Maut is a term derived from the Old High German mūta (cf. Gothic mōta ) for a customs duty in the sense of a road toll . In the past, the terms Wegegeld or Chausseegeld or bridge money were also used. An alternative term for toll is road use fee (as opposed to e.g. parking fee ). The term describes a territorial fee for the use of transport structures (e.g. roads , bridges , motorways and tunnels ). A distinction can be made between urban (urban) (see inner city toll) and interurban (inter- urban) road tolls (motorway tolls, possibly also for country roads ).
Documents from the 11th century showed that road tolls were common in Europe . Medieval toll rules as well as modern toll laws were introduced because the financing of roads (construction and maintenance) gives users advantages and leaves the costs to neighbors . With the payment of the toll, the users should participate in the financing, for which neighbors submitted. Other historical forms of financing were the drudgery (everyone has the state a certain number of days of physical labor provide) or tax for residents (eg. As in ancient Rome ). Toll bridges and gates were popular because they were easy to control (and difficult to avoid) and rarely had to be repaired, unlike the roads themselves. Historically created obstacles were gradually removed as they hindered free trade.
In Great Britain there were turnpike roads in early industrial times , which were run as private companies. The “turnpike” was a barrier that was opened after the toll was paid.
Goals and principles
The goals of modern road tolls can be:
- the financing of existing or future road infrastructure and payment of the construction and operating costs for the roads (road costs with the aim of establishing cost truth in traffic);
- the control of the demand for the good “road” with the aim of reducing congestion and using it more efficiently (travel demand management);
- the relief of the environment through a price and thus a reduction in motorized traffic;
- the generation of additional revenue for public budgets ;
- the internalization of external costs . These are environmental costs that are not fully borne by the polluter, such as the social and ecological costs due to noise emissions and air pollution, as well as parts of the costs resulting from accidents (for example, costs of loss of resources).
- disguised retaliation for national regulations from neighboring countries and equalization of unpopular political disparities .
In general, two principles of toll calculation can be distinguished:
- With the access- related fee , the right of access for the use of certain streets (areas, structures, etc.) is acquired without the actual use being relevant. Access can be limited in time, for example day, week, month, year. This type of toll is usually collected by vignette and is comparatively easy to collect and control. It disadvantages infrequent drivers or short-term visitors to a country, and favors frequent drivers.
- With the usage-based fee , the toll payer pays depending on the actual usage, if necessary at a toll station . The toll can be defined spatially: distance traveled, sections passed, number of (tunnel) passages or time (fee depending on the stay in a zone). In addition, for example, distance-related fees may vary over time (higher during rush hour, etc.)
The amount of a toll can be made dependent on various properties of the user or his vehicle. Most often it depends on the size, length or weight of the vehicle (e.g. mandatory tolls for cars and lorries ), but there are also other dependencies ( number of axles , emission class , time of use and day of the week, type of goods transported) .
There are nationwide toll systems and route-related toll roads ( private roads ).
Inner city toll
An inner city toll refers to the collection of charges for the use of inner city roads, usually for trucks and cars.
The cities of Singapore and Hong Kong are considered by traffic planners to be “classic” examples of reducing and calming traffic through tolling for vehicles entering the inner city toll area. In Hong Kong, however, the introduction ultimately failed due to public resistance. Norwegian cities already took over this toll in the mid-1980s ( Bergen , Trondheim , Oslo ). In 1985, access to the city center in Bergen was linked to the payment of a fee of 25 kroner (around 3 euros ) at special toll booths. While the models in Norway are mainly used to finance the roads, municipalities are increasingly justifying the collection of road tolls with environmental protection . The increase in the price of private transport is intended to provide incentives for switching to public transport .
In February 2003, a London Congestion Charge was introduced in London to solve the congestion problems in the city center. Every driver who drives into the city center on weekdays between 7 a.m. and 6 p.m. has to pay 10 pounds (as of January 4, 2011) (around 12 euros). There are also variants in which the access roads to the cities are tolled: for example San Diego , Tokyo . The Stockholm population has spoken out on 24 September 2006 for an auto toll in its downtown area. 53.1% of the approximately 600,000 eligible voters voted for the toll in the referendum .
Toll systems in Europe
There are toll systems in several European countries:
- in Bulgaria , Germany , France , Greece , Italy , Croatia , Austria , Poland , Portugal , Romania , Slovakia , Slovenia , Spain , the Czech Republic and Hungary (all EU members)
- in Norway and Switzerland (non-EU members)
- in North Macedonia , Serbia and Turkey ( EU accession candidates without ongoing negotiations)
In the countries of the European Union , the toll regulations for road user charges - for example vignettes - must be compatible with EU law . Unequal treatment based on nationality is prohibited under TFEU (see also prohibition of discrimination ). This also applies to so-called “hidden discrimination” which, although not expressly linked to the characteristic of nationality , actually lead to the same result.
