United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

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United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Union Jack United Kingdom coat of arms
flag coat of arms
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors) .svg
Saint Patrick's Saltire.svg
navigation Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5) .svg
Flag of Ireland.svg
Motto : Dieu et mon droit
( French for "God and my law")
Official language English (de facto)
Capital London
Form of government kingdom
Form of government parliamentary monarchy
Head of State
- 1801 to 1820
- 1820 to 1830
- 1830 to 1837
- 1837 to 1901
- 1901 to 1910
- 1910 to 1927
George III
George IV.
Wilhelm IV.
Edward VII.
George V.
Head of government prime minister
surface 315,093 km² (1801)
population 16,345,646 (1801)
42,769,196 (1921)
Population density 52 inhabitants per km² (1801)
136 inhabitants per km² (1921)
currency Pound Sterling
National anthem God Save the King (Queen)
Time zone UTC ± 0 GMT (from 1847)
License Plate GB (from 1910)
Existence period 1801–1927 (de facto 1922)
British Isles 1905

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the name of the United Kingdom from January 1, 1801 to April 12, 1927. It emerged from the merger of the Kingdom of Great Britain with the only formally independent Kingdom of Ireland .


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801 from the merger of the Kingdom of Great Britain (which was created in the Act of Union 1707 from the merger of the kingdoms of England and Scotland ) with the Kingdom of Ireland . The merger had become possible after the Irish Parliament (in which only Protestants were represented) had decided a year earlier to approve the Act of Union 1800 and dissolve itself.

In the Unification Treaty it was agreed that Ireland would send more than 100 MPs to the British Parliament in the Palace of Westminster . In addition, the emancipation of Catholics was planned. The implementation was, however, by King George III. prevented. He argued that by equating Catholics he would break his coronation oath (the British monarch is also head of the Anglican Church ).

In 1829 Daniel O'Connell succeeded through legal proceedings to finally force the British government to implement Catholic emancipation. However, his campaign to reverse the unification failed. Later, politicians like Charles Stewart Parnell tried to introduce an autonomous self-government ( Home Rule ) in Ireland ; Ireland should remain part of the United Kingdom.

In 1919 the Irish MPs in Dublin called an independent Irish parliament called Dáil Éireann , with the chairman Éamon de Valera as head of state-designate. The Irish War of Independence that followed lasted until 1921. In December 1922, 26 Irish counties finally left the United Kingdom on the basis of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and formed the Irish Free State , which was given the status of a Dominion within the British Empire . Six counties in the Ulster region remained with the kingdom and formed the state of Northern Ireland .

As a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Civil War broke out from June 1922 to April 1923 , in which the Irish Republican Army wanted to enforce a final separation of Ireland from the British Empire.

The state name was retained until 1927 when it was changed to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland .

Heads of state

Until 1927, the official title of Head of State was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland .