Calendar overview 1661
|Marcello Malpighi discovers the capillaries in the frog's lung .||Louis XIV took all government affairs into his own hands.|
Oliver Cromwell is exhumed with two of his companions
and posthumously executed in London.
|1661 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1109/10 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1653/54 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1066/67 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2204/05 (southern Buddhism); 2203/04 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1023/24 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3994/95 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1071/72 (August 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5421/22 (23/24 September)|
|Coptic calendar||1377/78 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1971/72 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1972/73 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1717/18 (April)|
Politics and world events
England and its colonies
- January 30th: Over two years after his death, Oliver Cromwell is exhumed together with John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton and executed posthumously in London.
- April 3: The British East India Company receives from King Charles. II. The civil justice and military force in India transferred and may result in there against "infidels" wars or arrange peace treaties.
- April 23: In Westminster Abbey is Charles II. Was crowned King of England. Since the crown jewels had been lost for the second time in the previous time of the Commonwealth of England , a new crown treasure was made for the coronation .
France / Spain
- February 28: With the Peace of Vincennes between France and Lorraine , the crisis between the two countries is resolved. France withdraws from Lorraine, but keeps strategically important places in its hands.
- March 10th: One day after the death of his minister, Cardinal Jules Mazarin , France's King Louis XIV takes all government affairs into his own hands.
- September 5: Nicolas Fouquet , the former superintendent of the finances of the French King Louis XIV , is arrested. The ruler, who suspects Fouquet of a fronde, displeases the arrested man's ambitions for a higher office, his wealth on display and the strengthening of fortresses .
- September 30th: In the London carriage dispute , Louis XIV deliberately intensified the smoldering dispute between France and Spain in order to demonstrate French supremacy in Europe.
- On behalf of Louis XIV, Jean-Baptiste Colbert began drafting the Code Louis . The task of this legal code is to bring order into the laws and jurisdiction of the kingdom , taking into account southern French Roman law and northern French customary law . The first part of civil law was published in 1667, the second part of criminal law in 1670.
Portugal, the Netherlands and their colonies
- August 6: In the Treaty of The Hague , Portugal and the Netherlands put an end to their dispute over the return of Dutch Brazil , the colony of New Holland. The Portuguese remain in possession of 63 tons of gold and leave their possessions in Ceylon and India .
- August 10: Portugal and the States General agree on a peace treaty in The Hague . In return for the receipt of 8 million guilders in money or goods, the Dutch waive all claims in Portuguese colonies .
Other events in Europe
- Ferdinand von Fürstenberg , born in 1626 at Bilstein Castle, becomes Prince-Bishop of Paderborn , he ruled the Prince-Bishopric until his death in 1683.
- The Sovereignty Act in Denmark-Norway (including Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands) introduces the absolute monarchy and hereditary monarchy instead of the previous electoral monarchy and estates and makes Denmark-Norway the only country in Europe with absolutism anchored in the constitution . The law is signed separately by representatives of the estates in Denmark and Norway .
- Hamburg erects the first Scharhörnbake in front of the Elbe estuary.
- March 5: Count Friedrich Casimir von Hanau-Lichtenberg grants a privilege to manufacture faience . The first faience factory on German soil is then built in Hanau .
- May 12: A ship bridge over the Rhine is opened to traffic in Mainz . Bridge tolls are charged for crossing the river .
- July 16: The private Stockholms Banco is the first bank in Europe to put its own banknotes into circulation.
- The Saxon Elector Johann Georg II had the Schautaler minted for the laying of the foundation stone of the chapel in Moritzburg Castle near Dresden on November 1st.
science and technology
- April 28: The Catholic University of Santo Tomas opens in Manila . It is Asia's first university.
- The Italian anatomist Marcello Malpighi publishes his discovery of the capillaries .
- The Irish naturalist Robert Boyle wrote his main work The Skeptical Chymist . In this, he underlines Francis Bacon's call for thorough experimental methods to be used in the natural sciences .
- March 1st: World premiere of the drama Gli amori d'Apollo con Clizia by Antonio Bertali at the Hofburg Vienna in Vienna
- June 14: World premiere of the drama Il Ciro crescente by Antonio Bertali in the park of Laxenburg Palace
- August 17: Les Fâcheux ( The Troublesome ), the first comédie-ballet by the French comedy poet Molière , is premiered at Vaux-le-Vicomte Castle for the entertainment of King Louis XIV .
- December 30th: The Swedish Drottningholm Palace falls in flames. Hedwig Eleonora von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , the widow of the Swedish King Karl X. Gustav , who had only recently bought the castle built in 1580, has a new castle built according to plans by the architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. Ä. build in baroque style.
- November 1st: Transfer of the miraculous image of Mary from Soest to Werl as a punishment for a Soest hunting crime in the Electorate of Cologne. As a result, Werl becomes a city of pilgrimage and is now the third largest place of pilgrimage in Germany
- December 8th: With the encyclical Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum , Pope Alexander VII initiates the internal church discussion about the Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God .
- December 30th: Drottningholm Palace , residence of the Swedish king's widow Hedwig Eleonora von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , burns to the ground.
