Calendar overview 1743
Battle of Dettingen the Austrians and British defeat
the French in the War of the Austrian Succession .
|Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn-Buchheim dies.||
Johann Friedrich Karl von Ostein becomes Archbishop
and Elector of Mainz .
|1743 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1191/92 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1735/36 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1148/49 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2286/87 (southern Buddhism); 2285/86 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1105/06 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4076/77 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1121/22 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1155/56 (New Year 24/25 February)|
|Jewish calendar||5503/04 (September 18-19)|
|Coptic calendar||1459/60 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2053/54 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2054/55 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1799/1800 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Austrian Succession
- February 8th : The Spanish attack Modena again in the War of the Austrian Succession in the Italian theater of war , but suffer a defeat in the Battle of Camposanto . The Spanish army in southern France is also trying again to advance in Piedmont, but has to retreat to Savoy as in the previous year.
- March 10 : Prussia and Russia sign another alliance treaty . In addition to defense policy agreements, the short-lived treaty contains provisions on Poland-Lithuania and Silesia .
- May 9th : The Bavarian army of Emperor Charles VII and his Hessian allies lose a battle near Simbach am Inn against the Pragmatic Army and have to evacuate almost all of Bavaria .
- June 27th : In the Battle of Dettingen the allied Austrians and British defeated a French army under Marshal Adrien-Maurice de Noailles under the command of the British King George II .
- The allied French and Bavarians withdraw across the Rhine . The French Duke François-Marie de Broglie is then relieved of his command.
Russia / Sweden
- August 18 : The Peace of Åbo ends the Russo-Swedish War that began in 1741 . The defeated Sweden gets back most of the territories in Finland conquered by Russia . In return, on June 23, at the request of Russia, Adolf Friedrich from the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , the uncle of the Russian heir to the throne Karl Peter Ulrich , was appointed heir to the Swedish throne. The Treaty of Åbo also gave Russia additional parts of South Karelia . Sweden cedes the area east of the Kymijoki River with the Olofsborg Fortress and the towns of Villmanstrand and Fredrikshamn to Russia. Tsarina Elisabeth guarantees the freedom to continue practicing the religion in the ceded areas. The existing privileges, ownership structure and the Swedish legal system introduced in 1734 are also guaranteed.
- In Russia a conspiracy against Empress Elisabeth in favor of the deposed Ivan IV is exposed. Those involved around lady-in-waiting Natalja Fjodorovna Lopuchina are sent into exile in Siberia after severe torture. Another alleged co-conspirator, Antoniotto Botta Adorno , is a diplomat at the Viennese court. Maria Theresa's refusal to extradite him to Russia leads to tension between the two great powers. As a result, Elisabeth lives in constant fear of an assassination attempt.
Other events in Europe
- January 21 : One day after the death of his chief minister, André-Hercule de Fleury , King Louis XV declares of France , he wants to rule without a leading minister in the future.
- April 22nd : Johann Friedrich Karl von Ostein becomes Archbishop of Mainz and thereby also elector . He succeeds the late Philipp Karl von Eltz .
- The Greifswaldisches Wochen-Blatt appears in 52 issues and is discontinued in the same year.
science and technology
- November 29th : The Great Comet C / 1743 X1 is sighted for the first time in the Netherlands. Further sightings will take place on December 9th by Dirk Klinkenberg , on December 13th by Jean-Philippe Loys de Chéseaux and on December 21st by Jacques Cassini .
- The Second Kamchatka Expedition under the direction of Vitus Bering , carried out on behalf of the Russian Empress Anna , comes to an end after ten years.
- The first heliometer for precise measurement of very small angles in astronomy is built in England.
- Under the name Free School is in Newark , the University of Delaware established.
- The Royal Court Opera in Berlin , built according to plans by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff in the Palladian style , is being completed as part of the Forum Fridericianum after around two years of construction.
Music and theater
- 16 Leipzig merchants finance 16 musicians, including Stadtpfeifer , to found a musical society, the Leipzig Concert , the first concert of which takes place on March 11th . The Gewandhaus Orchestra later developed from this .
