Gharana is a training institution and a network of musicians of classical North Indian music who are connected as followers of a certain musical style and often also by kinship. Indian dance styles are also assigned to gharanas. Each Gharana was founded by a master and is differentiated from the rest in terms of its theoretical concept, the teaching method used within the close teacher-student relationship, and the performance practice. Gharanas are usually named after their place of origin and classified as singing Gharana, according to the musical instrument mainly taught or the dance style cultivated there.
The word gharana comes from Sanskrit griha and Hindi ghar and means "family" or "house". The religious-cultural basis of the social Gharana organizational structures is the teaching relationship between the guru and his disciple, guru-shishya parampara, which is based on a mutual transference relationship. The teacher imparts musical knowledge to the student and expects dedication and lifelong gratitude from the student. In an initiation ceremony (ganda bandhan) , the newcomer, who receives a thread around the wrist (nada bandh) as a sign , is raised to the rank of a trusted student. A fatherly relationship develops between the teacher and his students, even if they do not belong to his own family. A music guru is shown respect not only by his students but also by his parents and other relatives.
Since until the 19th century the music could only be written down to a limited extent and as a memory aid, this close teacher-student bond was decisive for the oral transmission of the compositions and playing styles. The teaching method is not based on theoretical understanding, but is geared towards imitation and constant repetition: the student just sits in front of the teacher for a long time and observes. This learning phase can take years or decades. As long as this transmission path is maintained, the forms of expression of the numerous raga compositions can be assigned to specific gharanas and thus to individual musicians.
The musicians give the impression that their gharanas are very old. For the reputation of a Gharana it is important that it can be traced back to a famous master as early as possible, ideally to Amir Chosrau at the beginning of the 14th century or to Tansen (1506–1589). The idea of a musical chain reaching back so far shows parallels to the line of descent Silsila , with which Sufi orders are religiously founded. The term Silsila is used in the case of Indian music specifically for the lineage of the teaching tradition; in contrast to the more broadly understood Gharana, which includes consanguinity, tradition and style. Usually, a Gharana is only spoken of after a continuity of two to three generations since it was founded. The founder should have made an independent contribution to Hindustan (classically North Indian) music, i.e. introduced an innovation that was probably considered a musical rebellion in his time. As a minimum requirement, a group of students must be added, which creates a social organization, and a separate musical style that provides a cultural center. There are no administrative structures, no campus and no teaching semesters at Gharanas.
Each Gharana has a core of well-known musicians who declare themselves to be a part of it and are assessed accordingly by others. Students and later their students crowd around these musicians. Furthermore, there are musicians who declare themselves to be representatives of a Gharana without ever having had lessons there because they imitate the style of music. Other musicians do not want to belong to the gharana they learned from. The Khyal singer Bhimsen Joshi (* 1922) sang many compositions of the Gwalior Gharana, in which he received his first training, although he is a member of the Kirana Gharana. New gharanas have arisen through splits. Famous musicians are taken over by Gharanas, although they used a different style.
The extent to which a gharana legitimately passes on a certain musical heritage or legitimately has an outstanding position in the music world depends, apart from the line of ancestors, on unmistakable, characteristic singing techniques, playing styles and forms of composition and is a topic of discussion in professional circles.
The division of North Indian music into styles, which are represented by different gharanas, probably did not arise before the 18th century. Musician families have an old tradition in India, the current concept of the Gharanas dates from the end of the 19th century.
The development of distinguishable musical styles goes back further. Musicians from Dhrupad schools can be assigned to different banis . Bani (derived from Sanskrit vani, "voice") denotes a certain style of singing or compositional forms. From the time of Tansen at the court of Emperor Akbar , four Banis are named: Dagar, Khandar, Nauhar and Gauri, whose origins are possibly even older, but which do not become tangible as distinct style concepts before the 19th century. The relationship between a Dhrupad-Gharana and one of the four Banis is not entirely clear; individual musicians of a Gharana can cultivate the style of two of the Banis. The corresponding style of singing practiced by the musicians of Khyal-Gharanas is called Gayaki . Here there is a direct relationship between the Gharana and its associated style.
