Overview map of the Westerwald
|Highest peak||Fuchskaute ( )|
|location||Hesse , North Rhine-Westphalia , Rhineland-Palatinate|
|part of||Rhenish Slate Mountains|
|Type||Low mountain range|
|rock||u. a. Basalt , quartzite , slate|
The Westerwald is a German low mountain range . It is part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains on the right bank of the Rhine and extends over the federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate , Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia . Its highest point is the Fuchskaute belonging to the High Westerwald .
The Westerwald is commonly defined as any land between the rivers Dill in the east, Lahn in the south, Rhine to the west, victory in the north and Heller in the Northeast, which located to the north of this region of hills just south of victory and Heller natural area not to Westerwald belong. The historical Westerwald region, on the other hand, has somewhat different boundaries that cannot be precisely measured.
The Westerwald is located southwest of the triangle of Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate. Its east is in the Lahn-Dill district , its southeast in the Limburg-Weilburg district (both Hesse), its center in the Westerwald district , its west in the Neuwied district (both Rhineland-Palatinate), its north-west in the Rhein-Sieg district (North Rhine- Westphalia) and its north in the district of Altenkirchen (RP). In addition, there are small marginal parts of the Siegen-Wittgenstein (NW) district in the extreme northeast, the Rhein-Lahn-Kreis (RP) in the south, the Mayen-Koblenz (RP) district in the southwest and the city of Bonn (NW) in the extreme northwest.
It extends approximately south of Burbach , southwest of Haiger , northwest of Weilburg , north of Limburg an der Lahn , northeast of Koblenz , east of Linz am Rhein , southeast of Wissen and south of Betzdorf . In its center are Bad Marienberg , Hachenburg , Westerburg and Rennerod .
In a clockwise direction, the Westerwald is bounded by the valley landscapes of these flowing waters :
- Dill ( Dill Valley ) in the east
- Lahn ( Gießen-Koblenzer Lahntal ) in the south
- Rhine ( Neuwied Rhine valley widening and Lower Middle Rhine Valley ) in the west
- Sieg ( Mitteliegtal ) in the north
- Heller ( Mittleres Hellertal ) in the northeast
Geomorphologically , the Westerwald belongs to the Rhenish Slate Mountains and forms the central western part of its eastern half on the right bank of the Rhine. However, the Gladenbacher Bergland , which is up to high and the Struth up to high, also to the Westerwald natural area to the east of the Dill , while the high Haincher Höhe (from which the Struth branches off) and the high cold oak is already part of the Rothaargebirge .
The Westerwald, measured in the boundaries outlined above, is naturally divided into the following landscapes (natural areas that represent external borders, in brackets):
The Westerwald in the narrower sense
The name Hoher Westerwald appears for the first time in 1786. The boundaries of the area have since been defined as differently narrow in the literature. The Hohe Westerwald is a wooded and undulating plateau as a basaltic focal point of the low mountain range with a pronounced stimulating climate at around 450 to altitude. Here is the Fuchskaute, the highest mountain in the Westerwald. The border triangle of North Rhine-Westphalia-Hesse-Rhineland-Palatinate is also located in the High Westerwald.
The Oberwesterwald is a partly wooded volcanic hill country with larger basalt layers, especially in the area of the Westerwald lake district at altitude of about 350 to . To the south, the hill country of the Limburg basin joins as part of the Lahn valley .
The low Westerwald (often referred to as Unterwesterwald) adjacent to the valleys of the Rhine and Lahn and sets the western and southwestern part of the Westerwaldes as zertaltes hull mountains at altitudes of 200 bis is. This embedded reduction spaces ( Dierdorfer sink , Montabaurer sink ) are for known for their clay deposits ( Kannenbäckerland ). In the south-west, at the wooded Montabaurer Höhe ( ), there is a quartzite hardship as well as the Malberg nature reserve . The Siebengebirge in the north-west of Bonn (up to ) is spatially assigned to the Middle Rhine area .