- February 18 : The three-act oratorio Samson by George Frideric Handel is premiered at the Covent Garden Theater in London. The organ concerto played as inter-act music is probably the concerto in A major (HWV 307) that had just been completed. Kitty Clive , the actress and singer of the Theater Royal Drury Lane , who was extremely popular at the time , played the role of Dalila in this oratorio as a separate performance on the London stage, thereby increasing the success of both artists. The libretto is by Newburgh Hamilton, based on the tragedy Samson Agonistes by John Milton in 1671 .
- After June 27th: Georg Friedrich Handel composes the Dettinger Te Deum to celebrate the victory of the Austro-British military over the French troops in the Battle of Dettingen . The work contains themes from the composer Francesco Antonio Urio .
- March 12 : Il vero omaggio , a libretto for a componimento drammatico in one act by Pietro Metastasio , is premiered for the first time in the setting by Giuseppe Bonno in the palace gardens of Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna on the birthday of Archduke Joseph .
Further world premieres
- January 6 : At the Teatro Regio Ducale in Milan which takes place premiere of the opera Demofoonte by Christoph Willibald Gluck on the libretto by Pietro Metastasio . In the same year, another setting of the subject by Giovanni Chinzer was premiered in Rimini.
- Carnival: At the Teatro Filarmonico di Verona the opera Ciro riconosciuto by Pietro Chiarini based on the libretto by Pietro Metastasio will be premiered.
- June 13th : The first version of the opera Demofoonte by Niccolò Jommelli based on Pietro Metastasio's libretto takes place at the Teatro degli Obizzi in Padua .
- October 10 : The libretto Antigono by Pietro Metastasio is premiered in the setting by Johann Adolph Hasse in Hubertusburg Palace in Wermsdorf, Saxony.
- Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram found the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia .
- Daniel Gralath and his father-in-law Jacob Theodor Klein found the Natural Research Society in Danzig .
- Johann Joachim Winckelmann becomes secretary to Cardinal Alessandro Albani .
- The first plane trees come to Germany from the American colonies via England and France.
- The Peerless Pool , the first public swimming pool in London , is put into operation by the jeweler William Kemp.
- May 18 : With the encyclical Nimiam licentiam ( Excessive Abuse ), Pope Benedict XIV exhorts the Polish brothers, archbishops and bishops to be less accommodating when dissociating marriages .
- August 19 : Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn-Buchheim dies. On November 4th , Kasimir Anton von Sickingen was appointed as his successor as Prince-Bishop of Constance , but without being ordained a priest. Franz Christoph von Hutten zum Stolzenberg becomes the new Prince-Bishop of Speyer on November 14th .
- December 24th : Pope Benedict XIV publishes the encyclical Demandatam “On the Melkite Greek Catholic Church ”, in which the Pope addresses Cyrilus VI. Tanas and all the bishops in his jurisdiction. Benedict XIV pronounces the prohibition of any addition, deletion or modification of the Byzantine rite. It also forbids other adoptions from the Byzantine to the Latin rite. He orders that all mixed forms that have taken place so far should be returned to their original state. He exhorts the members of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church to practice their religious rites in a disciplined manner.
- The Vallis Angelica monastery in what is now Belarus is founded.
First half of the year
- January 3 : Joseph-Benoît Suvée , Flemish painter († 1807 )
- January 5 : Karl Heinrich von Nassau-Siegen , French adventurer and naval officer († 1808 )
- January 17 : Andreas Ludwig Krüger , German architect and engraver († 1822 )
- January 18 : Ignazio Gaetano Boncompagni-Ludovisi , Italian cardinal († 1790 )
- January 18 : Karagoromo Kisshū , Japanese poet († 1802 )
- January 25 : Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi , German philosopher and writer († 1819 )
- February 1 : Bruno de Heceta , Spanish navigator and explorer († 1807 )
- February 5 : Ferdinand Anton von Krosigk , Prussian district administrator († 1805 )
- February 7 : Ludwig Daniel Heyd , German court sculptor († 1801 )
- February 8 : Louis Auguste Philippe Frédéric François, 2nd Comte d'Affry , Swiss Landammann († 1810 )
- February 13 : Joseph Banks , English naturalist († 1820 )
- February 19 : Luigi Boccherini , Italian composer and cellist († 1805 )
- February 28 : René-Just Haüy , French mineralogist († 1822 )
- February 28 : Karoline von Oranien-Nassau-Diez , Princess of Nassau-Weilburg († 1787 )
- March 17 : Johann Georg Meusel , German historian and lexicographer († 1820 )
- March 20 : Nathan Miller , American politician († 1790 )
- March 28 : Ekaterina Romanovna Voronzowa-Daschkowa , important figure of the Enlightenment in Russia († 1810 )
- April 13 : Thomas Jefferson , American politician, author of the Declaration of Independence and US President († 1826 )
- April 13 : Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Schmettau , German cartographer († 1806 )
- April 24 : Edmond Cartwright , British inventor († 1823 )
- Etta Lubina Johanna Palm-Aelders , Dutch feminist and revolutionary in France († 1799 ) April:
- May 10 : Lucie-Madeleine d'Estaing , French noblewoman, mistress of Louis XV. († 1826 )
- May 15 : Christoph Bernhard Verspoell , Catholic priest, publicist and hymn poet († 1818 )
- May 24th : Jean Paul Marat , Swiss scientist, doctor and publisher, leading revolutionary in France († 1793 )
- May 28 : Johann David Wyss , Swiss author († 1818 )
- May 29 : Johann Bonaventura Andres , German Jesuit priest, educator, university professor and writer († 1822 )
- May 30th : Don José Fernando Abascál y Sousa , Marques de la Concordia and Spanish viceroy in Peru († 1821 )
- June 3 : Wilhelm I , Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel († 1821 )
- June 8th : Alessandro Cagliostro , Italian alchemist and impostor († 1795 )
- June 19 : Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra , Spanish Benedictine, Bishop of Barbastro and author of the first comprehensive account of the history, nationality and culture of Puerto Rico († 1813 )
- June 20 : Anna Laetitia Barbauld , English poet, essayist, literary critic, editor and children's book author († 1825 )
- June 27th : Charlotte von Lieven , Russian Chief Chamberlain († 1828 )
- June 29 : Adolf , Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld († 1803 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Louis-Alexandre de La Rochefoucauld , French aristocrat and politician († 1792 )
- July 6 : Josef Valentin Adamberger , German opera singer († 1804 )
- July 14 : Gawriil Romanowitsch Derschawin , Russian poet († 1816 )
- July 19 : Vladimir Grigoryevich Orlov , Russian science manager, brother of Grigory Orlov († 1831 )
- July 23 : Johann Christian Bach , pianist and teacher at the pedagogy in Halle († 1814 )
- July 27 : Louise von Lengefeld , court master of the princes of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt at the Heidecksburg palace († 1823 )
- July 29 : Friedrich Karl zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg , German prince († 1825 )
- July 31 : Gottlieb Ignaz von Ezdorf , German privy councilor, chamberlain and writer († 1806 )
- August 2 : August Siegfried von Goué , German lawyer, writer and Freemason († 1789 )
- August 13 : Maria Elisabeth , Austrian abbess in Innsbruck († 1808 )
- August 15 : Thomas Henderson , American politician († 1824 )
