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Gujarat - ગુજરાત
coat of arms
status State
Capital Gandhinagar
founding May 1, 1960
surface 196,024 km²
Residents 60,383,628 (2011)
Population density 308 inhabitants per km²
languages Gujarati
governor Acharya Devvrat
Chief Minister Vijay Rupani ( BJP )
ISO code IN-FY
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Gujarat ( Gujarati ગુજરાત Gujarāt ;  [ guʤəˈrɑːt ] ) is an Indian state with an area of ​​196,024 km² and a population of 60.4 million (2011 census). The capital of the state is Gandhinagar , the economically most important city is Ahmedabad . Please click to listen!Play



Gujarat borders the Indian states of Rajasthan (north), Madhya Pradesh (east) and Maharashtra (southeast) as well as the Pakistani province of Sindh in the northwest and the Arabian Sea in the south. Three of the four areas of the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu are completely enclosed by Gujarat. The fourth of these areas is between Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Coasts, mountains and rivers

Gujarat has a coastline of approximately 1,600 kilometers, more than any other Indian state. The coast includes the Gulf of Kachchh and the Gulf of Khambhat , which border the Kathiawar peninsula . The Rann von Kachchh on the Pakistani border forms a remarkable salt marsh landscape . Although other well-known mountain ranges of northern India ( Aravalli , Vindhya and Satpura Mountains ) are still with a tip in Gujarat, the highest mountain range in Gujarat is Mount Girnar (1117 meters). Gujarat's most important river is the springing in the southern Aravalli mountains and through the megacity Ahmedabad flowing Sabarmati , but also coming from central India rivers Mahi , Narmada and Tapti flow into the Gulf of Khambhat.

Flora and fauna

Gujarat is the last natural habitat for lions outside of Africa. 2005 censuses showed that the small population of lions that are native to Gujarat in Gir National Park has grown again, as a result of government efforts to protect against poachers.

Biggest cities

(Status: 2011 census)

Ahmedabad and Sabarmati River
city Residents city Residents
1 Ahmedabad 5,570,585 8th Gandhidham 248,705
2 Surat 4,462,002 9 Nadiad 218.150
3 Vadodara 1,666,703 10 Gandhinagar 208.299
4th Rajkot 1,286,995 11 Anand 197.351
5 Bhavnagar 593,768 12 Morbi 188.278
6th Jamnagar 529.308 13 Mehsana 184.133
7th Junagadh 320,250 14th Surendranagar Dudhrej 177,827



Men playing a board game on a sidewalk in Ahmedabad

According to the 2011 Indian census, Gujarat has 60,383,628 inhabitants. This makes Gujarat the ninth largest state in India in terms of population. The population density is 308 people per square kilometer, which is lower than the average in India (382 people per square kilometer). The population of Gujarat is growing rapidly: between 2001 and 2011 it increased by 19.2 percent. The growth rate is thus above the national average of 17.6 percent in the same period. 42.6 percent of Gujarat's population live in cities. The degree of urbanization is thus significantly higher than the national average of 31.2 percent.

79.3 percent of the population of Gujarat can read and write (men 87.2 percent, women 70.7 percent). The literacy rate is thus above the national average of 74.0 percent (as of the 2011 census).


The inhabitants of Gujarat call themselves Gujarati . The Adivasi (members of the indigenous tribal population) make up a minority of the state's population. The 2001 Indian census classified 14.8 percent of the population of Gujarat as members of the tribal population ( scheduled tribes ). The largest group are the Bhils , who make up almost half of Gujarat's Adivasi population. The rest is spread over a number of smaller tribes. The Adivasi mainly concentrate on the mountainous areas in eastern Gujarat. In the districts of Dang , Narmada , Dahod and Valsad they make up the majority of the population.

Girl killings

Gujarat was and is, next to the Indian and Pakistani Punjab, a stronghold of the killing of girls (female infanticides ) and selective abortions . As early as 1817 it was reported by the British colonial administration that in the ramified clan of the maharajas of the Jadega- Rajputs often only male descendants survived. The reasons for this were purely economic: the main concern of rich landowners was to prevent the splintering of their land holdings. The killings mainly affected legitimate children, not those of concubines, as they were not entitled to inherit. Today, deaths of girls in the first year of life are increasing in the cities. They are roughly 3: 2 to the deaths of boys; This means that today the unequal ratio in the cities is even more pronounced than in the country, which shows that the infanticides are not stopping despite the relative wealth of the province and the ongoing modernization process.