District towns and districts
District towns in the Westerwald are: Altenkirchen ( Altenkirchen district ), Montabaur ( Westerwaldkreis ) and Neuwied ( Neuwied district ). In addition, the Lahn-Dill district , the Mayen-Koblenz district , the Rhein-Lahn district and the Limburg-Weilburg district have shares in the Westerwald. If the Sieg is taken as the northern geographical boundary of the Westerwald, some parts of the North Rhine-Westphalian Rhein-Sieg district on the right bank of the Rhine (e.g. the Siebengebirge and the communities of Eitorf and Windeck ) belong to it.
The highest mountain in the Westerwald is the Fuchskaute located in the "Hohen Westerwald" . Numerous mountain peaks and crests exceed the 600-meter contour line. The surveys of the Westerwald include - sorted by height in meters (m) above sea level (NHN):
- Fuchskaute (657.3 m), near Willingen, Westerwaldkreis, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Stegskopf (654.4 m), near Emmerzhausen, Altenkirchen district, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Salzburg head (654.2 m), near Salzburg, Westerwaldkreis, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Höllberg (642.8 m), near Driedorf, Lahn-Dill district, Hesse
- Bartenstein ( Barstein ; 617.6 m), near Breitscheid, Lahn-Dill district, Hesse
- On the Baar (615.0 m), near Driedorf / Breitscheid, Lahn-Dill district, Hesse
- Knot (605.4 m), near Driedorf, Lahn-Dill district, Hesse
- Marienberger Höhe (approx. 570 m) near Bad Marienberg
- Löh (566.6 m), near Oberroßbach, Hoher Westerwald, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Alarm bar (545.2 m) in Montabaurer Höhe, near Montabaur, Westerwaldkreis, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Köppel (540.2 m) in Montabaurer Höhe, near Montabaur, Westerwaldkreis, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Gräbersberg (513.1 m) near Alpenrod, Westerwaldkreis, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Dernbacher Kopf (427.0 m), near Dernbach , Neuwied district, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Malberg (422.0 m), near Moschheim
- Hummelsberg (407.4 m), near Linz on the Rhine, Neuwied district, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Eichberg (Molsberg) (407.5 m), near Molsberg, Westerwaldkreis, Rhineland-Palatinate
- Heidenhäuschen (397.9 m), near Waldbrunn, Limburg-Weilburg district, Hesse
- Bulge head (388.2 m), near Altenkirchen, Altenkirchen district, Rhineland-Palatinate
- High damage (388.0 m), near Eitorf, Rhein-Sieg district, North Rhine-Westphalia
The limiting rivers of the Westerwald are:
- Rivers whose valley landscapes limit the mountains (clockwise):
Rivers in the Westerwald
In the following, the most important inner rivers of the Westerwald and the immediately adjacent mountain ranges with a catchment area of at least 20 km², arranged clockwise, starting in the east, on the south side of the Lahn-Sieg watershed, are listed.
For a better overview or for sorting downstream, depending on the river system, hyphens are inserted in the DGKZ digits after the digits of the respective main river. The border rivers Dill and Heller, which are only fed from the Westerwald on the right (dill) or left (Heller), are printed in italics. Their values for the catchment area and the runoff only relate to about half of the Westerwald. In contrast, the sections of the border rivers Lahn, Rhine and Sieg are not listed as their headwaters are some distance from the Westerwald. The mouths are each marked with an asterisk (*).
( MQ ; l / s)
|dill||Lahn (r)||55.0||717.7||9514||Cold oak (with Haincher Höhe)||333.0||Offdilln , Haiger , Dillenburg , Herborn , Ehringshausen , Asslar , Wetzlar *||258-4|
|Haigerbach||Dill (r)||15.5||52.0||1014||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Liebenscheid , Oberdresselnorf , Niederdresselnorf , Allendorf , Haiger *||2584-2|
|Aubach||Dill (r)||15.8||31.3||620||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Waldaubach , Langenaubach , Haiger *||2584-32|
|Amdorfbach||Dill (r)||15.9||54.4||782||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Amdorf , Castle *||2584-72|
|Rehbach||Dill (r)||20.3||48.7||828||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Sense *||2584-8|
|Ulmbach||Lahn (r)||22.9||60.9||741||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Leun - Biskirchen *||258-56|
|Kallenbach||Lahn (r)||14.6||84.7||942||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Löhnberg *||258-58|
|Kerkerbach||Lahn (r)||20.7||70.2||564||Southern Upper Western Forest hill country||323.3||Lahr , Runkel *||258-72|
|Elbbach||Lahn (r)||40.7||323.7||3996||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Hadamar , Limburg *||258-76|
|Gelbach||Lahn (r)||39.7||221.2||2480||Oberwesterwälder Kuppenland||323.1||Montabaur , Weinähr||258-94|
|Emsbach||Lahn (r)||11.5||29.4||Welschneudorf plateau||324.0||Bad Ems *||258-98|
|Hillscheider Bach||Rhine (r)||12.6||43.2||Montabaurer height||324.1||Vallendar *||2-71144|
|Brexbach||Saynbach (l)||21.7||53.5||Montabaurer height||324.1||Sayn *||2712-8|
|Masselbach||Brexbach (r)||9.5||23.7||Montabaurer height||324.1||27128-2|
|Saynbach||Rhine (r)||42.7||222.3||Dreifelder Weiherland||323.2||Sayn, Bendorf *||2-712|
|Holzbach||Wied (l)||43.8||176.3||Dreifelder Weiherland||323.2||Dierdorf , Döttesfeld *||2716-2|
|Wied||Rhine (r)||102.3||770.8||8340||Dreifelder Weiherland||323.2||Altenkirchen , Neustadt , Neuwied *||2-716|
|Mehrbach||Wied (r)||22.9||65.9||Leuscheid||330.0||Mehren , Ehrenstein *||2716-4|
|Pfaffenbach||Wied (r)||20.6||62.8||Leuscheid||330.0||Buchholz , Bennau , Wiedmühle *||2716-6|
|Pleisbach||Victory (l)||24.3||89.8||Rheinwesterwälder volcanic ridges||324.7||Saint Augustine *||272-78|
|Hanfbach||Victory (l)||19.0||51.5||Asbach plateau||324.8||Hennef *||272-72|
|Nest||Victory (l)||63.8||246.0||4300||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Knowledge-Nisterbrück *||272-4|
|Small nests||Nister (r)||24.6||63.5||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||2724-8|
|Elbbach||Victory (l)||21.9||54.1||Neunkhausen-Weitefeld Plateau||322.1||Knowledge *||272-36|
|Daade||Lighter (l)||16.0||53.3||Westerwald basalt plateau||322.0||Emmerzhausen , Daaden , Alsdorf *||2722-8|
|Brighter||Victory (l)||30.2||204.2||3820||Cold oak (with Haincher Höhe)||333.0||Burbach , Herdorf , Betzdorf *||272-2|
The still waters of the Westerwald include:
Geologically , the Westerwald is part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains and, like this, represents a heavily eroded remnant of the great Variscan mountain system that shaped large parts of Europe in prehistoric times .
The Devonian basement is covered by volcanic masses from the Tertiary, in particular basalts and tuffs . In addition to the extraction of slate , lime , quartzite and clay , iron , pumice gravel in the Neuwied basin , various mineral springs and, earlier, the mining of lignite were and are economically important .
In ancient times (600 to 270 million years ago) the entire area of the Westerwald lay under a tropical warm sea inlet. This sea deposited many kilometers thick sediments in the Variscan geosyncline , which were strongly folded during the subsequent mountain formation . The cities of Siegen and Koblenz , located on the north and south-west edge of the Westerwald, gave their names to two layers of the Lower Devonian with their colorful slates. The upper mountain range is formed by extensive volcanic basalt blankets with embedded tuffs.
In some areas, slate and clay have been mined for a long time , which is further processed in pottery shops in the so-called Kannenbäckerland , but also in some other places . Also the export , especially to Italy is significant (more than one million tons per year). In the easternmost Westerwald (Hessian part) there are interesting limestone deposits from a wide variety of geological periods. The Erdbacher Kalk from the Lower Carboniferous gave a small time step the name "Erdbachium".
