After the National Trunk Highway System (over 130,000 km) in the People's Republic of China , the Interstate Highway System (over 77,000 km) in the USA and the motorway system in Spain (17,109 km), the German motorway network is the fourth longest with over 13,100 kilometers (as of 2019) of the world.
Motorways in Germany are usually federal motorways (abbreviation: BAB ) according to the Federal Trunk Road Act (FStrG); however, roads other than motorways can also be signposted with a suitable development . Conversely, not all federal motorways are signposted as autobahns . Motorways within the meaning of the road traffic regulations are indicated by the traffic sign 330 ( ). They may only be driven on by motor vehicles whose design-related maximum speed exceeds 60 km / h ( (1) sentence 1 StVO ). The highways are administered by the federal states on behalf of the federal government. From January 1, 2021, the motorways will be centrally administered by the Federal Highway Authority and the federal highway GmbH .
The term "Autobahn" was first coined by Robert Otzen in 1929. Otzen was chairman of the HaFraBa motorway project ( Hanseatic cities - Frankfurt am Main - Basel motorway project ). From the year 1927 the designation Autobahnstraße is documented. The world's first motorway-like route was the AVUS in Berlin's Grunewald , which opened on September 24, 1921. It was 8.3 kilometers long and paid a fee. At first it served mainly as a racing and test track and not for public transport. The world's first longer motorway was opened in Italy on September 21, 1924 , the first section from Milan to Varese of today's A8 .
The term "Autobahn" first appeared in 1932 and referred to the idea of an intersection-free expressway with no oncoming traffic. At that time, a trade journal for HaFraBa was renamed "Autobahn" in analogy to the railway. The first motorway in this sense in Germany, which connected two cities, was opened on August 6, 1932 between Cologne and Bonn by Cologne's Lord Mayor Konrad Adenauer ; the intersection-free route was 20 kilometers long ("intersection-free motor vehicle road"). Today it bears the designation A 555 . The road was already designed for vehicle speeds of 120 km / h, although the vehicles of the time were usually only able to achieve a significantly lower speed. As early as the early 1920s, the Italian civil engineering engineer Piero Puricelli constructed the Autostrada dei Laghi, a road only for cars that led from Milan to the northern Italian lakes. He is therefore considered to be the builder of the world's first “Autobahn”, since HaFraBa was still in the planning phase at the time.
On September 23, 1933 (a few days before the opening of a section of today's A3 near Opladen , which had already begun in 1931), the expansion of the Reichsautobahn began under National Socialism , which was particularly emphasized by the propaganda . The general inspector for German roads, Fritz Todt , the landscape architect Alwin Seifert and the architect Paul Bonatz were responsible for the construction of the Reichsautobahn . On the first sections of the autobahn, under pressure from Adolf Hitler, the Deutsche Reichsbahn had to set up a high-speed bus service, including the Frankfurt / Main-Darmstadt-Mannheim route. From this the later rail bus traffic of the German Federal Railroad developed . During the Second World War, from autumn 1943, motorways could also be used by cyclists because of the low level of vehicle traffic.
Until the 1950s, the volume of traffic and driving speed are not comparable with current conditions on motorways. For example, buses and trucks had to reduce their speed to 8-10 km / h on inclines due to the braking technology of the time .
The introduction of crash barriers , commonly known as guard rails, began on West German motorways in the early 1960s.
In 2012, the Advisory Council on the Environment proposed equipping the right-hand lanes of the A 1 to A 9 motorways with an overhead contact line system over a distance of more than 5000 kilometers. The concept describes the electrical supply of trucks with hybrid drives to protect the environment.
Federal motorways are federal highways which, according to Federal Highways Act (FStrG) “are only intended for high-speed traffic with motor vehicles and are designed in such a way that they are free of crossroads at the same level and have special junctions for entry and exit. They should have separate lanes for one-way traffic. "
A road acquires its status as a federal motorway through the formal act of dedication . As a result, there are stretches that are a federal autobahn without having the necessary upgrading status (for example, on routes on which only one directional lane could previously be completed) and which are therefore temporarily like a federal highway , but often with the sign 331 ( ) also as a motor vehicle , were signposted.