Population development

Gujarat census population since the first Indian census in 1951.

Census year population
1951 16,263,700
1961 20.633.305
1971 26,697,488
1981 34,085,800
1991 41,309,580
2001 50.597.200
2011 60,383,628


Languages ​​in Gujarat
language percent
Distribution of languages ​​(2001 census)

The main language of Gujarat is Gujarati , after whose language borders the state was formed in 1960. It belongs to the group of Indo-Aryan languages and is written in its own script, the Gujarati script . According to the 2001 census, Gujarati is spoken by 84.5 percent of Gujarat's population as their mother tongue. 4.8 percent of the population speak Bhili , the language of the Bhil Adivasi people. Hindi , the most widely spoken language in India, is particularly widespread among immigrants from other parts of the country ; its speakers make up 4.7 percent of the population. 1.9 percent of Gujarat's residents are recorded as Sindhi native speakers, including speakers of the Kachchhi dialect, which is widespread in the Kachchh region . Marathi , the language of the neighboring state of Maharashtra, is spoken by 1.5 percent of the population. Urdu is partly widespread among the Muslims of Gujarat , whose speakers make up 1.2 percent of the population.

Gujarati is the only official language of Gujarat. As in all of India, English is present as a communication and educational language.


Religions in Gujarat
religion percent
Distribution of religions (2011 census)

The vast majority of Gujarat's residents are Hindus . According to the 2001 census, they make up 89 percent of the population. The largest minority are Muslims with just under 10 percent of the population. Smaller minorities are Jainas with 1.0 percent and Christians with 0.5 percent. A numerically very small, but historically significant minority are the parses .


From the 8th to the 13th centuries, the country was ruled successively by three related Hindu dynasties: Chavda, Solanki , Vaghela . It was conquered by the Muslims around 1300 , and the Sultanate of Gujarat existed there in the 15th and 16th centuries . In 1576 the sultanate was conquered by Akbar I and incorporated into the Mughal Empire .

After the state of Bombay expanded in 1956 to include the entire area of ​​today's Maharashtra , Bombay was divided into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra along the language border on May 1, 1960.

Gujarat after the 2001 earthquake

On January 26, 2001, a 7.7 magnitude earthquake struck the region. About 20,000 people died and 200,000 were injured. The economic development of the area was set back by a decade.

Ahmedabad, Gujarat riots 2002

On February 27, 2002, at least 57 people were killed, including 25 women and 15 children , in an attack on a train carrying Hindu pilgrims . As a result, there were violent clashes between Hindus and Muslims , in which, according to official estimates, 254 Hindus and 790 Muslims were killed. The riots are among the worst and most brutal since Indian independence, and women in particular were victims of mutilation, torture and mass rape.


Political system

The Gujarat Legislature consists of a unicameral parliament , the Gujarat Legislative Assembly or Gujarat Vidhan Sabha . The 182 members of parliament are elected by direct election every five years . The parliament has had its seat in the capital Gandhinagar since 1970 , which was laid out as a planned city after the founding of the state of Gujarat . Previously, Ahmedabad been 1960-1970 interim capital.

The Chief Minister (Head of Government) of Gujarats, is elected by Parliament. But is appointed by the President of India Governor (at the head of the State Governor ). Its main tasks are to appoint the Chief Minister and to entrust him with the formation of the government. Acharya Devvrat has held this office since July 2019 . The highest court in Gujarat is the Gujarat High Court , located in Ahmedabad.

Gujarat has 26 members in the Lok Sabha , the lower house of the Indian parliament, and eleven in the Rajya Sabha , the Indian upper house.


Distribution of seats after the
2012 parliamentary elections
BJP 115
INC 61
JD (U) 1
Independent 1
total 182

Gujarat is already since 1997 all the way from the nationalist Hindu party Bharatiya Janata Party ruled (BJP). From 2001 to 2014, the BJP politician Narendra Modi held the office of Chief Minister. Modi is controversial for its role during the serious riot between Hindus and Muslims in Gujarat that claimed more than 1,000 lives during his reign in 2002, but it became very popular because of Gujarat's economic success under his reign. He was able to lead his party to three consecutive election victories in the state and was elected Prime Minister of India after the election victory of the BJP in 2014 . After Modi's rise to prime minister, his party colleague Anandiben Patel took over the post of Chief Minister of Gujarat. However, she resigned from her position in early August 2016 (officially for reasons of age). Afterwards her party colleague Vijay Rupani became Chief Minister.

