Nawab ( Urdu : نواب; Hindi : नवाब , Navāb ; Bengali : নবাব , Nabāb ; derived from the Arabic word Nāʾib (نائب / 'Deputy, governor'); entered into German in the figurative sense as Nabob ) is a historical title of ruler on the Indian subcontinent (especially in the area of today's India , Pakistan and Bangladesh ).
In the Mughal Empire , the word originally meant an emissary from the emperor or a viceroy; later the title was given the meaning "provincial governor". During the fall of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the 18th century, many provincial governors were able to establish their own hereditary princely dynasties, but retained the title of "Nawab" and continued to rule in the name of the Mughal emperor in order not to challenge the legitimacy of their rule. Then “Nawab” became the typical title of a Muslim ruler on the subcontinent . However, there were also other titles of Muslim provincial rulers such as the Nizam of Hyderabad in particular . Non-Muslim princes were titled as Rajas , Raos or Maharajas .
At the time of the deposition of the last Mughal and the establishment of the British Empire of India after the great uprising of 1857 , the rulers of the following territories bore this title: Avadh (deposed in 1856), Bahawalpur (today Pakistan ), Baoni , Banganapalle , Basoda , Bhopal , Cambay , Isa Khel (today Pakistan), Jaora , Junagadh , Kalabagh (today Pakistan), Kharan (today Pakistan), Kurnool , Kurwai , Makran (today Pakistan), Malerkotla , Manavadar , Muhammadgarh , Palanpur , Pataudi , Radhanpur , Rampur , Sachin and Tonk . The Nawabs of Bengal had been deposed by the British earlier.
The name given to the wife of a nawab or other woman of high rank is Begum .
The word "Nabob"
Based on this meaning, a second metaphorical meaning has emerged: According to this, a “nabob” is someone who returns to Europe from the Far East after having made a large fortune there, sometimes with questionable methods, or simply just one Man of great wealth and influence.