The hard shoulder is in accordance with Road Traffic Regulations (StVO) not part of the roadway and may therefore not drive. On the other hand, it must be used if it has been cleared for use by traffic sign 223.1 or a construction site traffic control or the vehicles are being directed there by the police. A vehicle with right of way (blue light and emergency horn) can immediately order to create a clear path. Then, from the point of view of the emergency, it is also possible to evade the hard shoulder.
There is no general speed limit for motor vehicles on motorways , but a recommended recommended speed of 130 km / h. Exceeding the recommended speed is not a criminal offense or an administrative offense unless there is a traffic sign restricting the speed; however, in the event of an accident, joint liability due to an increased operational risk can be taken into account. The recommended speed applies to more than half of the German motorway network, around a third has a permanent speed limit, the rest a limit that changes depending on the traffic and weather conditions. There are speed limits for trucks and buses (80 or 100 km / h if certain requirements are met).
On some sections, however, the speed limit on the motorway is 130 km / h (indicated by appropriate speed limit signs after each entrance).
The federal state of Bremen is the only German state in which there is no section of the motorway that is allowed to drive faster than 120 km / h. Of the total of around 60 km of freeway stretch in Bremen, the last roughly six-kilometer-long speed-unrestricted section of the A 27 was restricted accordingly on April 9, 2008 ; Speed limits were already in effect for the remaining sections of the route. Federal states cannot introduce a general speed limit on the motorways of their country, as these are owned by the federal government, which is why the Federal Ministry of Transport is responsible for all speed limits on motorways.
There are repeated public debates about the introduction of a nationwide speed limit on motorways . Proponents give as arguments u. a. fewer accidents, a reduction in noise pollution and environmental protection. This can be proven, among other things, by the number of accidents. In 2013, three quarters of those killed on Bavaria's autobahns could be assigned to sections without a speed limit. Opponents disagree with this argument and a. economic disadvantages and a restriction of individual freedom as arguments against a speed limit. In some areas bordering other countries, due to the legal regulation of the recommended speed and the associated, non-existent speed limit for motor vehicles, there is a kind of high-speed tourism which is countered by the government with speed limits.
A general speed limit of 100 km / h applied on the GDR motorways. The use of the motorway by Mokicks (50 cm³) was then permitted in contrast to today. The decisive factor here is the information up to 60 km / h. This is countered by today's requirement for a design-specific maximum speed of more than 60 km / h.
The current numbering system has existed for federal motorways since January 1, 1975. An earlier system recorded in the 1971–1985 requirement plan for federal trunk roads, in which the single-digit numbers were assigned to the routes departing from Berlin, had not been able to prevail. Motorways that run in a north-south direction are numbered with odd numbers in Germany, motorways in an east-west direction are even numbered. The single-digit autobahns ( A 1 - A 9 ) cross Germany over a large area or across borders. The two-digit numbering is assigned to individual areas; They start with the A 10 , the Berliner Ring , and end with the A 99 , the Munich motorway ring :
- A 10 and higher run in Berlin , Brandenburg , Saxony , Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ;
- A 20 and higher in Northern Germany ;
- A 30 and higher in Lower Saxony , in northern Westphalia and Thuringia as well as Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony
- A 40 and higher in the Rhineland , southern Westphalia and northern Hesse ;
- A 50 and higher from the Lower Rhine region to Bonn ;
- A 60 and higher in Rhineland-Palatinate , Saarland , southern Hesse and the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region ;
- A 70 and higher in Franconia , Thuringia and western Saxony;
- A 80 and higher in Baden-Württemberg ;
- A 90 and higher in old Bavaria , in the Lake Constance area and on the Upper Rhine .
Regional motorways, which for example connect two larger motorways or are feeder motorways, have a three-digit numbering with the same first digit, i.e. a "3" in the greater Hanover area. For example, the A 391, which is less important in comparison, is the first offshoot of the A 39.
The signposting of the destinations on German motorways is based on the terminals of the individual motorway sections listed in the motorway directory of the Federal Highway Research Institute . For this reason, many large cities that are passed by a motorway are often only mentioned on the signage shortly before the exit, which is particularly confusing for foreign drivers.
From 2021 the German autobahns will be managed by Die Autobahn GmbH des Bundes .
The ten longest motorways in Germany
|3||749 km (with planning: 774 km)|
|10||345 km (with planning: 541 km)|
At 962.2 km, the A 7 is the longest motorway in Germany. The A 3 and A 1 follow in second and third place. It is planned to extend the A1 by 25 kilometers (774 km). This would make the A1 the second longest motorway in Germany.
Truck toll in Germany
On motorways, which are federal motorways, a toll has been levied for trucks since the 1990s using a vignette (similar to, for example, in Austria or Switzerland for cars). Since August 31, 2003, a distance-dependent toll has been in force on German federal motorways for trucks over 12 tonnes gross vehicle weight (since October 1, 2015: 7.5 tonnes). Excluded from the toll are buses, agricultural and forestry machinery and the fire brigade. A GPS , i.e. satellite-based system has been set up in Germany for toll collection . However, since the newly developed Toll Collect accounting system was not yet ready for use at the start, no toll was initially levied. After some political and contractual tug-of-war, an initially technically restricted version was put into operation on January 1, 2005.
Routes that are not signposted as a motorway with the sign 330 ( ) are marked with the sign 390 ( ). No toll is levied on motorways that are not federal motorways. These routes are shown in the toll table with a chargeable length of "0.0 km". There is currently no car toll on German motorways. In 2005, the then Federal Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee reaffirmed that such a toll was not being planned either. The transport minister who followed him, Peter Ramsauer , brought the car toll back into the discussion, but shortly afterwards also stated that no car toll was planned.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, fees levied by the state must again benefit the subject area in which they were levied, in this case the maintenance and new construction of transport infrastructure. They flow - minus the operator fees for Toll Collect - to the transport infrastructure finance company . The toll fees are also paid to private companies as part of “ Public Private Partnership ” projects in return for road construction and maintenance on some routes (currently four motorway sections, another seven are planned).
In addition, some new traffic projects have been realized, some privately, that are not directly in the motorway network, but are connected to it: The Warnow tunnel in the extension of the A 19 in Rostock and the Herrentunnel on the A 226 in Lübeck . There, in accordance with the Highway Construction Private Financing Act (Model F), the toll is not only levied for trucks, but also for cars. Very soon after the opening, it became apparent that the expected income could not be achieved because significantly less traffic was flowing than forecast. As a result, the period in which the operator can collect tolls was extended from 30 to 50 years for the Warnow Tunnel, and in the case of the Herrentunnel the toll was increased, especially for cars. On the basis of these projects, consideration is being given to introducing a toll for some new lines; on the other hand, it is questioned whether this financing model is sustainable.
The most heavily used motorway in Germany is the A 100 in Berlin, followed by the A 3 in the Cologne Ring area . Sections on which two motorways run parallel are not listed. For example, the A 3 / A 4 in the Cologne-East intersection - Heumar triangle has over 175,000 vehicles and the A 8 / A 81 in the Leonberg-Ost - Stuttgart intersection has over 150,000 vehicles.
A total of 25 motorways record over 100,000 vehicles per day in sections.