On May 14, 2012, the EU Commission issued a “Communication on the collection of national road user charges on light private vehicles”. It wants (as of July 2012) to use “guidelines” to clarify how the member states can design their vignette systems for light private vehicles in accordance with EU law. She considers toll systems to be fundamentally better than vignette systems, as they are “distance-dependent charges directly linked to the use of the infrastructure ” and she calls for the introduction of short-term vignettes so that drivers from other Member States are not disadvantaged.
The Advisory Council for Environmental Issues (SRU) wrote in a report in 2005:
“The Federal Government should advocate this within the framework of the 'Eurovignette' Directive ... Road usage charges for cars (car toll) should only be used to relieve congestion in particularly congested areas for reasons of acceptance and data protection and to avoid shifting traffic to the subordinate road network. "
"Common" truck road toll in Europe
On January 1, 1995, Belgium , Denmark , Germany , Luxembourg , the Netherlands and Sweden introduced a motorway toll for trucks on the basis of the agreement on the collection of fees for the use of certain roads with heavy commercial vehicles (the so-called Eurovignette system). With the exception of Germany, this is still a time-based toll system in the pre-paid process (see prepaid card and Paysafecard ). Before using the toll, each person liable to pay the toll must purchase a certificate of charges for the desired period of use. The fee certificates are mutually recognized in all participating states of the Convention.
The EU transport ministers have long endeavored to introduce a toll system that is as uniform as possible. On December 18, 2003, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union left the decisions for the technology of the respective truck toll system to the individual member states. However, the systems should be compatible . The negotiations last failed on March 9, 2004 in Germany and Austria. It is assumed that both states wanted to enforce relatively high calculation bases for the tolls. On April 9, 2004, the European Parliament and the Council issued a directive on the interoperability of European toll services (EETS). This guideline is currently being implemented. From 2013 onwards, only one common toll collection device ( on-board unit ) should be necessary for the toll systems of the EU countries .
This rejected the proposal of the EU Commission , which wanted to generally prescribe a satellite-supported (preferably using Galileo ) system from 2012 . Each Member State is now free to choose. The systems just have to be compatible with each other. According to newspaper reports, this decision is directly related to the problems that initially arose when Toll Collect introduced a satellite-based truck toll system in Germany.
Since January 1, 2005, toll collection in Germany has been running largely without problems. At that time, the satellite-based determination of the routes to be paid was considered the most convenient and flexible option for the user; it was also promoted as a showcase technology and was seen by some as a justification for the Galileo project. For a long time mobile internet has been possible practically everywhere (especially with notebooks and smartphones ); pre-booking via the internet portal has become established. The terminals that were set up have lost their importance.
“Common” car road toll in Europe
Different systems in Europe represent a burden and an obstacle to mobility for motorists. The EU Transport Commissioner Violeta Bulc therefore advocated a Europe-wide kilometer-based car toll in January 2015. In the medium term, a European system for trucks and cars is to be developed that calculates the number of kilometers driven using a standardized device. It remains to be seen whether all states should collect tolls and which roads the charges should apply to.
In Denmark you have to pay tolls
- the Storebæltsbroen ,
- the Øresund crossing built and operated by an international company , and
- the 18 km long Fehmarnbelt crossing on the Federal Motorway 1 to Denmark is to be refinanced with the help of a toll.
In the Middle Ages , the toll was often mixed with escort taxes (such as the body duty ) and customs duties . In Germany in particular, the toll was a “source of financial exploitation”, which was reflected in the terms road toll and road shelf . In the 19th century, it was recognized that the collection of road tolls not only causes considerable effort and costs, but also - not least because of the required barriers - hinders economic development. As a result, it was abolished in Bavaria and Württemberg (in internal traffic) in 1828 , in Baden in 1831 , in Kurhessen in 1865 and in Prussia in 1875 (in France , road tolls were abolished in 1806). Only bridge fees were raised on a larger scale in the 19th century.
In Germany, a complex technical system is used to levy a toll on trucks on federal motorways and on all federal roads. A toll for cars is already being planned according to plans by the former Transport Minister Dobrindt .
In the Federal Republic of Germany, fees levied by the state must again benefit the subject area in which they were levied, in this case the maintenance and new construction of transport infrastructure. They go to the transport infrastructure financing company - minus the operator remuneration for Toll Collect . The toll charges are also paid to private companies in the context of “ public-private partnership ” projects in return for road construction and maintenance on some routes (currently four motorway sections, another seven are planned).
Germany participated in the Eurovignette system from 1995 to 2003. This was replaced in 2005 by a distance-dependent truck toll on motorways. The toll has now been extended to federal roads and vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of 7.5 tonnes or more . Due to various problems with the company Toll Collect , which was commissioned with the implementation , the original 2003 date was not kept.
The introduction of a car toll has been discussed since the 1990s. An introduction was finally laid down in the coalition agreement for the Merkel III cabinet . Considerations to introduce these only for foreign cars (2013) or for all roads in Germany (concept July 2014) were dropped.