In the last general election in Gujarat in December 2012, the BJP won 115 out of 182 constituencies. The Indian National Congress (INC) followed as the most important opposition force with 61 seats. The regional Gujarat Parivartan Party (GPP), which the former BJP politician and Chief Minister Keshubhai Patel founded shortly before the elections, won two seats. Furthermore, the two national parties Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) and Janata Dal (United) (JD (U)) are represented in parliament with two or one MPs and an independent candidate.

In the all- Indian parliamentary elections in 2014 , the BJP was able to build on its previous successes in Gujarat: it won all 26 constituencies in the state.

Administrative division

Districts of Gujarat

The state of Gujarat is divided into the following 33 districts (population, area and population density according to the 2011 census):

District Administrative headquarters surface Population
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad 000000000008099.00000000008,099 km² 000000007208200.00000000007.208.200 000000000000890.0000000000890 inhabitants / km²
Amreli Amreli 000000000007383.00000000007,383 km² 000000001513614.00000000001,513,614 000000000000205.0000000000205 inhabitants / km²
Anand Anand 000000000002940.00000000002,940 km² 000000002090276.00000000002,090,276 000000000000711.0000000000711 inhabitants / km²
Aravalli * Modasa km² Ew./km²
Banaskantha Palanpur 000000000010745.000000000010,745 km² 000000003116045.00000000003,116,045 000000000000290.0000000000290 inhabitants / km²
Bharuch Bharuch 000000000006516.00000000006,516 km² 000000001550822.00000000001,550,822 000000000000238.0000000000238 inhabitants / km²
Bhavnagar Bhavnagar 000000000009993.00000000009,993 km² 000000002877961.00000000002,877,961 000000000000288.0000000000288 inhabitants / km²
Botad * Botad km² Ew./km²
Chhota Udaipur * Chhota Udaipur km² Ew./km²
Dahod Dahod 000000000003654.00000000003,654 km² 000000002126558.00000000002,126,558 000000000000582.0000000000582 inhabitants / km²
Dang Ahwa 000000000001758.00000000001,758 km² 000000000226769.0000000000226,769 000000000000129.0000000000129 inhabitants / km²
Devbhumi Dwarka * Khambhalia km² Ew./km²
Gandhinagar Gandhinagar 000000000002102.00000000002,102 km² 000000001387478.00000000001,387,478 000000000000660.0000000000660 inhabitants / km²
Gir Somnath * Veraval km² Ew./km²
Jamnagar Jamnagar 000000000014112.000000000014,112 km² 000000002159130.00000000002,159,130 000000000000153.0000000000153 inhabitants / km²
Junagadh Junagadh 000000000008846.00000000008,846 km² 000000002742291.00000000002,742,291 000000000000310.0000000000310 people / km²
Kachchh Bhuj 000000000045442.000000000045,442 km² 000000002090313.00000000002,090,313 000000000000046.000000000046 inhabitants / km²
Kheda Nadiad 000000000004249.00000000004,249 km² 000000002298934.00000000002,298,934 000000000000541.0000000000541 inhabitants / km²
Mahisagar * Lunawada km² Ew./km²
Mehsana Mehsana 000000000004389.00000000004,389 km² 000000002027727.00000000002,027,727 000000000000462.0000000000462 inhabitants / km²
Morbi * Morbi km² Ew./km²
Narmada Rajpipla 000000000002759.00000000002,759 km² 000000000590379.0000000000590.379 000000000000214.0000000000214 inhabitants / km²
Navsari Navsari 000000000002210.00000000002,210 km² 000000001330711.00000000001,330,711 000000000000602.0000000000602 inhabitants / km²
Panchmahal Godhra 000000000005215.00000000005,215 km² 000000002388267.00000000002,388,267 000000000000458.0000000000458 inhabitants / km²
Patan Patan 000000000005738.00000000005,738 km² 000000001342746.00000000001,342,746 000000000000234.0000000000234 inhabitants / km²
Porbandar Porbandar 000000000002298.00000000002,298 km² 000000000586062.0000000000586.062 000000000000255.0000000000255 people / km²
Rajkot Rajkot 000000000011209.000000000011,209 km² 000000003799770.00000000003,799,770 000000000000339.0000000000339 inhabitants / km²
Sabarkantha Himatnagar 000000000007400.00000000007,400 km² 000000002427346.00000000002,427,346 000000000000328.0000000000328 inhabitants / km²
Surat Surat 000000000004418.00000000004,418 km² 000000006079231.00000000006,079,231 000000000001376.00000000001,376 inhabitants / km²
Surendran agar Surendranagar Dudhrej 000000000010514.000000000010,514 km² 000000001755873.00000000001,755,873 000000000000167.0000000000167 inhabitants / km²
Tapi Vyara 000000000003239.00000000003,239 km² 000000000806489.0000000000806.489 000000000000249.0000000000249 inhabitants / km²
Vadodara Vadodara 000000000007546.00000000007,546 km² 000000004157568.00000000004,157,568 000000000000551.0000000000551 inhabitants / km²
Valsad Valsad 000000000003036.00000000003,036 km² 000000001703068.00000000001,703,068 000000000000561.0000000000561 inhabitants / km²