- The original St. Peter's Church in Vienna , first mentioned in a document in 1137 and possibly dating back to the 8th century, is destroyed by a fire and only poorly repaired. A new building does not begin until 40 years later .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 25: Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten , Brandenburg-Prussian field marshal and diplomat († 1728)
- January 25: Antoine I , Prince of Monaco († 1731)
- January: Christian Wernicke , German epigrammatist († 1725)
- February 12: Paul Anton , German theologian († 1730)
- February 24: François Desportes , French painter († 1743)
- March 19: Francesco Gasparini , Italian composer († 1727)
- March 25: Evliya Çelebi , Ottoman traveler († after 1683)
- before March 27: William Kerr, 2nd Marquess of Lothian , British nobleman, officer and politician († 1722)
- April 4: Louis Armand I. de Bourbon , Prince of Conti († 1685)
- April 4: Uejima Onitsura , Japanese poet († 1738)
- April 11: Antoine Coypel , French court painter († 1722)
- April 23: Issachar Berend Lehmann , German banker, coin agent, army supplier and negotiating diplomat († 1730)
- April: Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea , English poet († 1720)
- May 1: Johann Georg Neumann , German Lutheran theologian and church historian († 1709)
- May 26: Ludwig Andreas Gotter , German hymn poet and lawyer († 1735)
- June 6: Giacomo Antonio Perti , Italian composer († 1756)
- June 9: Fyodor III. , Tsar of Russia († 1682)
Second half of the year
- July 15: Johann Christoph Weigel , German engraver, art dealer and publisher († 1726)
- July 31: Ignaz Agricola , German historian, philosopher, theologian and Jesuit († 1729)
- August 8: Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg , imperial count, heir to Eden and field marshal in the service of the Republic of Venice († 1747)
- August 11: Takarai Kikaku , Japanese poet († 1707)
- August 22nd: Ferdinand von Fürstenberg , Colonel stable master of the Prince Diocese of Paderborn († 1718)
- August 31: David Richter the Elder , Swedish-German portrait and landscape painter († 1735)
- September 2: Georg Böhm , German organist and composer († 1733)
- September 2: Heinrich , Duke of Saxony-Merseburg († 1738)
- September 23: Georg Pasch , German ethnologist, logician and Protestant theologian († 1707)
- October 7: Sukjong , 19th king of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea († 1720)
- October 11: Melchior de Polignac , French cardinal, diplomat and poet († 1741)
- October 16: Anton Ulrich , Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt († 1680)
- November 1: Louis of France , heir to the French throne, son of Louis XIV († 1711)
- November 4th: Charles III. Philipp , Count Palatine and Elector Palatinate († 1742)
- November 6: Charles II , King of Spain († 1700)
- November 11th: Johann Friedrich Macrander , German organ builder († 1741)
- November 13: Erdmuth Dorothea von Sachsen-Zeitz , Duchess of Sachsen-Merseburg († 1720)
- November 22: Benoît Audran , French engraver († 1721)
- November 27: Fyodor Apraxin , Russian Admiral General of Peter the Great († 1728)
- December 5: Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer , British politician († 1724)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Vladimir Vasilyevich Atlasov , Russian explorer († 1711)
- John Cutts of Gowran , English lieutenant general and politician († 1707)
Date of death secured
- January 19: Thomas Venner , English cooper (* after 1600)
- Shunzhi , Chinese Emperor (Qing Dynasty) (* 1638) February 5:
- Georg Pauli-Stravius , auxiliary bishop in Cologne (* 1593) February 7th:
- February 12: August Buchner , German poet and literary theorist (* 1591)
- February 12: Innocentio Conti , Italian military (* around 1610)
- Richard Zouch , English judge and politician (* around 1590) March 1:
- Jules Mazarin , diplomat, cardinal and prime minister (* 1602) March 9:
- Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven , Scottish soldier (* around 1580) April 4:
- June 11: Georg II , Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (* 1605)
- June 21: Andrea Sacchi , Italian painter (* 1599)
- Friedrich von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken (* 1616) July 9th:
- July 11: Eitel Friedrich II. , Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and imperial general (* 1601)
- July 25: Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette d'Épernon , French general (* 1592)
- Carlo Francesco Nuvolone , Italian painter and fresco artist (* around 1608/09) August 1st:
- Angelika Arnauld , French abbess of Port-Royal (* 1591) August 6th:
- August 29: Louis Couperin , composer, organist and violin player (* around 1626)
- September 11th: Jan Fyt , Flemish painter (* 1611)
- September 22nd: Christoph Bach , German council musician (* 1613)
- Paul Rotenburger , organ builder working in the Prince Archdiocese of Salzburg and in Carinthia (* 1598) October 2:
- Jacqueline Pascal , French writer and nun, sister of Blaise Pascal (* 1625) October 4th:
- Har Rai , seventh guru of Sikhism (* 1630) October 6th:
- Martin Zeiller , German compilation and travel writer (* 1589) October 6:
- October 18: Antoine Léger the Elder , Franco-Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1594)
- October 19: Franz von Cramm , German court official (* 1610)
- October 26: Johann Balthasar Schupp , German writer (* 1610)
- October 31: Köprülü Mehmed Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* around 1580)
- November 11: David Ryckaert , Flemish painter (* 1612)
- November 16: Muhammad Ali , Sultan of Brunei
- Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg , Cardinal, Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück and Regensburg and Prime Minister of the Electorate of Cologne (* 1593) December 1st:
- Daniel Seghers , Flemish painter (* 1590) December 2:
- Murad Bakhsh , son of the Indian Grand Mogul Shah Jahan (* 1624) December 4:
Exact date of death unknown
- Cornelis Vroom , Dutch painter (* 1591)