Grand Duke

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The ruler title Grand Duke (Russian Великий Князь as the title of a certain ruler, in normal text великий князь - Veliki knjas) rulers wore at different times:

  • the leading princes of the Rus until the Mongol invasion in 1237
  • thereafter the Mongolian-Tatar khans bestowed the title on each of their Russian vassal princes (e.g. in 1252 to Alexander Yaroslawitsch Newski of Novgorod, 1264 to Yaroslav of Tver or 1331 to Ivan Kalita of Moscow)
  • since 1331 the princes of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Russian tsars
  • the rulers of Lithuania 1203–1795, see History of Lithuania or the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  • the Austrian rulers of Transylvania from 1765 to 1918
  • the Russian rulers of the Grand Duchy of Finland until 1917/18
  • the imperial princes and princesses of Russia , who from the 18th century until the overthrow of the tsarist rule in 1917 had the title “Grand Duke” (Russian Великий Князь - Veliki Kn j as) or “Grand Duchess” (Russian Великая Княжна or Княikгиня j aschna or Kn j aginja) led; in English and French often misleadingly referred to as "grand duke" or "grand-duc" or as "grand duchess" or "grande-duchesse" - instead of "grand / great prince" or "grand-prince" or as " grand / great princess ”or“ grande-princesse ”, see Grand Duke .

Prince of Moscow

Prince of Moscow was the title of medieval Russian ruler before his elevation to Grand Duke by the Tatar Great Khan .

These two names from the late Middle Ages should not be confused with the modern title Prince of Moscow or Prince of the Moscow River , which the French Emperor Napoleon bestowed on Marshal Michel Ney after the Battle of Borodino . The French refer to this battle as the Battle of Moscow or the Battle of the Moskva (Bataille de la Moskowa) because it made it possible to capture Moscow . This title, which was not associated with any rights or privileges in Moscow or Russia , was created for Ney for his services in this battle . During the Second French Empire , however, Ney's son and grandson continued to carry this title.


The encyclopedia Meyers Konversations-Lexikon from 1888 has the following entry:

" Grand Duke (Russian Weliki Knjas , French Grand-Duc ), formerly the title of the ruler of Moscow. as well as some other Russian princes, e.g. B. those of Kiev and Novgorod , the rulers of Lithuania and therefore later also of the kings of Poland. At present the Emperor of Russia calls himself “G. of Smolensk , Lithuania , Volhynia , Podolia and Finland ”, and all the princes and princesses of his house have since used G. and Grand Duchess in connection with the title“ Imperial Highness ”. According to a modification of the imperial house rules of July 1886, the title G., Grand Duchess and Imperial Highness should henceforth only be available to the sons, daughters, brothers and sisters of the emperor and his grandchildren of male descendants. The other members of the imperial house should bear the title of prince, princess or princess of imperial blood with the predicate 'Highness' or 'Highness'. The Emperor of Austria also bears the title of Grand Duke, namely of Transylvania , which Maria Theresa elevated to a Grand Duchy in 1765. "

See also