Source: Federal Highway Research Institute
Most heavily traveled motorway sections
|rank||Highway||route||Motor vehicles per day||Highway lanes||state|
|1||Between Alboinstrasse and Tempelhofer Damm||168,400||6th||Berlin|
|2||Between the triangle Charlottenburg and Spandauer Damm||167,000||6th||Berlin|
|3||Between Kreuz Köln-Ost and Köln-Dellbrück||166,700||8th||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|4th||Between Kaiserdamm- Süd and Dreieck radio tower||165,300||6th||Berlin|
|5||Between Frankfurt-Süd and Offenbacher Kreuz||163,400||8-10||Hesse|
Brief summary of road traffic accidents in Germany in 2014:
|Road classification||Accidents with personal injury||Killed||Including killed vehicle occupants||Rates of accidents with personal injury *)||Death rates *)||Fatality of accidents †)|
|Out of town without motorway||73.916||2,019||1,229||k. A.||k. A.||27.3|
|Federal roads out of town||23,903||723||k. A.||216||6.5||30.2|
|In town||209.618||983||200||k. A.||k. A.||4.7|
|All in all||302.435||3,377||1,731||408||4.6||11.2|
*) per billion vehicle kilometers
†) fatalities per 1,000 accidents with personal injury
The following table shows the number of deaths in absolute terms and per one billion vehicle kilometers in Germany from 1970 to 2010:
|year||Highway||Other roads||All roads||Traffic %|
|Deaths||rate||Deaths||Rate *)||Deaths||Rate *)|
*) Rate = deaths per billion vehicle kilometers.
Some data for 2005 are values from the years 1999–2004. The basis for the number of traffic fatalities is the 30-day recording period. The figures given are only comparable for different countries if the relevant recording methods are taken into account, so that correction factors are used. The period between the accident and the death of the person is very important as it determines whether or not they are included in the statistics. These periods vary from country to country.
Source: Federal Statistical Office
According to the road construction report 2005 of the Federal Ministry for Building, Transport and Urban Development, 2590 kilometers of these were six or more lanes on January 1, 2005, which corresponds to a share of 21.3%.
However, it must be noted that, especially in the 1980s, some motorways were upgraded to federal highways without structural changes, for example the A 680 , which became the B 26. Therefore, the network development cannot be equated with the creation of new motorway routes.
The German autobahns were originally mainly provided with a concrete lane, but there were also paved sections. Today there are predominantly asphalt surfaces that have to be renewed every 15 years on average. Due to the higher load capacity and the longer concession period of around 30 years, concrete is being used more and more again.
A newer type of concrete highway is z. B. the 37 kilometer six-lane section A 8 between the Augsburg-West motorway junction and the Munich-Eschenried motorway triangle. Around 130,000 tons of concrete were used for the project. Thanks to the exposed aggregate concrete structure, the surface also has a better grip and driving noise is reduced.
There are various options for bypassing traffic jams on motorways:
- Diversions can lead traffic to its destination via alternative motorways.
- Demand diversions form a nationwide network that guides drivers on branch lines from one motorway exit to the nearest motorway entrance.
On longer journeys, travelers need the opportunity to take breaks. Rest areas , motorway service stations and truck stops can therefore be found along the entire motorway network . Rest areas that are directly connected are ancillary operations and are therefore part of the motorway according to FStrG .
A motorway service station usually includes a gas station and the actual service area where food and drinks can be purchased. Sometimes there is also a motel . At rest stops there are also washrooms , toilets and baby changing rooms ; they are often equipped for disabled people . Rest areas also have public telephones and Internet access, often also a children's playground . Most of the rest stops are open all the time.
Rest areas are unmanaged rest areas, colloquially one also speaks of motorway parking areas. They only consist of the transport system (parking spaces), services are not offered there. In some cases there is a toilet building, these rest areas are also known as PWC facilities .
Truck stops are not directly on the autobahn and do not have their own entrance and exit.