With the development of the Khyal style during the Mughal period , schools of the new style emerged in the ruling houses, but they were linked to the older Dhrupad schools. The musicians were tied to and financed by the rulers, with old famous musicians being able to exert great influence on their patrons. After the fall of the Mughal rule, the families of musicians grouped themselves at the centers of local principalities.
The Gharanas formed closed groups of family members who protected their own musical style from being passed on to others. They were in competition with the other families of musicians, their source of income and commodity was their music. Therefore, the peculiarities of one's own style were emphasized and it was avoided to teach this style to strangers. With two exceptions, the Benares Gharana by tabla players and the Bishnupur Gharana by Dhrupad singers, all gharanas were founded by Muslims and the majority of the musicians were also Muslims. In the two exceptional cases, the Hindu founders learned their art from Muslim Ustads . Since the Muslim rulers hardly employed any Hindus, many Hindu musicians converted to Islam. The defense of musical property therefore lay with the Muslim families and fueled the conflict with Hindus, who did not belong to the blood-related musical group of the Gharanas.
Decline of the Gharanas
This system of closed circles was sustainable at a time when transport links were poor and today's communication methods were unknown. The identity of a Gharana can only be maintained if its concept, which has grown over a long period of time, is conveyed by a teacher who makes a strong impression on his student and the student receives a lesson with few other influences over a long period of time.
Bhaskar Rao Bakhle (1869–1922), Khyal singer of the Agra Gharana, was one of the first to criticize the concept of the Gharanas. His student Dilip Chandra Vedi (1901–1992), singer and music teacher, completely rejected the Gharanas. The musicologist Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860–1936) strongly criticized the musicians' lack of theoretical knowledge and the entire training system, which was only geared towards practical imitation. At the music schools founded by Bhatkhande and other reformers at the end of the 19th century, the principle of the raga to be learned was initially developed theoretically, lessons with several teachers were possible and the change between teachers became part of the training. The simple formula that music could be learned through relatives, power or sex, i.e. within the gharanas, through recommendations from the ruling houses or through the influence that courtesans exerted with their charm, was democratically dissolved by schools that were open to the public for the first time. At the same time, the social hierarchy between the high-ranking dhrupad musicians and the little respected music of the courtesan singers at court and their accompanying sarangi players leveled.
The system of competition and isolation from one another is generally no longer considered desirable. Musicians claim to have received influences from several gharanas and only a few now exclusively follow a certain gharana style. Gharanas as an organizational form of the special teacher-student relationship have contributed to the fact that the compositions of the ragas along with their meaning were passed on over the centuries and the permitted degree of musical freedom led to a continuous development.
The basic division takes place in vocal and instrumental gharanas - of which there are gharanas for melody instruments and for the tabla - and in dance schools. Another division can be made between the older Dhrupad schools, the Khyal Gharanas and the light style of the Thumri -Gharanas.
The Gwalior Gharana is usually considered the oldest vocal Gharana. Gwalior , the birthplace and burial place of the famous court musician Tansen, has a long tradition of promoting music from the ruling family. The brothers Haddu Khan (Dhrupad singer), Hassu Khan (Khyal singer) and Nathu Khan are said to have brought the Khyal singing style into its current form at the beginning of the 19th century and founded the Gharana. Vishnu Digambar Paluskar (1872-1931), the singer of Khyals and Bhajans Veena Sahasrabuddhe (1948-2016) and the sarod player Amjad Ali Khan (* 1946) are among the best-known khyal singers of this Gharana .
- Agra Gharana
The singing style of the Agra-Gharana was adopted by Dhrupad singers from the now disappeared Nauhari Bani . Perhaps the liveliest Gharana traces its origins back to Sujjan Khan, a court musician of Akbar. The actual founder is Ghagghe Khudabuksh (1790-1880) by taking over parts of the Khyal style from the Gwalior Gharana. After that, Faiyaz Khan (around 1886–1950) was the most important singer and shaped the style. Other outstanding singers of this Gharana are Bhaskar Rao Bakhle, his pupil Dilip Chandra Vedi, Yunus Hussain Khan, Latafat Hussein Khan (* 1923), KG Ginde (1925-1994) and Shauqat Khan.