The Infrastructure Tax Act (InfrAG), which came into force on June 12, 2015, introduced a general tax obligation for cars ( (1) InfrAG) in Germany. On June 18, 2019, the European Court of Justice ruled that the car toll resolved here was incompatible with EU law, as it would discriminate against foreign vehicle owners.
According to its wording, Section 1 (1) InfrAG only provides for an obligation to pay for the use of federal trunk roads in accordance with Federal Trunk Road Act (FStrG); However, this means that the infrastructure charge ( toll ) is solely due to the federal government. A license for their use is not possible for domestic cars without proof of payment of the fee and compensation for any arrears ( Paragraphs 3 and 5 InfrAG). Already registered cars without their payment after the beginning of the survey to para. 6 InfrAG ex officio decommissioned.the
The amount of the fee is based on the euros . At the same time as the infrastructure charge begins to be levied , a vehicle tax reduction for domestic owners in the same amount comes into force ( No. 7 in conjunction with (2) of the Second Law on Amending Traffic Tax ).to the InfrAG and is a maximum of 130
Toll for individual structures
A former special case of a federally owned, toll road is the Roßfeldhöhenringstraße . Legally, it is a private road in the Federal Republic of Germany . Furthermore, there are some smaller private or community-owned toll roads in Bavaria, for the use of which tolls are required.
Since September 1994, the Private Financing Act for Highway Construction has made it possible to transfer the construction, maintenance, operation and financing of bridges and tunnels on federal motorways and federal highways to private companies (see: Public-private partnership and F model ). For refinancing , they are then given the right to levy tolls.
The law is implemented as follows: In the so-called "F-Model", a private person builds and operates the road with public start-up funding of usually 20% and receives a toll for cars and trucks calculated separately for this route for 30 years. This model has so far been used in only two projects, the Warnow tunnel opened in 2003 near Rostock and the Herrentunnel near Lübeck, which went into operation in 2005 . In the case of the Herrentunnel, not 20% but 55% was provided by the public sector as start-up financing. This was justified by the fact that a new construction of the dilapidated Herrenbrücke , which was replaced by the Herrentunnel, would have caused these costs. This financing is intended for the planned Hafenquerspange ( A 252 along the Wilhelmsburg district and through parts of the Hamburg harbor ) as well as for the Elbe crossing of the A 20 near Glückstadt and the Elbe crossing of the A 21 near Lüneburg . The basic idea is that in projects of this kind the benefits for the car and truck drivers are so great that they are prepared to pay additional fees for them because they save time and / or money.
- The Warnow Tunnel was opened in Rostock on September 12, 2003 . The road tunnel connects the regions to the west and east of the Warnow estuary as federal highway 103 and forms the outer tangent ring of Rostock with the A 19 in the east and the A 20 in the south . The EUR 220 million tunnel was built and financed by the French Bouygues group , which also has the operating license for 50 years. A toll of around three euros is charged for cars to drive through the tunnel.
- On August 26, 2005, the toll tunnel under the Trave was opened in Lübeck . It replaces the dilapidated Herrenbrücke (bascule bridge) on the B 75 between Lübeck and Travemünde .
In both projects there was far less traffic than was predicted in the forecasts. As a result, the period in which the private operator can collect tolls for the Warnow tunnel was extended from 30 to 50 years. The tariff system was changed for the Herrentunnel; the toll for single journeys was increased and a discount system was introduced. The failure of the two projects is mainly due to the fact that the effect of a toll on the behavior of users was incorrectly assessed and therefore unrealistic forecasts were made about the expected traffic.
Other planned toll projects:
- Bundesautobahn 8 - Between Mühlhausen and Hohenstadt the Alb ascent is to be refinanced through a toll.
- Bundesautobahn 281 - A Weser crossing as a tunnel or bridge is to be refinanced through a toll.
In Austria , a toll has been levied on all foreign and domestic vehicles on all motorways and expressways in Austria since 1997 . This is charged for cars, motorcycles and vehicles with a maximum permissible total weight of 3.5 t in the form of motorway vignettes (also known as motorway stickers or toll stickers ), which must be properly affixed to the windshield. Since 2018 there has also been the option of a so-called digital vignette for single-track vehicles and vehicles up to 3.5 tons , in which case the license plate is stored in a publicly accessible register, the “vignette evidence”. In the case of motorcycles, the vignette must be attached to a clean and non-replaceable outer part of the motorcycle, such as B. to be attached to the fork leg or to the tank.
The entire motorway and expressway network ( federal highways , federally owned roads) with a length of more than 2000 kilometers is operated by the state motorway and expressway financing company (ASFINAG) of the Ministry of Transport . The income goes exclusively to ASFINAG.
The following tariffs apply to vehicles weighing up to 3.5 tons in 2020:
- Car / mobile home: 10-day vignette: 9.40 euros, 2-month vignette: 27.40 euros, annual vignette: 91.10 euros.
- Motorcycle: 10-day vignette: 5.40 euros, 2-month vignette: 13.70 euros, annual vignette: 36.20 euros.