Common motorway sections
Due to topographical conditions, costs and rescheduling, several federal motorways run together on some motorway sections . The following table lists these for Germany.
|Highways||From||To||Route length||traces||Number of joint departures|
|/||Triangle Leonberg||Cross Stuttgart||7.2 km||8th||1|
|/||Cross Neuss-West||Neuss-Süd triangle||6.7 km||6th||3|
|/||Triangle Erfttal||Bliesheim cross||5.1 km||6th||1|
|/||Langenselbolder triangle||Hanau Cross||3.4 km||8/10||0|
|/||Cross Cologne-East||Triangle Heumar||2.8 km||8th||0|
The following parallel sections are under construction or planned.
|Highways||From||To||Route length||traces||Number of joint departures||status|
|/||Bremerhaven-Süd triangle||Triangle Stotel||6.6 km||?||1||Pre-planning|
|/||Triangle Kassel-Süd||Cross / triangle Kassel-Ost||4.9 km||8th||1 cross||Planning approval|
|/||Frankfurt-Seckbach triangle||Triangle Erlenbruch||1.4 km||?||0||Planning discontinued|
Special features and trivia
- In the Hamburg-Nordwest motorway triangle , the transition from the A23 from the west to the A7 leads north via the Hamburg-Eidelstedt exit to a traffic light on (Holsteiner Chaussee). Immediately afterwards a tunnel begins under the A7 to the actual driveway.
- The A61 begins its kilometering at the border with the Netherlands with negative numbers (−0.2 and −0.1), which changes to positive numbers within a few hundred meters, as the motorway earlier starts elsewhere at the German-Dutch border should.
- The A 1 is no longer allowed to be used by trucks (as of August 2015) in a section in the north of Cologne . The background to this is the poor structural condition of the Rhine crossing of the Leverkusen Rhine Bridge , which is why the motorway in this section can only be used by vehicles with a maximum total weight of 3.5 t. Since September 29, 2016 barriers have been in operation on the access roads to the bridge, which intercept all trucks. The driving ban for vehicles over 3.5 t total weight is observed by traffic monitoring systems installed in both directions. The closure of the motorway bridge crossing the Rhine in Leverkusen is problematic because the motorway section concerned, with over 120,000 vehicles per day, is one of the most heavily used motorway sections in Germany and with the exception of the Cologne-Rodenkirchen Rhine bridge on the A in the south of Cologne 4 all Rhine crossings in the urban area of Cologne also have weight restrictions due to structural defects and cannot or only some of the trucks can be used. The A 49 between the Borken (Hesse) junction and the current end of the motorway near Neuental is also closed to trucks , as the state road into which the motorway joins is not designed for heavy traffic.
- On a motorway in the East Frisian - Dutch border area, Rijksweg 7 runs in the east direction after its last exit Bad Nieuweschans directly along the German-Dutch border. The national territory of the Netherlands ends in this section on the southern edge of the road. This results in the curiosity of a gas station and rest stop (Bunderneuland), which is located on the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, so that the usual gas station prices in Germany are to be paid there. This German facility is not assigned to the A 280 federal motorway , which is only reached less than a kilometer after it has finally left Dutch territory.
- In Germany there are some exits that branch off to the left of the road:
- A 81 , junction 27 Gärtringen in north direction. This exit was originally planned as a motorway junction, which can also be seen from the state of construction.
- In Berlin on the A 100 exit Siemensdamm (junction 5) and on the A 111 exit Eichborndamm (junction 8) in the Tegel airport tunnel . The left-hand exits mentioned can be reached in a northerly direction of travel.
- Since March 2007 on the A 46 in the converted Neuss-West motorway triangle in North Rhine-Westphalia .
- On a section of the A4 near Eisenach , which has been graduated to part of the B 19 and B 84 federal highways since the motorway was moved north in 2010 , there is a walled staircase from the 1930s on the hard shoulder .