The Patiala-Gharana from Patiala in the Punjab Province is considered a branch of the Delhi-Gharana. The founders were Jasse Khan and his son Ditte Khan. Their style was developed from a previous sarangi gharana by Bade Ghulam Ali Khan (1902–1968), a singer and sarang player. At the end of the 19th century, many musicians fled the political unrest in Delhi to the remote princely state of Patiala , where they received support from the ruling family. Leading representatives of this Gharana, which is known for light classical music such as Thumri and Bhajan , are the first Ajoy Chakraborty (* 1953) from Bengal , Bade Fateh Ali Khan (1935-2017) from Pakistan, the Pakistani Ghazal singer Ghulam Ali (* 1940), the singer of Khyal and Thumri Lakshmi Shankar (1926-2013), and Raza Ali Khan (* 1962). The Patiala Gharana is the most popular classical music style in Pakistan. The Quawwali singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (1948–1997), who became famous in the West , received his training in this Gharana, as did the two brothers Salamat Ali Khan (1934–2001) and Nazakat Ali Khan, the most famous classical singers in Pakistan.
This school cultivates the khyal chant and takes its name from the birthplace of one of its founders, Abdul Karim Khan (1872–1937) near Kurukshetra (Uttar Pradesh), although he lived in Miraj in Maharashtra for most of his adult life . She traces her tradition back to the vina player (binkar) gang Ali Khan. Most of the musicians from Karnataka are followers of this gharana, which is influenced by South Indian music. Another founder is Abdul Wahid Khan (1871–1949). Well-known representatives are Bhimsen Joshi , who was born in 1922 in Gadag-Betigeri in the north of this state; Hirabai Badodekar (1905–1989), daughter of Abdul Karim Khan; Roshan Ara Begum (1917–1982), who was born in Kolkata and immigrated to Pakistan in 1948 , although khyal singing was less popular there; Gangubai Hangal (1913–2009), who cultivated a pure, traditional singing style with her very deep, solemn voice; and Prabha Atre, born in Pune in 1932 .
- Indore Gharana
The young Indore Gharana for khyal singing was founded by Amir Khan (1912–1974) in his hometown of Indore . He came from a family of court musicians, his father was a sarangi player. It should not be confused with the better known gharana of the vina players.
- Benares Gharana
It represents the semi-classic Thumri style. Its founder from a sarangi tradition is Gopal Mishra. Well-known singers are his grandsons Rajan and Sajan Mishra and the singer Girija Devi .
The Khyal style Bhindibazaar Gharana, named after a district in Mumbai , was founded by Chajju Khan and his brothers around 1890. Her style is influenced by South Indian music. The most famous singer is Aman Ali Khan, from whom the film music singer Lata Mangeshkar took lessons for a certain time.
- Mewati Gharana
The founder of this Gharana, named after the Mewat district in Haryana, was Ghagge Nazir Khan from the local city of Hisar . The music school only became known in the middle of the 20th century for the richly ornamented and elegant singing style of Pandit Jasraj (* 1930). He and his students mostly sing bhajans.
- Delhi Gharana
Mamman Khan, also Sangi Khan, are considered its founder. It represents a delicate style and comes from the tradition of sarang players. The main representatives include Nasir Ahmed Khan, Iqbal Ahmed Khan and Chand Khan.
The Gharanas listed so far mainly represent the Khyal style. The oldest Dhrupad-Gharana is the Dagar-Gharana, whose style of the same name (Bani) was mainly preserved and passed on by the court musician Behram Khan (1753–1878) in Jaipur . At the rulers' courts in Agra , Mathura and Rajasthan, their musicians developed a style of singing that slowly unfolds the alap (free rhythmic opening of the raga). Leading singers in the 19th century were Zakiruddin Khan (1840–1926) and Allabande Khan (1845–1927). Zia Fariduddin Dagar (1932–2013) is one of the "Dagar Brothers" ; Nasir Moinuddin Dagar (1919–1966) and Nasir Aminuddin Dagar (1923–2000), like their predecessors, appeared as a duo (duet: Jugalbandhi ), Nasir Faiyazuddin Dagar and Nasir Zahiruddin Dagar (1932–1994) formed the younger duo. The "Gundecha Brothers" from Ujjain consist of Umakant Gundecha and Ramakant Gundecha.