- There is basically no additional vignette requirement for car trailers.
If you use the motorways and expressways without a valid vignette, you currently face the following fines:
- If the vignette is missing, expired, invalid or not properly attached: Replacement toll of 120 euros (car / mobile home), 65 euros (motorcycle).
- If the vignette is tampered with, 240 euros (car / mobile home) or 130 euros (motorcycle) are provided as a replacement toll.
- If the planned amounts are not paid, administrative penalties between EUR 300 and EUR 3000 will follow.
The control of the car toll and truck toll has been carried out exclusively by the officials of the Austrian toll control since 2017. This is equipped with far-reaching powers such as the right to stop, identity control (driver's license, passport or identity card), vehicle control, blue light on the patrol car, etc. The controls can be carried out at any time by diverting from flowing traffic, at rest areas, motorway entrances and exits, at special control points through which traffic is diverted by means of traffic control systems. In addition, the vignette is checked by camera systems (the automatic vignette control - AVK).
On January 1, 2004, the vignette for all vehicles over 3.5 tonnes total weight was replaced by a route-based truck toll . Operated is the world's first nationwide multi-lane free-flow toll system by the Europpass toll system tanker lorry-GmbH, originally a wholly owned subsidiary of the Italian Autostrade SpA, the largest toll operator in Europe; it was taken over by ASFINAG with effect from January 1, 2005 . In addition, there is a higher toll on the special toll routes. The toll tariffs are staggered according to the number of axles and EURO emission classes and are collected using a GO-Box with microwave technology , fully electronically and without impairing the flow of traffic in the pre-pay or post-pay process.
A special toll is levied for some route sections, tunnels and bridges . This is earmarked for financing the further expansion of some of the abnormally expensive Alpine transversal routes within ASFINAG, where a route kilometer costs on average well over ten times the normal motorway kilometer. For these sections of the route, no vignette is formally required (for reasons of EU law). However, since the usual access to the special toll routes is generally via roads that require a vignette, a vignette must still be purchased, which in practice means additional toll costs for a certain route. However, commuters who have to use one of the special toll routes on their way to work receive a free annual pass for “their” route if they have an annual vignette. This special toll is levied at toll stations, where you can pay in cash or with special prepaid cards (for trucks via the GO-Box without stopping).
Away from the motorways, there are toll private roads such as B. the Grossglockner High Alpine Road , the Malta High Alpine Road or the Silvretta High Alpine Road . In 2014, the EU Commission repeatedly called for a fairer toll system for tolls on the road through the Felbertauern tunnel , as locally registered vehicles drive free of charge.
In Switzerland , the national road tax for the use of motorways and motorways ( national roads 1st and 2nd class) is levied for all motor vehicles and trailers up to 3.5 tons total weight . The fee is paid in the form of the motorway vignette.
A vignette is valid for the period from December 1st of the year printed on it to January 31st of the following year. It costs 40 Swiss francs . An increase in the vignette price to CHF 100 / year was rejected in a referendum on November 24, 2013. There are no daily, weekly or monthly vignettes.
The use of motorways and motorways of the national road network without a vignette is punished with a fine of 200 francs. Driver of a vehicle with an incorrectly affixed vignette - for example with a self-adhesive film - will also be fined 200 francs. The fine can be levied at the border.
The Grosser St. Bernhard Tunnel is one of the two road sections in Switzerland that are subject to individual tolls. It is operated by a private company. The pass road to the hospice and on to Italy is toll-free. The passage through the Munt-la-Schera tunnel between Punt la Drossa (on the road to the Ofenpass ) and Punt dal Gall , the connecting road from the Lower Engadine to the neighboring Italian town of Livigno , is also subject to tolls. The toll station is at the dam of the Lago di Livigno immediately before the Italian border. Usage costs for certain smaller mountain roads are also charged.
The performance-based heavy vehicle charge for trucks (LSVA) is an electronically levied, distance-dependent toll for trucks from 3.5 tons, which is levied for all roads in Switzerland and Liechtenstein . It started on January 1, 2001.
The Belgian federal government introduced a toll (7 to 30 cents per kilometer) on April 1, 2016. It applies to trucks over 3.5 tons. It is usually due on motorways and major roads, in Brussels it is also valid in the inner city area. It is paid by OBU (On Board Unit). The operator of the toll system is the company Satellic .
The Estonian parliament passed a law on June 15, 2017 to introduce a toll. It should apply to trucks over 3.5 tons and be based on pollutant emissions and the number of axles.
In France , the so-called péage is charged for all vehicles on many motorways. In Alsace , in Lorraine and in the Brittany motorway usage is mostly free of charge. The A75 autoroute through the Massif Central between Clermont-Ferrand and Montpellier is toll-free with the exception of the Viaduc de Millau , as are motorways that run through or bypass urban areas. The collection takes place at fixed toll stations by staff or machines. The price depends on the distance and the type of vehicle. On average, the toll for a car costs around nine cents per kilometer (as of 2015).