- As a result of the war-induced division of today's A 4 (Aachen - Cologne - Olpe or Bad Hersfeld - Erfurt - Chemnitz - Dresden - Bautzen), the kilometers from the Hermsdorfer Kreuz to the inner-German border, which were extensive in GDR times, suddenly merge with zero at Dresden older kilometers, which, starting from the Potsdam autobahn triangle on the Berliner Ring, continued to the west via the Hermsdorfer Kreuz and continued unchanged in Hessian territory towards the Kirchheimer Dreieck.
- Route 46 on the motorway section was built from 1937 to 1939, but it was never completed. The A 7 runs on a different route today.
- The construction of today's A 72 between Pirk and Hof began in the 1930s. The work was stopped later due to the war, including the half-finished Elstertal Bridge . The " Iron Curtain " ran over the planned route after the war , so that the last 15 kilometers could only be completed and released around 55 years later. Over time, the residents of Pirk had a view of the pillars and arches of a half-finished bridge.
- On the A 60 near Mainz, between the MZ-Weisenau (now MZ-Laubenheim ) and MZ-Großberg (now MZ-Weisenau ) exits, there were occasional traffic lights on the motorway. These were embedded in sign gantries and were used to stop traffic on the A 60 whenever blasting was carried out in a quarry directly on the motorway. These traffic lights were announced on upstream sign gantries. In the event of a detonation, the motorway was then blocked in addition to the traffic lights with a transverse police car. Something similar happens today on the A 71 at the Meiningen-Nord junction.
- There is also a set of traffic lights in Mannheim at the transition from Wilhelm-Varnholt-Allee to the A 656 . At events on the Maimarkt area to the north, the central barrier will be removed and traffic lights will enable left-turners to drive into the car park. Since 1988 the autobahn has only officially started behind it, but the kilometers and the signs on a blue background typical of autobahns have been retained.
- The Hanover-Buchholz motorway junction and the northern section of the A 37 near Hanover are provided with traffic lights and shut-off devices to convert the entire motorway in / from the south and the subsequent B 3 / B 6 into a one-way street. This option is used once a year during the “ Hanover Fair ” for a few hours a day. There is no corresponding system on the southern section, where the adjoining B 6 can only be closed to traffic to the north.
- Some sections of the motorway were designated as makeshift airfields during the Cold War . In an emergency, these areas could have been converted into temporary military airfields within a short period of time.
- At the instigation of the transport minister at the time, Hans-Christoph Seebohm , several parking lots and a service area in the old federal territory have had names since the mid-1960s that have nothing to do with the surrounding topography , but refer to places in the former German eastern regions : on the A3 the Rest area " Landsberg an der Warthe " in the Westerwald and the parking lot " Tilsit " between Leverkusen and Cologne , on the Westphalian section of the A 2 the parking lots " Kolberg " and " Stettin ", on the A 7 near Northeim the parking lot " Schlochau ", on the A 27 between Verden and Walsrode, the “ Preußisch Eylau ” car park .
- The first fatal traffic accident on a German autobahn occurred on June 11, 1934, on today's A 555 between Cologne and Bonn . A truck loaded with rolls of paper crashed into a bridge railing near Uedorf near Bornheim . The 29-year-old driver and the 27-year-old owner of the truck who was in the loading area were killed. A passenger in the passenger seat survived slightly injured.
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- Federal Minister of Transport (Hrsg.): Autobahns in Germany . 2nd Edition. Kirschbaum Verlag, Bonn 1985, ISBN 3-7812-1103-7 (96 pages, trilingual German, English, French; with a foreword by Dr. Werner Dollinger ).
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- Constantin Eckner: Motorway Construction in the Third Reich - Myth and Reality. , Chemnitz University of Technology (Institute for European History), 2012, ISBN 978-3-656255505 .
- Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing (Ed.): 50 Years of Roads in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1949–1999, A Review. Typo-Druck und Verlagsgesellschaft, Bonn 2000, ISBN 3-00-007506-2 .