At Breitscheid , the remains of an atoll from the subtropical Devon Sea can be found 380 million years ago. Parts of this limestone formation are extracted in open-cast mining . At Enspel on the Stöffel basalt summit is the Stöffel tertiary and industrial adventure park , which houses a fossil deposit from the late Palaeogene and numerous old industrial buildings from the basalt processing period, which was discontinued in 2000. Institutes from several universities conduct research and excursions there. Some karst caves are research topics in caveology and cause the earth creek to disappear and reappear temporarily .
The geologically old rump mountains of the Westerwald are overlaid in its northern part by volcanic highlands made of tertiary basalt layers. It covers an area of around 50 × 70 km, which results in around 3000 km², making the Westerwald one of the largest mountains in Germany in terms of area. In the area of depressions in its flatter western part ("Vorderer" or "Unterer Westerwald") it has the character of a hill country . The traditional mining of slate , clay , diabase and basalt , pottery and the iron industry are typical of the economy of the 40% forested "Upper Westerwald" ; including mining in the Siegerland ore district . Despite its relatively low altitude, the Westerwald has a stimulating climate typical of low mountain ranges . Economically and culturally, it is one of the most famous mountains in Germany.
On the basis of the prehistoric finds it could be established that the Celts were already resident in the Westerwald and used the iron ore deposits ; that was in the Hallstatt Period (earlier Iron Age , around 750 to 500 BC ). In all probability, immigration came from the Hunsrück . The Celtic ramparts reinforced fortresses and refuges originate from the La Tène period . a. can be found on the Malberg or the Bornkasten near Nomborn .
Already during the La Tène period the Teutons invaded from the east and the Siegtal ; they came around 380 BC In the upper Westerwald, bypassed the Hohe Westerwald as impassable forest wilderness and pushed forward to the Rhine in the 2nd century.
At the time when the Celtic population had to evade the advancing Teutons to the west, the Romans were advancing from the southwest to the left of the Rhine . However, they only managed to win a strip to the right of the Rhine and the "Rhine-Westerwald"; the Westerwald remained outside the Roman occupation zone, because the Romans preferred to preserve a wilderness with few settlements and as impassable as possible before their borders.
The final settlement and thus the territorial history of the Westerwald began with the invasion of the Chatti (Hesse) after the expulsion of the Romans in the 3rd century AD. Endings of the settlement names such as -ar, -mar and -aha ("Haigraha" = Haiger ) come from the time of the Great Migration . These first Chatten settlements were located in the periphery of the Westerwald in basins and valleys that were favorable to soil and climate. The cities of Hadamar , Lahr and Wetzlar can be seen as examples . From the 4th to the 6th century, the settlements of the time of the conquest of the land emerged in more impassable areas, with endings in -ingen and -heim , like Bellingen and Bladernheim ; these lie on the wide plateaus of the Oberwesterwald .
The Franconians built their old settlement chambers on the edge of the Westerwald into core areas of their districts in order to slowly and permanently establish bases in the interior of the country. Rode-era places with names like -rode, -scheid, -hahn (= Hag ), -berg, -tal and -seifen were created : with the creation of clearing settlements and the felling of wood for ore smelting, the destruction of the forest began on a large scale. Between the 6th and 9th centuries, settlements were expanded from the old settlements towards the edges, recognizable by the endings such as -hausen, -hofen, -kirch, -burg or -tal .
The last settlement period in the Westerwald began in the 10th century and ended around 1300; Through the politics of the Carolingians and the accompanying Trier and Cologne missions, this area experienced Christianization . Trier advanced up the Lahn, Cologne on the Rhine and Sieg , Trier-Lorraine and Lower Rhine influences were also carried into the Westerwald. The oldest parts of the Dietkirchen collegiate church are evidence of architecture from this era .