In Bihar , the courtly darbhanga tradition lives on in the Mallik family. The founders of the school are said to have been the court musicians of the Nawab of Darbhanga, Radhakrishna and Kartaram in the middle of the 18th century. After the death of Ram Chatur Mallik (1906–1991), Bidur Mallik (* 1936) is the oldest musician in the family. Her singing style is fast and rhythmic.
The Bettiah Gharana (Nauhar and Khandar Bani) in the same region near the Nepalese border had their heyday in the 19th century. Its creation is associated with the arrival of Shivdayal Mishra, who received his training from musicians at the Nepalese royal court. The tradition continues within the Mishra family from Indrakishore Mishra in Bettiah and from Falguni Mishra.
The Bishnupur Gharana from West Bengal has given up Dhrupad singing in the Khandar style.
The Talwandi Gharana was popular in today's Pakistani Punjab until the 1930s . Their family tradition in the Khandar style can be traced back to the 15th century. The repertoire includes Muslim and Hindu themes. In Pakistan, dhrupad music is practically no longer heard, some members of the family now sing khyal. Hafiz Khan Talvandivale, who lives in Lahore , is one of the few singers who still represents the Dhrupad style.
Gharanas for melody instruments
The Imdadkhani Gharana, also Etawah Gharana, has an origin story that has to do with the jealous secrecy practice of the Gharanas in the 19th century. The two founders of the Gwalior-Gharana, Haddu Khan and Hassu Khan, mentioned above, are said to have turned a student away, whereupon he locked himself into the large birdcage draped with cloths in the room every night for seven years to secretly listen to the two making music. One day the brothers happened to hear someone singing their musical style in town, and they accepted this musical boy named Sahib Singh as their student. After his conversion to Islam, he called himself Sahabdad Khan. He also learned Surbahar and later lived in Etawah (southern border of Uttar Pradesh ); his eldest son was Imdad Khan (1858-1920).
Imdadkhani is the name of the village near Agra where the family had settled. Imdad Khan was tutored by his father and later by the famous binkar ( vina player) gang Ali Khan and became one of the most famous and influential sitar and surbahar players. Imdad's students included his two sons, the sitar player Enayat Khan (1859-1938), who settled in Kolkata, and the surbahar player Wahid Khan. Enayat, who died young, had two sons who took over the musical inheritance with these two instruments. Vilayat Khan (around 1928-2004) spent most of his life in Kolkata and perfected a very fast, easy sitar playing. His younger brother Imrat Khan (1935–2018) plays the sitar and surbahar.
Other members of this Gharana are Nishat Khan, the eldest son of Imrat Khan; his second son Irshad Khan ; Budhaditya Mukherjee and Shahid Parvez, both born in 1955.
- Indore Gharana
The Indore-Gharana, also Indore Binkar Gharana to distinguish it from the singing school , is a Sitar-Gharana, the origins of which are said to go back to the end of the 18th century. In the 1860s, Bande Ali Khan (1826–1890), who is considered the greatest vina player of the 19th century, became a musician at the court of Indore . The game of vina was not continued by his three sons, who became sarang players, but by his students Wahid Khan and Murad Ali Khan. Rehmat Khan learned to play the sitar. Many family members of this Gharana lived in Indore for several generations. For them, the location and lineage of Gang Ali Khan are the two reference points. There are also some singers among the successors.
- Maihar Gharana
It is also named after its reformer Allauddin Khan (1862–1972) or after his former area of activity Rampur . Shortly after the great Indian uprising of 1857 , many musicians from Delhi fled to the provinces, some were accepted by the nawab of the small princely state of Rampur . From 1900, the Kolkata vina player Wazir Khan (1851-1926) was one of the ruler's circle of musicians and taught the sarod player Allauddin Khan there, also in the playing techniques of Vina, Rabab and Sursingar . During his time in Rampur, Allauddin Khan introduced numerous stylistic innovations to the Maihar Gharana. From 1918 he lived in Maihar in what is now Madhya Pradesh and founded a music school there. Although the Gharana can be traced back to Mian Tansen and is therefore also known as Senia-Gharana , the Gharana is considered to be an independent foundation of Allauddin Khan. Senia are generally called stylistic features that are attributed to Tansen or its surroundings.
His students include his son Ali Akbar Khan (1922–2009), his daughter, the Surbahar player Annapurna Devi (* 1926) and son-in-law Ravi Shankar . Other famous names are associated with the Maihar Gharana: the sitar player Nikhil Banerjee (1931–1986); the flute player Pannalal Ghosh (1911–1960); Sharan Rani (1929–2008), the first and almost only known sarod player; Aashish Khan (* 1936), sarod player, son of Ali Akbar Khan; and also Bahadur Khan (* 1931), a nephew.
- Jaipur Gharana
This name can be understood as the vocal Gharana of the founder Alladiya Khan (1855-1946), an instrumental Gharana of the descendants of a son of Tansen or a Gharana of Kathak dancers. The Binkar music school of vina and sitar players, also known as Jaipur-Senia-Gharana , is said to have been founded in the middle of the 18th century. The musicians historically assigned to the Gharana include Barkatulla Khan († 1930); the extraordinary surbahar player Ashiq Ali Khan, son of Muhammad Ali Khan of Jaipur, whose khyal compositions were notated by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande; his son Mustaq Ali Khan (* 1911) had success in Kolkata. His students Debu Chaudhuri and Prateek Chaudhuri are currently the leading sitar players of this gharana. Bimal Mukherjee also influenced the sitar player Subroto Roy Chowdhury of the Jaipur Gharana.
- Bishnupur Gharana
In the 19th century, the Gharana in the small town of Bishnupur in what is now West Bengal was a cultural center. The lineage is stretched back to the 13th century and referred to Bahadur Khan via Tansen's youngest son, Bilas Khan, eight generations later, who is considered the founder of the original Gharana for Dhrupad chant. Bahadur Khan was invited to the court of Bishnupur in the 18th century by the then Raja Raghunath Singh Deo II of Delhi. The famous dhrupad singer of the Senia-Gharana played vina, rubab and sursingar (an obsolete combination of rubab and rudra vina ). His successor as court musician was his student, the Hindu Gadadhar Chakraborty. The following generations of students are listed inconsistent. A conclusion from the temporal inconsistencies shows that the actual founder is likely to be Ram Shankar Bhattacharya and the stated establishment by a musician who came from outside represented a gain in prestige. Bhattacharya was not a student of this series, but is highly revered by the musicians of the Bishnupur Gharana. One of the peculiarities of the Gharana was that all members were probably Hindus, so the students worshiped their guru according to Hindu tradition with sweets and flowers, but did not wear the nada bandh as a sign of the ceremonial union.
The sitar player Ramprasanna Banerjee (1870–1928) initially served the local Raja and later founded his own music school. One of his students was Gokul Nag (1908–1983), whose son Manilal Nag (* 1939) is currently one of the few musicians who still represents the Gharana.
- Senia Bangash Gharana
This Gharana reflects the development of the Afghan plucked Rubab in the middle of the 19th century to the Sarod used in North Indian classical music. The horse dealer and music enthusiast Gulam Bandigi Khan Bangash brought the rubab to India. His son Gulam Ali Khan became a professional musician, playing dhrupad and other styles on the rubab and vina. In Gwalior he became court musician with the Maharaja. Nanne Khan († 1907) was the youngest of his three sons. The most famous musician of his sons was Hafiz Ali Khan (1882–1972), sarod player at the court of Gwalior. The currently best-known sarod player of his sons is Amjad Ali Khan (* 1946).
While the number of gharanas for stringed instruments cannot be precisely stated with general consensus, as the concept of a gharana is understood differently, a general distinction is made between six tabla gharanas. The term gharana was not used until the 19th century and only in relation to melody instruments. The fact that tabla teaching methods and styles are also categorized in gharanas is due to the increased appreciation of Indian drums, which at the beginning of the 20th century have turned from their accompanying role to an equal partner of the melody-leading instruments in the performance of the ragas. The family structures of tabla players were called Gharana from around 1900 .
