was 180,174 rupees ($ 2,500) compared to a national average of 112,432 rupees ($ 1,600). Haryana's estimated gross domestic product was around 95 billion US dollars in 2017/18 (52% services, 34% industry and 14% agriculture) and is growing by 12.96% annually (2012-17 average). The state owes its dynamism to its proximity to the Indian capital region of Delhi. There are over 30 Special Economic Zones in Haryana, responsible for 7% national agricultural exports, 65% of national Basmati travel exports, 67% of automobiles, 60% of motorcycles, 50% of tractors and 50% of refrigerators made in India. Some cities in the state such as Gurgaon and Faridabad are among the fastest growing in the world (economically and demographically). The city of Gurgaon ranks first in India in terms of IT growth rate and existing technology infrastructure and second in terms of startup ecosystems, innovation and quality of life (as of 2016).

Web links

Commons : Haryana  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Haryana  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab. Retrieved August 12, 2018 .
  2. ^ Arnold P. Kaminsky, Roger D. Long: India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic , Volume 2 ABC-Clio 2011, ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3 . P. 299
  3. Haryana. Guru Jambeshwar University, July 1, 2016, accessed July 1, 2016 .
  4. 'Jat Quota Protests Cost Rs. 34,000 Crore Loss To Northern States'. NDTV, February 22, 2016, accessed July 1, 2016 .
  5. Full coverage: HARYANA JAT QUOTA STIR. The Indian Express, February 22, 2016, accessed July 1, 2016 .
  6. ^ Census of India 2011: Primary Census Data Highlights - India. Chapter 1 (Population, Size and Decadal Change) (PDF; 9.2 MB).
  7. ^ Census of India 2011: Primary Census Data Highlights - India. Chapter 3 (Literates and Literacy Rate) (PDF; 2.7 MB).
  8. ^ Indian States by Life Expectancy 2010-2014. (PDF) Retrieved March 19, 2018 .
  9. ^ Fertility Rates. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 18, 2018 ; accessed on March 19, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  10. ^ Census of India 2001: Distribution of 10,000 Persons by Language - India, States and Union Territories.
  11. Census of India 2011: Population by religious community.
  12. ^ Election Results - Full Statistical Reports. Indian Election Commission, accessed on March 14, 2015 (English, election results of all Indian elections to the Lok Sabha and the parliaments of the states since independence).
  13. Manohar Lal Khattar sworn in as CM of BJP's first govt in Haryana. The Times of India, October 26, 2014, accessed March 14, 2015 .
  14. Charkhi Dadri is state's 22nd district. The Tribune, September 19, 2016, accessed April 2, 2017 .
  15. Census of India 2011: Primary Census Abstract - Haryana (PDF; 634 kB).
  16. ^ Directorate of Urban Local Bodies Haryana
  17. Haryana Hurricane . In: indianexpress.com . Archived from the original on May 15, 2008.
  18. ^ TJ Byres: Rural labor relations in India . Taylor & Francis, 1999 ,, ISBN 978-0-7146-8046-0 .
  19. Statewise GDP. Retrieved January 19, 2019 .
  20. Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Haryana , India Brand Equity Foundation , Nov 2017.

Coordinates: 29 ° 9 '  N , 76 ° 12'  E