After many changes of ownership by the noble families of the Ottonen and Salier , it was finally the Counts of Sayn , Diez and Wied who were able to appropriate extensive property. The Counts of Laurenburg, who later called themselves Counts of Nassau , achieved special importance . In the east, the Landgraves of Hesse set the tone and were able to prevail in power struggles against the Archdiocese of Mainz . In addition to the houses of Nassau, Sayn and Wied, the electorate of Trier , Kurköln , the counties of Solms in the southeast and the Duchy of Berg in the northwest were important sovereigns. After all, the counties Westerburg and Holzappel existed as small territories
The political situation simplified up to the 16th century. Between the spheres of influence of the four greats (Mainz, Cologne, Trier, Hesse) the House of Nassau was able to expand and consolidate its territory on the Dill , between Siegen and Nassau . After the Napoleonic turmoil, Nassau shared large areas of the Westerwald with the newly appeared great power Prussia . A sovereign Duchy of Nassau existed until the annexation by Prussia in 1866.
The name "Westerwald" was mentioned for the first time in 1048 in an Electoral Trier document and at that time only referred to the forest areas west of the Herborn royal court . It was only in general use for the entire low mountain range from the middle of the 19th century.
The "Hohe Westerwald" formed the core area of the rule of (also: from or on the ) Westerwald since the Middle Ages . This comprised the three “courts” (districts) Marienberg , Emmerichenhain and Neukirch . The rule on the Westerwald later came under the administration of the rule or county of Beilstein .
For a long time, the Westerwald was regarded as an area with weak economic power, poor infrastructure and unattractive business locations. Increasing mobility, increasing development of commercial space, funding programs, more effective regional marketing and, last but not least, the creation of convenient connections to the Rhine / Main and Cologne / Bonn metropolitan areas have all contributed to the region's increasing prosperity in recent years . This was accompanied by an increase in social, cultural and tourist offers that make the Westerwald increasingly attractive for people and citizens. The population development in recent years shows that, for example, the Westerwaldkreis is an immigration area within Rhineland-Palatinate with above-average growth potential.
The Westerwald economic area now presents itself as a location for numerous large and small medium-sized commercial and industrial companies, some with worldwide activities and branches. The area of highly specialized mechanical and plant engineering should be emphasized here . A whole range of products from the region is well known and enjoys an international reputation. With their long tradition, a wide variety of craft sectors are increasingly able to take account of market economy requirements and to successfully position their products and services in a competition that extends beyond regional borders.
The Westerwald and its peripheral areas are traversed by sections of the federal highways 8 , 42 , 49 , 54 , 62 , 255 , 256 , 277 , 413 and 414 , via which there is a connection to the federal highways 3 , 45 and 48 .
Important bus lines are line 460 (Montabaur – Neuhäusel – Koblenz) and line 116 (Montabaur – Westerburg – Bad Marienberg / Rennerod), bus line 115 (Montabaur station / FOM – Hachenburg) and line 450 (Montabaur – Nentershausen – Diez– Limburg).
Several railway lines run through the Westerwald, including the high-speed line Cologne – Rhine / Main with stations in Montabaur and Limburg . In addition, the Westerwald is accessible by plane for business travelers and freight traffic via the Siegerland Airport , located in the "Hohen Westerwald" . The major international airports of Frankfurt / Rhein-Main and Cologne / Bonn can be reached in around 30 to 60 minutes on average, depending on the means of transport.
By the Westerwald extend local rail lines RB29, sub Westerwaldbahn ( Limburg - Diez East -Montabaur- Siershahn ) and RB90, Westerwald-Sieg-Bahn (Limburg-Diez East Hadamar - Westerburg - Hachenburg - Altenkirchen - Au - knowledge - Siegen ) .
The tariff of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Mosel (VRM) has been in effect for buses and local trains in the Westerwaldkreis since January 1, 2017 .