- Delhi Gharana
The oldest gharana for tabla was probably founded at the beginning of the 18th century by Sudhar Khan Dhari, who is said to have contributed significantly to the development of the instrument. Gamay Khan (1883–1958), the most important tabla player of this Gharana in the 20th century, belonged to the sixth generation of the founder. His only son was called Inam Ali Khan (1924–1990), only one of whose sons plays tabla. Another member of this family was Natthu Khan (1875-1940). A student of Inan Ali was named Latif Ahmed Khan (1941–1990).
Shortly before the middle of the 19th century, the musician Miyan Bakshu Khan and his brother Modhu Bakshu Khan probably came from the Delhi area to Lucknow at the court of the Nawab . The former is generally considered to be the founder of the Lucknow Gharana, but there is no consensus about his origin. As with the Delhi Gharana lineage, Bakshu's descendants were all Shiites . Both families also taught Sunnis . A well-known Sunni student of Bakshu was Haji Vilayat Ali Khan, who founded his own Gharana in the village of Farrukhabad (in the west of Uttar Pradesh).
Well-known tabla players are Abid Hussain (1867–1936), who - unusual for a tabla player of his time - made his fortune. He was one of the three sons of Mammad Khan († around 1879); another was Munne Khan († 1890); Wajiid Hussain (1900–1980), son of Abid Hussain's older brother and his most gifted student. Afaq Hussain (1930–1990) was the son of Wajid Hussein.
The just mentioned Haji Vilayat Ali Khan introduced a style into the Farukhabad-Gharana that has a large tonal range and the same varied striking technique with both hands including gliding with the ball of the hand (meend) . As a valued composer and player, he became a court musician in Rampur. From the founder, the tradition was passed on in the family via the following sons Masit Khan, Keramatullah Khan (* 1918), Sabir Khan to Arif Khan. Pandit Chaturlal (1925–1965), the older brother of the sarangi player Ram Narayan , was the first tabla player to give concerts in the west with Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan from the 1950s. Other representatives are Shamsuddin Khan (1880 or 1890–1967); Jnan Prakash Ghosh (1912-1987); Kamai dutta; Nikhil Ghosh, whose teacher was Ahmedjan Thirakwa (1892-1976); Shyamal Bose and the younger ones : Anindo Chatterjee , Sanjoy Mukherjee and Bikram Ghosh .
- Benares Gharana
The founding of the Gharana is attributed to Pandit Ram Sahai (1780–1826). He received his first lessons in Lucknow from Modhu Bakshu Khan, at the age of 17 he returned to Benares ( Varanasi ). Strikes with the flat of the hand are typical of the style, while in Delhi it is predominantly played with the individual fingertips. Baldev Sahai (* 1872), the son of Bhairav Sahai, received an invitation from the King of Nepal in 1924 , where he settled. Well-known representatives are Sharda Sahai, Kanthe Maharaj (1880–1961), Kishan Maharaj (1923–2008), Kumar Bose and Shamta Prasad.
- Punjab Gharana
The well-known and large Gharana was probably founded by Kader Baksh or his predecessor Lala Bhavanidas in the 19th century. The leading representative around 1900 was Fakir Bakhsh, followed by his son Kadir Bakhsh II (* 1902 in Lahore), the teacher of Alla Rakha (1919-2000). His sons are Zakir Hussain (* 1951), Fazal Qureshi (* 1961) and Taufiq Qureshi (* 1962). Other tabla players at this school are Shaukat Hussain Khan (1930–1995) from Lahore , also a student of Kadir Bakhsh II; Khalifa Akhtar Hussain Khan (1947-2001); Altaaf Hussain "Tafo" Khan (* 1945) and Abdul Sattar "Tari" Khan (* 1953).
- Ajrada Gharana
The Gharana is closely related and probably a scion of the Delhi Gharana, the founders are the brothers Kallu Khan and Miru Khan from Ajrada near Merath . She is less known than the others. The Gharana is represented by Habibudin Khan († 1972), Hamzmat Khan, Ramzan Khan and Sudhirkumar Saxena (1923-2007).
The demarcation in gharanas is different within the individual dance genres, the unmistakable characteristics gradually disappear as in the musical gharanas. In the Odissi dance style, some gharanas are named after famous dance teachers. In the case of Manipuri , two gharanas have been distinguished since the middle of the 20th century: the old style of Amubi Singh in Imphal and the development of new compositions and choreographies by Bipin Singha (1918–2000) in Mumbai .