- Hans Cohnen: German motorways in the air . Edited by the Federal Ministry of Transport. Stadler, Konstanz 1968, (large-format illustrated book).
- Axel Doßmann: Limited mobility: a cultural history of the motorways in the GDR . Klartext, Essen 2003, ISBN 3-89861-153-1 .
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- Wolfgang Schmidt, Tillmann Stottele: Flora and vegetation on the streets and highways of the Federal Republic of Germany. Representative overview of the locations and species composition of the vegetation along the road in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as their ecological value for landscape management and nature conservation . Research on road construction and road traffic technology, issue 529. Published by the Federal Minister for Transport, Road Construction Department, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1988.
- Benjamin Steininger: Space-Machine Reichsautobahn. On the dynamics of a known / unknown building . Kulturverlag Kadmos, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-86599-002-9 , (Kaleidograms 2).
- Volkhard Stern: The express motorway traffic of the Deutsche Reichsbahn . EK-Verlag, Freiburg, 2008. ISBN 978-3-88255-847-0 .
- Thomas Zeller: Street, Railway, Panorama. Transport routes and changes in the landscape in Germany from 1930 to 1990 . Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-593-36609-6 , (revised English edition: Driving Germany. The Landscape of the German Autobahn, 1930–1970. Berghahn, Oxford 2007, ISBN 978-1-84545-309-1 , Review ).
- Detailed route descriptions of the German autobahns - including rejected plans
- Information on the motorways in Germany (as of 2009)
- AGAB - Arbeitsgemeinschaft Autobahngeschichte e. V.
- Reichsautobahn: On the street of the “Führer” , article from the Stern series Defeated, liberated, occupied - Germany 1945–48. May 19, 2005
- The Autobahn , detailed description on Brian's Guide to Getting Around Germany website
- Development and spatial impact of the German motorway network (1935-2005)
- Autobahn superlatives
- Study of the accident research of the insurers (UDV) on accidents in motorway construction sites
- BMVI: Statistics on roads used in regional traffic .
- Leipziger Volkszeitung, October 2, 2018, p. 4
- On the history of the Autobahn. ( Memento from January 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Exhaust brake with automatic switch-off at Daimler-Benz . In: Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift . 6/1953, p. 156.
- Press office of the Senate of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen: Bremen is the first German state to introduce a general speed limit on motorways . April 9, 2008.
- Die Welt : Maximum 120 km / h: Bremen heats up discussion about speed limit. April 10, 2008.
- Süddeutsche Zeitung, August 20, 2014: Carrerabahn for men with money
- Fight against speeders and car races: Speed limit on the A81 now in effect - Baden-Württemberg. In: SWR Aktuell. swr.online, accessed on May 10, 2018 .
- List in: Baedeker, Deutschland, Die , 14th edition. Stuttgart 1975.
- Annex to the “Law on the Extension of Federal Highways in the Years 1971 to 1985”, Federal Law Gazette 1971, Part I, p. 873; see also numbering of the German motorway network according to the western model before 1974 (incomplete)
- As a result, the motorway numbers very often correspond to the (old four-digit) postcodes of one of the two endpoints.
- Roland Kirbach: Privatized Motorways: Germany's Most Dangerous Road. In: zeit.de . July 19, 2010, accessed December 13, 2013 .
- BVM manual road traffic census 2015, September 7, 2017
- Affected occupants of cars, buses and trucks according to traffic accidents, time series (Federal Statistical Office) (1.2 MB).
- Archive link ( Memento from December 29, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Archive link ( Memento from March 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- The information in this table relates to the old federal states up to and including 1990 .
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- Current data: Federal Statistical Office: Transport - Roads of regional traffic ( Memento of October 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
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- A 46 : Pictures from the Neuss-West motorway triangle
- A 4 : view of the walled staircase
- Generalanzeiger Bonn (ed.): Only the passenger survived at Uedorf . ( general-anzeiger-bonn.de [accessed October 30, 2016]).