Tourism and culture
The Westerwald is increasingly developing into a region with attractive local recreation areas for the Rhine / Main and Cologne / Bonn conurbations. A focus here are the numerous hiking opportunities, in particular the Westerwaldsteig , which opened in 2008, and a network of short and round tours in half-day or day format, the so-called Wäller tours. Of Rheinbrohl to Bad Ems leads Limes hiking trail as a subsection of the German Limes hiking trail through the Westerwald. There are also sophisticated cultural offers (historical museums, exhibitions, art in nature , theater, concerts and events of all kinds) as well as extensive opportunities for sporting activities ( gliding , parachuting , paragliding , hang gliding , mountain biking , river hiking , canoeing , horse riding , Golf etc.). There are also numerous winter sports options with the appropriate infrastructure ( cross-country trails , ski lifts ). The range of wellness and health programs is also growing. Numerous health resorts and climatic health resorts offer good framework conditions for this.
The Westerwald has a long tradition of mining . Nowadays all the former shafts, conveyors and pits are closed, but a number of them have been converted into industrial monuments that can be visited. They include:
- Bindweide pit
- George pit
- Neugrünebacher Hut
- Tertiary and industrial adventure park Stöffel .
The need for restaurants and accommodation is taken into account accordingly. The offer ranges from simple campsites to country inns, holiday apartments and luxurious star hotels with 18-hole golf courses. The culinary offers are in no way inferior to this quality.
The Westerwald cuisine is simple and is essentially based on what the region itself has to offer in terms of ingredients. First and foremost, the potato belongs to this , among other things as the basis for a typical Westerwald dish, the Döppekooche . Beans , savoy cabbage , green , flower , rose and red cabbage as well as sauerkraut and turnip stalk are the typical types of vegetables and tubers. The mostly simple dishes that are made from it, however, have a large number of variants in terms of their preparation method, which can be very different from place to place. According to this, a potato cake from Hardt , for example, is made differently than one from Daaden . The low economic power in earlier times helped to prepare a large number of different dishes with ingenuity and inventiveness from the recurring basic ingredients. In the Westerwald stoneware pots, sweet or sour pickles, casseroles , stews and soups were occasionally supplemented with meatloaf , rabbit pepper or meatballs (Hachenburger Ischel) - on festive days with roast goose , pork or venison . The winter slaughter festivals still produce a wide variety of sausages such as blood , fried and liver sausage or regional pannas . However, the simplicity of the food quickly gave them the reputation of "poor people's food", which is also reminiscent of dishes with the designation "poor knight". Even the herring - pickled, roasted, by the glass or as salad very popular - was considered poor man's food. Nevertheless, a wide range of different cakes and waffles are still part of the typical Westerwald specialties, for example Rimmelskuchen or Pitzjeskuchen . Other typical desserts are applesauce (often in connection with dip cake or potato fritters) and egg cheese, a mixture of beaten eggs, milk and sugar made in special earthenware molds. Also, you will discover more and more the same old tradition, the bread even in a Backes ( bakery to bake), which at the time was a social event, but the village bakery is considered as a kind of forerunner of the community centers.
The largest dip cake in the world, which eleven amateur cooks were involved in making, was baked in 1983 in a bread factory in Ebernhahn in the Westerwald. It yielded about 4000 servings with a surface area of almost 5 m². The following ingredients have been handed down:
- 350 kilograms of peeled and grated potatoes, 100 liters of milk, 250 soaked rolls, 50 kilograms of jerky meat, 30 liters of cooking oil, 6 kilograms of salt, 1 kilogram of pepper, 250 grams of nutmeg and 300 eggs.