- Kathak Gharanas
Only with the Kathak exist four different Gharanas with the names of their centers, which were formed at the time of the principalities at the individual ruling houses. The Lucknow Gharana is said to have been brought into being by Thakur Prasad at the court of the last nawab of the princely state of Avadh , Wajid Ali Shah , in Uttar Pradesh during his reign from 1847 to 1856. It is the most famous school of this dance style. Bindadin Maharaj († 1918) and his younger brother Kalka Prasad († around 1910) shaped today's style of Kathak and were the most revered dancers in the 19th century.
The fine expressive dance of Lucknow is in contrast to the Jaipur-Gharana, which focuses more on technique and fast footwork . This tradition evolved to the ruling houses of Hindus in the 18th century, when the Kachchwaha- Rajputs in Jaipur ruled. The pakhawaj is played as an accompanying instrument more often than elsewhere .
The Benares Gharana is a split from the Jaipur Gharana. It is also named after its founder Janaki Prasad, who was born at Bikaner . He moved with some family members to Benares, where they gathered more dancers around them. Disciples of Janaki Prasad later returned to the court of the Maharajas of Bikaner . The desert city is now a center of this dance school.
At the beginning of the 20th century, a new dance style called Raigarh-Gharana was established in the princely state of Raigarh in what is now the state of Chhattisgarh . Maharaja Chakradhar Singh (1905–1947) invited several dancers and tabla players from Jaipur, Lucknow and elsewhere to his court, whose students teach the now less known style at the local music school.
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- Betia Gharana. Dagar Gharana. Darbhanga Gharana. ( Memento of January 10, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) IRC Sangeet Research Academy
- Khalid Basra, Richard Widdess: Dhrupad in Pakistan. The Talwandi Gharana. Dhrupad Annual, 4, 1989, pp. 1-10
- DM Neumann, p. 148 f
- Tóth Szabi: Imdad Khani Gharana. ( Memento from February 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Indore Gharana. ( Memento from May 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Nad-Sadhna
- Tóth Szabi: Indore Gharana. ( Memento of February 8, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Peter Lavezolli: The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. Continuum, New York 2006, pp. 33f
- Sharan Rani passes away. ( Memento from December 19, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) ITC Sangeet Research Academy
- Peter Lavezolli, p. 69
- Tóth Szabi: Jaipur Senia Gharana. ( Memento from February 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Bishnupur Gharana. Nad Sadhna. Institute for Indian Music & Research Center
- Charles Chapwell: The Interpretation of History and the Foundations of Authority in the Visnupur Gharana of Bengal. In: Stephen Blum, Daniel M. Neumann (Eds.): Ethnomusicology and Modern Music History. University of Illinois Press, 1993, pp. 95-102
- Ira Landgarten: Interview with Manilal Nag. November 1994
- Tóth Szabi: Vishnupur Gharana. ( Memento from February 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Senia-Bangash Gharana. ( Memento from February 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) india.tilos.hu
- Tóth Szabi: Senia Bangash Gharana. ( Memento from February 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Sadanand Naimpalli: Theory and Practice of Tabla. Popular Prakashan, Mumbai 2008. Chapter: Biographies of Eminent Tabla Players, pp. 90–114. ISBN 81-7991-149-7
- James Kippen: Genealogical musings: a brief discussion of the Delhi tabla gharana. ( Memento from June 10, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Alison Arnold (ed.): The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia: The Indian Subcontinent. Garland, London 1999, p. 133
- James Kippen: History of the Lucknow Tabla Tradition. ( Memento from July 24, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Farrukhabad Gharana. Hindustani classical ( Memento from May 16, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Shawn Mativetsky: The Benares Tabla Gharana.
- Instrumentalists Tabla. ( Memento from December 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) sadarang.com (Punjab-Gharana)
- History of the Ajrada Gharana. Indian tabla school
- Manipuri Dance. ( Memento from March 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) manipuri.20m.com
- James Kippen, Andreine Bel: Lucknow Kathak Dance. Bansuri, Vol. 13, 1996 ( Memento from June 15, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- Benaras (Janakiprasad) Kathak Gharana. ( Memento from June 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Indian Dance School