As a rule, the driver receives a ticket at the beginning of the toll route or at the motorway entrance. The distance actually driven is then billed at the end of the toll route or at the motorway exit with cash or card. Using the Télépéage procedure , contactless recording is possible while driving at walking speed (at some toll stations at up to 30 km / h) on lanes reserved for this purpose at the paying stations. The user receives a small on-board device that he has to attach to the windshield of his vehicle. This device communicates via microwaves with its counterpart at the toll stations. In the past, a Télépéage subscription was only valid for the motorways of the respective operating company; mutual billing has been possible since 2001. This additional convenience is advertised under the name liber-t .
To finance the motorways, France passed a law in 1955 that provided for a toll system for the private financing of motorway construction under concession agreements. Today there are eleven operating companies for the 11,000-kilometer route network. However, individual routes are still state-owned to this day.
In 1970, five civil engineering groups, including Société générale d'entreprises ( operating under the name Vinci from 2000 ), GTM and Jean Lefebvre, together with the banks Société Générale and Paribas, founded the motorway company Cofiroute . These companies carried the entire financing burden and had to wait more than fifteen years for the operator model to generate its first profits. Since 1970, Cofiroute has built over 800 km of motorways in western France. In addition, in 1988 she set up the first motorway transmitter (107.7 - music and traffic radio). The business of the 65 percent Vinci subsidiary extends to Europe , North and South America and, to a lesser extent, Asia .
The road toll in France is divided into five different classes, which are made up of the nature, height and weight of the vehicle or trailer:
- Class 1 (light vehicles): Vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of up to 3.5 tons and a total height of less than 2 m as well as all combinations with a towing vehicle up to a gross vehicle weight of 3.5 tons and a total height of up to 2 m.
- Class 2 (medium-sized vehicles): Vehicles with a permissible total weight of up to 3.5 tons and a total height between 2 m and 3 m as well as all combinations with a towing vehicle up to 3.5 tons permissible total weight and a total height between 2 m and 3 m.
- Class 3 (trucks and buses with two axles, on the A14 motorway all buses with two axles are classified in Class 4): vehicles with two axles with a gross vehicle weight over 3.5 tons and a total height of less than 3 m.
- Class 4 (trucks and buses with three or more axles): vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of over 3.5 tonnes, more than two axles or a height of over 3 m as well as all combinations with a towing vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of over 3.5 tonnes or with a total height of over 3 m.
- Class 5: Motorcycles (with or without sidecar) and trikes
In France, the government decided to introduce a truck toll in 2009. After the presidential election, the new government announced a nationwide suspension of plans in October 2013.
In Italy , the pedaggio is charged for most motorways. Roads with motorway signs on a green background are usually toll roads, those with a blue background are free of charge.
Most routes are operated in a closed system . The amount of the toll is determined by the distance traveled and the road used as well as the vehicle class. Roads with high construction and maintenance costs are tolled higher. A few routes are operated in the open system . In this case, only a lump sum is charged for a section of the route with several interchanges or an entire motorway, regardless of the distance covered.
To pay the toll, a toll card is drawn from a machine in the closed system at the entrance station. You insert this into the machine at the exit station and pay the calculated toll. In the open system , payments are made either as well or only when entering or exiting or in the middle of a section of the route. In both systems, the toll can be paid in cash, with an Italian account card, with a credit card or with a prepaid card , which is also available outside of Italy. Users who do not want to pay with one of the payment methods mentioned can attach an on-board unit called Telepass to the car or motorcycle, which reports every entry and exit on the motorway to the toll station.
A distance-dependent toll ( Cestarina ) must be paid for all motorways in Croatia . The Učka tunnel and the Krk bridge are also tolls. In 2011 there was also the expressway from Koper ( Slovenia ) from the Umag junction to Pula .
There is no general toll on public roads in Norway . However, a temporary toll is often levied for the use of newly built engineering structures (tunnels, bridges) and newly built or completely renovated road sections until the respective structure has been paid off (usually around 10 to 15 years). The toll stations will then be dismantled.
There are also city toll rings around Oslo , Bærum , Tønsberg , Kristiansand , Stavanger , Haugaland , Bergen and Namsos (status: 2010). When collecting the city toll, an automatic payment method called AutoPass , which works with an on-board unit , is increasingly being used . Cash or card payment at the toll booths is then no longer possible. Foreign motorists can either pay the toll at petrol stations shortly before or after the toll station, or the toll will be collected later by invoice from a collection company without surcharges. Some municipalities also forego toll collection for foreign vehicles.
Since 2009, foreign drivers have been able to participate in the AutoPass procedure for a limited period of time. No on-board unit is required here, rather the license plate number is registered during registration and automatically recorded on the AutoPass lane when driving through a toll station. Billing is done by credit card.
For commercial vehicles with a gross vehicle weight over 3.5 tonnes, a toll chip has been mandatory since January 1, 2015. The regulation, which applies to traffic on the entire public road network in Norway, only applies to commercial vehicles. A contract must be concluded with a toll company to obtain this; the chip itself is free. It is also available at customs offices and sometimes on the ferries and must be attached to the inside of the windshield. The amount due is debited from the chip every time you drive through the toll booth.
In Poland , the main routes of the A1 , A2 and A4 motorways are subject to tolls for both passenger and heavy goods vehicles . On the motorways A6 , A8 and A18 , expressways and selected sections of the national roads there is a toll for trucks.
In the case of motorways, a distinction must be made between sections operated by the concessionaire and the state GDDKiA . The motorway sections operated by private companies are usually more expensive than those operated by the GDDKiA. In addition, cars and trucks have to pay the toll manually at the toll booths located on privately operated sections . An electronic route toll system has been set up for all motor vehicles on state-operated motorway, all expressway and selected regional road sections, which has replaced the vignette toll for trucks from July 1, 2011 and from June 1, 2012 for cars in parallel to manual toll payment Toll booths can be used. The costs are calculated electronically from the kilometers driven with the help of toll bridges and the viaBOX (truck) and viaAUTO (car) required in the vehicle .
In order to avoid unintentional payment, free “aluminum safes” can be picked up at the sales points, in which the viaBox is to be kept.
Exceptions to this are:
- Both in Stockholm (test in 2006, regular since 2007) and in Gothenburg (since 2013) there are urban areas that are covered with the Trängselskatt (literally crowd control), which is intended to reduce the volume of traffic on working days. This is collected from the vehicles when passing toll booths, i. H. when entering and exiting this area. However, there are exceptions. The tax is only levied on working days from around 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., days before public holidays are not considered working days. The usual holiday month of July is completely free. Some vehicle classes (e.g. diplomatic vehicles) are also excluded. Since January 1, 2015, vehicles registered abroad have also been recorded. In Stockholm, journeys through the area to and from Lidingö are also excluded, as this municipality can only be reached via the Stockholm city area. The technical solution consists in the fact that cameras are installed above the lane to record passing vehicles. The license plates are recognized automatically and the vehicle owner is billed for the toll.
- The two bridges over the Svinesund are border crossings to Norway and toll roads. A few weeks after its completion, the new Svinesund Bridge was subject to a toll in order to pay off the loans taken out for construction. The bridge was built without the use of taxpayers' money. The old bridge over the Svinesund from 1946 was also subject to a toll.
- The Oresund Bridge is the border crossing point to Denmark . It was also financed through loans and is subject to tolls to finance it.
- On February 1, 2015, an infrastructure charge based on the Norwegian model was introduced for two newly built bridges at Sundsvall and Motala . Like the city toll, it is levied through fully automatic license plate recognition.
- Car ferries that are not included in the general road network are chargeable.
Since 1995 there has been a toll on motorways and expressways in Slovakia . Motorcycles are toll-free. Roads that are not subject to tolls are marked with the BEZ ÚHRADY traffic sign. Since 2016, the toll for cars has been collected electronically.
For trucks, the system was replaced by a system based on GPS at the beginning of 2010 .
On July 1, 2008, Slovenia introduced a vignette based on the Austrian model. The vignette was available as an annual (55 euros) and half-yearly version (35 euros), which led to fierce criticism from domestic and foreign automobile clubs. The reason for this was that Slovenia did not issue a vignette with a shorter duration. A return trip was therefore around 27 euros more expensive than the route-dependent toll.
From July 1, 2009, in addition to the new weekly vignette (15 euros), a one-month vignette, which costs 30 euros, was introduced for cars. In return, the price for the annual vignette was increased from 55 to 95 euros and the half-yearly vignette was abolished. For single-track vehicles there was an annual vignette for EUR 47.50, a half-year vignette for EUR 25 and a weekly vignette for EUR 7.50. (Stand 2013)
From 2014, the prices for the annual vignette for cars changed from 95 to 110 euros, for single-track vehicles from 47.50 to 55.50 euros, and the half-yearly vignette for single-track vehicles from 25 to 30 euros. Further changes have been made to vehicle classes and prices, see motorway vignette Slovenia .
In Spain some of the motorways are chargeable. The toll (Spanish: Peaje ) depends on the length of the route and is collected at toll stations. Essentially, privately built autopistas are subject to tolls . The publicly operated autovías are always free. The highways maintained by the regions ( Autonomous Communities of Spain ), such as B. the ring roads in the metropolitan areas. The radial highways , which are supposed to relieve the existing autovías around Madrid, are chargeable .
In the Czech Republic , a vignette is required for all vehicles up to 3.5 tons except motorcycles and trikes on expressways and motorways. The amount of the toll depends on the total weight of the vehicle and any trailer. There are annual, monthly and 10-day vignettes.
The price for the 10-day vignette rose to 310 kroner (around 11 euros) in 2012 . The monthly vignette costs 440 kroner (16 euros), the annual vignette 1,500 kroner (54 euros).
The distance-based toll on motorways and expressways, which has existed for vehicles over 12 tons since 2007, was extended to vehicles over 3.5 tons in 2010. It is billed through a microwave system. In the vehicle you need a premid box , which is available at petrol stations. Until 2011, the toll averaged 5 kroner (around 18 euro cents) per kilometer. In 2012 it was increased by 25%.
Six Turkish motorways ( Turkish Otoyol ) are toll roads. A distance-dependent toll must be paid on this. Tunnels and expensive structures are not separately subject to tolls, with the exception of the two Bosporus bridges in Istanbul . Apart from a general motorway toll, there are no other charges on Turkish roads. Expressways are toll-free.
The revenue from tolls in the current year 2005 was 231 million Turkish Lira and, according to official estimates, should be 350 million YTL at the end of the year. The Bosporus bridges used over 90 million vehicles and the toll roads over 80 million vehicles.
In Hungary is on the highways M1 , M3 , M5 , M6 , M7 , M30 and M35 toll charged for all vehicles. For cars there are vignettes for ten days, a month or a year. The registration numbers of the cars are saved and you only receive a confirmation. Nothing is stuck behind the windshield, the toll paid is checked electronically via the registered license plate. The number plate is saved without separators and without umlauts, so that, for example, no distinction is made between “G-ULF1” and “GU-LF1” or between “FÜ-R123” and “F-UR123”. The toll can be paid at almost every petrol station. The toll fee can also be booked online with a credit card .
Since July 1, 2013, a route-dependent electronic truck toll has been levied in Hungary on defined sections of the road network (motorways, motorways and national roads) with a total length of 6513 km. The amount of the route-dependent toll depends on the type of road used, the vehicle category (J2, J3, J4) and the environmental class.
|J2||Trucks with a gross vehicle weight over 3.5 tons with two axles|
|J3||Trucks with a gross vehicle weight over 3.5 tons with three axles|
|J4||Trucks with a gross vehicle weight over 3.5 tons with four or more axles|
There are two different options for participating in the Hungarian truck toll system: automatic and manual route booking. When booking a route manually, a distinction must be made between logging in at a toll station terminal and logging in via an HU-GO Internet portal.
Automatic login via a voluntarily installed on-board unit. One speaks of a GPS / GPRS supported toll. The toll amount is determined by satellite navigation and sent to the central computer of the operator of the on-board device z. B. GPS-ART Kft. This transmits the evaluated data to the AAK so that it can collect the route toll. To do this, the shipping company first has its toll vehicles registered online with HU-GO. Installation can be carried out before or after registration by an authorized on-board contract partner.
Other European countries
Belgium , Denmark , Luxembourg , the Netherlands and Sweden levy a truck toll in accordance with the Eurovignette system. In Belgium the Liefkenshoektunnel , in Denmark / Sweden the Öresund Bridge , in the Netherlands the Westerschelden Tunnel and in Denmark the Storebælt Bridge are chargeable.
- In Albania , a toll has been charged on the A1 for the passage of the Kalimash tunnel since 2018.
- In Bosnia and Herzegovina , the distance-dependent Cestarina / Putarina is charged for all vehicles on the A1 . However, there is still no closed toll system, as toll booths have not yet been set up at all entrances and exits.
- In Bulgaria , the purchase of a vignette (Bulgarian: Винетка, in Latin Vinetka ) is compulsory for all motor vehicles to use the entire road network (except inner-city roads) . The mandatory vignette is usually indicated by corresponding blue and white signs at the beginning of a road that requires a vignette. In addition, fees must be paid for all motor vehicles to use the Danube bridge between Rousse (Bulgaria) and Giurgiu (Romania) ( E70 / E85 ).
- In Greece , Diodia is charged for A1 , A2 , A6 , A7 , A8 , A9 .
- In the UK , a toll is levied on 13 bridges, for example on Dartford Crossing . Furthermore, the M6 Toll north of Birmingham is subject to a toll.
- In North Macedonia , a distance-dependent Patarina is levied on most motorway sections .
- In the Netherlands , a kilometer-based toll should be introduced for all roads from 2011. This has now been put on hold again. The Netherlands have not yet introduced a nationwide toll.
- In Portugal , a distance-dependent portagem is levied on most of the motorways and major bridges . In addition to the usual cash payment, the Via Verde electronic debiting system has also been in operation since 1991 .
- In Romania , all motorists need a Rovinieta for the entire Romanian road network . Drivers can purchase vignettes for one day (only for trucks), 7 days, 30 days, 90 days and 12 months. The prices of the annual vignette vary depending on the vehicle type.
- In Russia there is no toll for road use, but a transport tax on vehicles, which varies from region to region and the amount of which falls within the competence of regional legislation. Since November 2015, however, a heavy vehicle charge has been levied on transport vehicles with a height of 12 tonnes or more, which is currently (as of April 24, 2017) 1.91 rubles per kilometer driven, and will eventually amount to 3.73 rubles from 2018, see Plato (heavy vehicle tax ) .