- August 17 : Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann , geographer, natural historian and philosopher († 1815 )
- August 19 : Madame Dubarry , French nobleman, mistress of Louis XV. († 1793 )
- August 22 : Friedrich Christian Lorenz Schweigger , German Protestant theologian († 1802 )
- September 11th : Nicolai Abildgaard , Danish painter, sculptor and architect († 1809 )
- September 14 : Christian Benjamin Geißler , spokesman for the Saxon peasant uprising of 1790 († after 1809 )
- September 17 : Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat , French mathematician, philosopher and politician († 1794 )
- September 26 : Castolus Reichlin von Meldegg , last prince abbot of Kempten († 1804 )
- September 29 : Antonio Cagnoli , Italian astronomer († 1816 )
- September 30 : Christian Ehregott Weinlig , German composer and Kreuzkantor († 1813 )
- October (baptized): Jacob van der Aa , Dutch painter († 1776 )
- October 3 : Johann Friedrich Mende , German mechanical engineer († 1798 )
- October 9 : Friedrich Ernst Jester , German forester and author († 1822 )
- November 3 : Angelo Agnoletto , Italian theologian († 1831 )
- November 15 : Dugazon (Jean-Henry Gourgaud), French actor († 1809 )
- November 29 : Traugott Andreas Biedermann , German politician and legal scholar († 1814 )
- December 1 : Martin Heinrich Klaproth , German chemist († 1817 )
- December 2 : Christian Gottlieb von Arndt , German historian and philologist († 1829 )
- December 7th : Johann Joachim Eschenburg , German literary historian († 1820 )
- December 9 : Stephen Mix Mitchell , American politician († 1835 )
- December 10 : Johann Christoph Schwab , German philosopher († 1821 )
- December 13 : Christian David Jani , German philologist and educator († 1790 )
- December 19 : Daniel Tobenz , Austrian Catholic theologian († 1819 )
- December 23 : Johann Evangelist Haydn , Austrian tenor († 1805 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Karl Friedrich Abt , German director († 1783 )
- Lucrezia Agujari , Italian opera singer († 1783 )
- Karl Albert , German sculptor († 1819 )
- Johann Nepomuk von Apfaltern , military person († 1817 )
- William Irvine , Scottish chemist († 1787 )
- Pomaré I , King of Tahiti († 1803 )
- Felix Matthäus Stupan von Ehrenstein , Austrian lawyer († 1800 )
- Johann Christian Wäser , German actor and theater director († 1781 )
Born around 1743
January to April
- January 3 : Ferdinando Galli da Bibiena , Italian scenographer, architect and decorative painter (* 1656 )
- January 7th : Anna Sophie von Reventlow , Queen of Denmark and Norway and Duchess of Schleswig and Holstein (* 1693 )
- January 12th : Peter Adolf Boysen , German Protestant theologian, philosopher and historian (* 1690 )
- January 12 : Johann Friedrich Hertel , German legal scholar (* 1667 )
- January 27 : Pietro Maria Pieri , Italian Cardinal (* 1676 )
- January 29th : André-Hercule de Fleury , French cardinal and statesman (* 1653 )
- February 1 : Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni , Italian composer (* 1657 )
- February 2 : Martino Bitti , Genoese violinist and composer (* around 1660 )
- February 7th : Lodovico Giustini , Italian composer (* 1685 )
- February 18 : Anna Maria Luisa de 'Medici , Electress of the Palatinate (* 1667 )
- February 18 : Wilhelm Hyacinth , Prince of Orange and Prince of Nassau-Siegen (* 1666 )
- March 3 : Peter Faneuil , British-American colonial merchant, slave trader and philanthropist (* 1700 )
- March 7th : Claude François Bidal , Marquis d'Asfeld, Marshal of France (* 1665 )
- March 16 : Jean-Baptiste Matho , French composer and singer (* 1663 )
- March 17th : Dorothea Wilhelmine von Sachsen-Zeitz , Countess of Hessen-Kassel (* 1691 )
- March 21 : Philipp Karl von Eltz-Kempenich , Elector and Archbishop of Mainz and Imperial Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (* 1665 )
- March 27th : Theresia Emanuela of Bavaria , Wittelsbach princess (* 1723 )
- March 28 : Karl Friedrich , Duke of Saxony-Meiningen (* 1712 )