* : Districts established after 2011

Development of the district division

During the existence of Gujarat, the number of districts increased from 17 to 33.


With a per capita gross domestic product of 106,831 rupees (2,337 US dollars ) in 2015, Gujarat was ranked 6th out of 29 Indian states. The state's development indicators are generally in the Indian average or above. During the reign of Narendra Modi , who was Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014 and then Prime Minister of India, the state was considered one of the most economically dynamic in the country.

With a score of 0.651, Gujarat ranks 16th among the 29 states of India in the Human Development Index in 2015 . The Indian average is 0.624.

Renewable energy

Canal solar power project with a canal in Kadi, which is covered with photovoltaic modules

There are approximately 458 km of open main canals in Gujarat. Including all side arms, the canal length is currently 19,000 km. After completion of the SSNNL sewer network, it will cover approx. 85,000 km. Some open channels for the drinking water supply were covered with solar modules in a pilot project.

The Indian Federal Minister for Renewable Energies, Farooq Abdullah, supported the innovative project in the press.

Web links

Commons : Gujarat  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Gujarat  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Source: Census of India 2011. (PDF; 154 kB)
  2. a b Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Tables and Annexures.
  3. ^ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals - India - Rural-Urban Distribution. (PDF; 8.1 MB)
  4. ^ Census of India 2001: Gujarat Data Highlights: The Scheduled Tribes. (PDF; 39 kB)
  5. LS Vishvanath: Female Infanticide, Property and the Colonial State. In: Tulsi Patel (Ed.): Sex-Selective Abortion in India: Gender, Society and New Reproductive Technologies. SAGE 2007, p. 270.
  6. Nirmala Carvalho: Gujarat: 12,000 baby girls killed in the state's cities. In:, 2013.
  7. ^ Population of Indian States | Indian states population 1901-2011 - Retrieved March 19, 2018 .
  8. ^ Census of India 2001: Distribution of 10,000 Persons by Language - India, States and Union Territories.
  9. Census of India 2011: Population by religious community.
  10. At least 57 people burned in a train robbery. FAZ from Feb. 27, 2002
  11. Akeel Bilgrami: Democratic Culture: Historical and Philosophical Essays . Routledge, 2013, ISBN 978-1-136-19777-2 , pp. 143 ff . (English, ).
  12. ^ Ward Berenschot: A Micro-Sociology of Violence: Deciphering Patterns and Dynamics of Collective Violence . Ed .: Jutta Bakonyi, Berit Bliesemann de Guevara. Routledge, 2014, ISBN 978-1-317-97796-4 , Rioting as Maintaining Relations: Hindu-Muslim Violence and Political Mediation in Gujarat, India, p. 18–37 (English, ).
  13. ^ Indian Social Institute: The Gujarat pogrom: compilation of various reports . 2002 (English, ).
  14. Parvis Ghassem-Fachandi: Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India , Portland Press, 2012.
  15. ^ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals. Paper 1 of 2011: Gujarat. (PDF; 16.7 MB)
  16. ^ Comparing Indian States and Countries by GDP per capita - Retrieved March 18, 2018 .
  17. Mayank Mishra: Did Narendra Modi make Gujarat Vibrant? In: Business Standard India . July 20, 2013 ( [accessed March 18, 2018]).
  18. ^ Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab. Retrieved August 12, 2018 .
  19. ^ State pulls off rare feat in reaping Sun, saving water . ExpressIndia. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
  20. ^ Damodar Valley to replicate Gujarat's canal-top solar plant . Business standard. Retrieved May 22, 2012.

Coordinates: 23 ° 12 '  N , 72 ° 42'  E