Fyodor III

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Fyodor III

Fyodor III Alexejewitsch ( Russian : Фёдор III Алексеевич; * May 30 jul. / 9. June  1661 greg. In Moscow , † April 27 jul. / 7. May  1682 greg. Ibid) was from 1676 to 1682 Tsar and Grand Duke of Muscovy . He was the third Romanov on the Moscow throne and died at the age of 21.


Early years

Fyodor III was the third son of Tsar Alexei I of Russia and his first wife Marija Ilyinichna Miloslawskaja , who died when her son was eight years old. With the death of his older brother Alexei he was raised to be tsarevich and only afterwards as such. The tsarevich's tutors were the scribe PT Beljaninov and the West Russian monk and poet Simeon Polotski . In addition to the numerous topics that an heir to the throne must learn, the monk also taught the young Fyodor Polish, which also made him more familiar with the Western way of life. He was interested in science, art and music. However, he was already sickly as a child and was unable to walk because of constantly swollen feet.

Like his father, Fyodor was a very pious man who later wrote some church hymns, and he was the first tsar to dress and coiffure in the West. Under his reign the Moscow Empire began to draw closer to Europe . The process of rapprochement was continued by his successors.


Adolf Iossifowitsch Charlemagne : Tsar Fyodor III. has ancestral books of Russian nobility burned in 1682

Since Fyodor, presumably suffering from scurvy, often spent his childhood weak and bedridden as a result of his illnesses, poor governance was expected at the Tsar's court when he ascended the throne of Russia after the death of his father in 1676 at the age of only 16. At the beginning of his reign he had to fight off some adversaries, especially Artamon Sergejewitsch Matvejew wanted to deprive the new tsar of his power. He was close to the Naryshkin family and had the intention of bringing young Peter , the son of Alexei I and his second wife Natalja Naryshkina , the future Tsar Peter I, to the throne. Fyodor had Matveyev sentenced and banished for corruption and abuse of power just three weeks after his father's death in 1676.

Many reforms were initiated during his reign, but most of them could not be completed due to his brief reign. The most important reform was the abolition of the ranking system in the Imperial Russian Army ( Mestnitschestvo ). Further reforms strengthened the centralization of the state apparatus and pushed back the influence of the patriarch, which he exercised over the affairs of state. At the same time, the reforms resulted in a worsening of the social situation of the lower classes, which led to the Moscow uprising of 1682 and the assumption of rule by Fyodor's sister Sophia Alexejewna .

A handicap was that he was almost all the time at war with the Ottoman Empire , which only ended in 1681 with the Bakhchisarai Peace, which was advantageous for Russia .


In 1680 he married Agafia Grushetskaja , who gave birth to his son Ilja (* July 11, 1681, † July 21, 1681), Tsarevich of Russia. In October 1681 he married Marfa Matwejewna Apraxina in his second, childless marriage . His only child, a son, died at the age of ten days.


  • Hans-Joachim Torke (Ed.): The Russian Tsars 1547–1917. Verlag Beck, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-38110-3 .

Web links

Commons : Feodor III of Russia  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e Hans-Joachim Torke, in: The Russian Tsars 1547–1917 . In: H.-J. Torke (Ed.): Beck's series . 3. Edition. No. 1305 . Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-42105-9 , p. 128-137 .
predecessor Office successor
Alexei I. Tsar of Russia
Ivan V and Peter I.