- In Serbia , a distance-dependent toll (Serbian: Putarina ) is levied on all national motorways (see: Motorway (Serbia) and List of Motorways in Serbia ) . Until 2008, the fees for vehicles with foreign license plates were higher than for domestic vehicles. Since 2009, the same fees apply to foreign and Serbian vehicles.
Toll systems outside of Europe
- In Argentina , a toll is levied on some highways.
- There are individual toll roads in Australia , such as the CityLink in Melbourne . As in the USA, these are privately financed road construction.
- In Brazil , especially in the states of Rio de Janeiro , São Paulo , Paraná , Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, many federal highways (which can be developed as highways in metropolitan areas) are subject to tolls. Unlike toll-free roads, toll roads are in good condition. The toll is collected in cash at toll stations. International credit cards rarely work.
- In Chile , a flat-rate toll is levied on all motorways and expressways via activated payment stations. The metropolitan region of Santiago de Chile is a specialty . In the urban area, toll bridges have been set up above the carriageway, which are illuminated blue at night. Every vehicle must have a transponder , which is then used to collect the monthly fees. Missing this transponder is flashed and additionally charged a penalty if the indicator is not the concessionaire is reported.
- In India , tolls are levied on most expressways and multi-lane sections of the national highways . Expressway charges are generally higher than National Highways charges . Billing is mostly done in cash, at some toll stations via RFID transponders.
- In Israel there is a toll to be paid for the privately built highway No. 6. There are no toll booths, the fees are charged via transponders (cheapest), license plate registration with previous registration (more expensive) or license plate registration with owner research (most expensive). Foreign license plates are not provided for in this system, as these are rarely used in Israel.
- In Japan , many highways, bridges, tunnels, and scenic roads charge a relatively high toll.
- In Canada , the 108 km long Highway 407ETR , which crosses the Toronto metropolitan area in a west-east direction, is Canada's first toll highway. There are no pay stations on the ETR (Express Toll Route); the fees are determined when driving up and down either via transponder or automatic license plate recognition. The amount of the toll depends, among other things, on the time of day.
- In Mexico , you can choose between two types of roads for interurban roads: cuota (toll) or libre (toll-free), the toll roads are generally in a much better condition, free of tight curves and steep inclines and equipped with emergency telephones and towing services at the toll stations. More recently, toll motorways were built without direct through-roads through small villages and are thus also completely free of speed bumps ( topes ). Charges are made on toll roads when passing through toll stations in cash or with the IAVE card. The latter is cashless and bills the toll directly via the credit card. The toll roads in Mexico are relatively expensive, so the free sections are overcrowded with trucks. The toll routes are particularly worthwhile because of the time they save.
- In Namibia , a vehicle-dependent fee is charged when entering a vehicle that is not registered in Namibia. For vehicles registered in Namibia, the road toll is covered by vehicle tax and fuel levies. A nationwide toll (as of December 2015) is not planned.
- In Peru , the Panamericana is chargeable for all vehicles.
- A first road with toll charges has been under construction in Sierra Leone since 2016.
- In Singapore , entry into the city center is chargeable for all vehicles. Billing takes place via a transponder.
- In South Africa , some routes such as For example, tunnels, sections of national roads and Chapman's Peak Drive are subject to a vehicle-dependent toll.
- In South Korea there is a dense network of very well-developed expressways, these are toll roads. You pay per use, depending on the route, billed when you leave the motorway - in cash or electronically. In addition , a separate toll is levied for the passage of the three Namsan tunnels in the capital Seoul , which connect different districts north and south of Namsan Mountain.
- In Thailand the expressways and motorways are subject to tolls. Similar to France, there is a route toll with toll stations.
- In the United Arab Emirates , since July 2007, certain routes have only been subject to tolls in Dubai , in particular parts of Sheik Zayed Road . The vehicles are registered by the operator Salik at certain points - so-called toll bridges - using RFID technology .
- Many roads in the United States are toll roads (see also EZ Pass ). Especially in the east and in California , roads, so-called tollways and turnpikes , bridges and tunnels are privately financed. The price of crossing the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is five dollars towards downtown. The opposite direction is free. The Boston Harbor Tunnel costs two dollars. In some cities, a city toll based on the London model is planned. The Chicago sticker for $ 75 has already been introduced. One method practiced in the USA is to offer two parallel streets, one of which is toll road. This is also known as value pricing . There are different models: As a rule, cars that are occupied by only one person have to pay to use the toll roads , while vehicles with two or more people can use them free of charge ( high-occupancy vehicle lane ).
- In Vietnam , tolls on motorway-like roads (expressways) are paid at toll stations in cash or with a smart card .
The Mautprellerei is the legal term for driving on toll roads without paying the toll. In Austria , according to Section 20 of the Federal Road Toll Act, it is an administrative offense that is punished with a fine of between 400 and 4000 euros.
The toll system has inspired theoretical computer scientists to put the toll problem up for discussion. This deals with the question of the extent to which conclusions can be drawn about all the distances between the toll stations from the distances between the toll stations on a road.
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