- April 4 : Daniel Neal , English Reformed clergyman and church historian (* 1678 )
- April 12 : Augustine Washington , British landowner in Virginia, father of George Washington (* 1694 )
- April 13 : Eleonore Charlotte von Württemberg-Mömpelgard , Duchess of Württemberg-Oels (* 1656 )
- April 20 : François Desportes , French painter (* 1661 )
- April 25 : Christian Weise , German Lutheran theologian and educator (* 1703 )
May to August
- May 1st : Maria Magdalena , Archduchess of Austria, aunt Maria Theresa (* 1689 )
- May 2 : Christian August Hausen the Younger , German mathematician, mineralogist, astronomer and physicist (* 1693 )
- May 3 : Johann Anderson , German legal scholar, politician, natural scientist and linguist, Mayor of Hamburg (* 1674 )
- May 4th : Katharina von Altenbockum , Princess of Teschen, mistress of the Polish King and Saxon Elector August the Strong (* 1680 )
- May 10th : Melusine von der Schulenburg , mistress of the Brunswick-Lüneburg Elector and King George I of England (* 1667 )
- May 15 : Antoine-Tristan Danty d'Isnard , French botanist (* 1663 )
- May: Isaac Rand , English pharmacist and botanist (* 1674 )
- June 12 : Johann Bernhard Bach , German composer (* 1700 )
- June 16 : Louise Françoise de Bourbon , Princess of Condé (* 1673 )
- June 20 : Saif ibn Sultan II , Imam of Oman
- June 29 : François-Honoré de Maniban , Bishop of Mirepoix and Archbishop of Bordeaux (* 1684 )
- July 2 : Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington , British politician and Prime Minister (* 1674 )
- July 5 : Johann Gabriel Schleich , painter from Württemberg (* 1710 )
- July 6th : Chaim b. Mose Attar , Jewish scholar and Kabbalist in Morocco (* 1696 )
- August 1 : Richard Savage , English poet (* 1697 )
- August 16 : Matthias Klotz , Bavarian violin maker (* 1653 )
- August 18 : Johanna Sophie zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg , Countess of Schaumburg-Lippe (* 1673 )
- August 19 : Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn-Buchheim , Cardinal and Prince-Bishop of Speyer and Prince-Bishop of Constance (* 1676 )
- August 22nd : Lieve Geelvinck , Regent of Amsterdam (* 1676 )
- August 27 : Matthias Sigismund Biechteler , Styrian composer and court conductor in Salzburg (* 1668 )
September to December
- September 7th : Johann Peter von Ludewig , Württemberg lawyer and historian (* 1668 )
- September 14 : Georg von Bertouch , composer and Danish-Norwegian general (* 1668 )
- September 14 : Nicolas Lancret , French painter (* 1690 )
- September 15 : Karl Adolf von Huss , Prussian legation secretary, chamber councilor and city president of Magdeburg
- October 3 : Georg Adam Ostertag , executioner and warden master in Wimpfen and in places in the knightly canton of Kraichgau (* 1675 )
- October 4th : John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll , Scottish nobleman and soldier, Commander in Chief of the British Army (* 1680 )
- October 4th : Henry Carey , English poet and composer (* 1687 )
- October 9 : Wenzel Lorenz Reiner , Bohemian painter (* 1689 )
- October 9 : Mikhail Grigoryevich Semzow , Russian architect (* 1688 )
- October: Tomás Pinto Brandão , Portuguese poet (* 1664 )
- November 13 : Anna Catharina vom Büchel , German Zionite and prophetess (* 1698 )
- November 16 : Maria Magdalena Böhmer , German poet of sacred songs (* 1669 )
- November 21 : Ernst Gotthold Struve , German medic (* 1714 )
- December 5 : Georg Ludwig von Berghes , Prince-Bishop of Liège (* 1662 )
- December 13 : Giuseppe Torretti , Italian sculptor (* 1664 )
- December 16 : Jakob Sigismund von Reinach-Steinbrunn , Prince-Bishop of Basel (* 1683 )
- December 28 : August Simon Lindholtz , German lawyer and mayor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (* 1679 )
- December 29 : Hyacinthe Rigaud , French painter (* 1659 )
- Fra Galgario , Italian painter (* 1655 ) December:
Exact date of death unknown
- Michael Dahl , Swedish portrait painter and court painter (* around 1659 )
- Ursula Meyer , Swiss pietist and mystic (* 1682 )