A number of well-known people from culture, politics, business and sport are associated with the Westerwald. Here are some examples:
Culture: Paul Deussen • Ferdinand Ebert • Heiner Feldhoff • Hellmuth Gensicke • Count Alexander von Hachenburg • Ludwig Hofmann • Karl Löber • Hanns-Josef Ortheil • Karl Ramseger-Mühle • Wilhelm Reuter • Hermann Josef Roth • August Sander • Salamat Schiftah • Klaus- Peter Wolf • Erwin Wortelkamp
Politics: Sabine Bätzing • Hans-Artur Bauckhage • Alfred Beth • Emil Bettgenhauser • Theodor Blank • Wilhelm Boden • Ludwig Eich • Hendrik Hering • Georg Leber • Michael Lieber • Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen • Heinrich Roth • Rudolf Scharping • Heinrich Friedrich Karl from and to Stein • Adolf von Nassau • Franz-Josef Wuermeling
Religion: Johann Wilhelm Bausch • Thomas Denter • Rosa Flesch • Joseph Höffner • Ignatius Lötschert • Katharina Kasper • Diether von Nassau • Bruno von Sayn • Johann Philipp von Walderdorff • Siegfried von Westerburg
The Westerwald is best known for the Westerwaldlied (also under the names O (h), du Schöne Westerwald and Westerwaldmarsch ), composed in 1935 by Joseph Neuhäuser based on an older Westerwald folk song. Other especially folk songs are Westerwald, you are so beautiful , Tief im Westerwald , the "new Westerwaldlied" by songwriter Ulrik Remy : Ich bin aus' m Westerwald and Das schönste Mädchen vom Westerwald by Karl-Eberhard Hain and Jürgen Hardeck (Ignotum) , made famous by De Höhner , Die Schröders and other groups.
The western forests
The western forests are popularly referred to as "Wäller" and often also as "Basaltköpp" because they are considered stubborn and live in a very basalt-rich region.
In most of the Westerwald region, dialects of the Wäller Platt , a Moselle-Franconian dialect group, are spoken. As part of the continental West Germanic dialect continuum , these gradually merge at their edges into the neighboring dialects.
- Hermann Josef Roth: Natural history bibliography of the slate mountains on the right bank of the Rhine between Lahn and Sieg (Planaria: Vol. 3). Biological station "Bergisches Land", Overath 1989, .
- Heiner Feldhoff : literary travel guide Rhineland-Palatinate . Ed .: Josef Zierden. Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-86099-483-2 .
- Ulrich Fliess: Folklore Department. Exhibition catalog of the Historisches Museum am Hohen Ufer Hannover II. Hannover 1972. P. 99–102: “Westerwälder Steinzeug” and “Wall showcase 142” with panel 15.
- Oliver Greifendorf: Westerwald theater of war - invasion of the Americans in spring 1945. Helios-Verlag, Aachen 2003, ISBN 3-938208-05-8 .
- Hellmuth Gensicke : State history of the Westerwald. 3. Unchanged reprint of the 1958 edition. Publications of the Historical Commission for Nassau, No. 13. Published by the Historical Commission for Nassau together with the Rhineland-Palatinate State Archives Administration. Historical Commission for Nassau, Wiesbaden 1999, XVIII / 659 S., ISBN 3-922244-80-7 .
- Christian Heger: Wäller Platt. History, grammar and vocabulary of the Westerwald dialect . Husum Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft, Husum 2016, ISBN 978-3-89876-813-9 .
- Hermann-Josef Hucke (Hrsg.): Great Westerwald leader . 3. Edition. Westerwald-Verein e. V., Montabaur 1991, ISBN 3-921548-04-7 .
- Christoph Kloft: ... and in the middle of it the Westerwald. Stories and fortunes in the center of Europe. Viewpoints between Mainz and Cologne, Rheingau and Siebengebirge. From the publications of Hermann Josef Roth. With prefaces by the Prime Ministers of Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia Kurt Beck and Jürgen Rüttgers. (Workshop contributions to the Westerwald, Volume 19), Paulinus Verlag, Trier 2008, ISBN 978-3-7902-1627-1 .
- Peter Lindlein: On the Westerwald. A special cultural landscape is disappearing. Frankfurt 2020, 368 pages, illustrated book with approx. 500 recordings, ISBN 978-3-9817020-5-7
- Markus Müller: Municipalities and State in the Imperial County of Sayn-Hachenburg 1652–1799. (Contributions to the history of Nassau and the state of Hesse, Volume 3). Historical Commission publishing house for Nassau. Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-930221-14-4 .
- Hanns-Josef Ortheil : In the Westerwald . Dieterich'sche publishing bookstore. Mainz 2019, ISBN 978-3-87162-102-4 .
- Hermann Josef Roth: The Westerwald - faceless, without history? On the identity of a low mountain range. In: Landeskundliche Vierteljahresblätter (Koblenz) 53, 2007, pp. 47–54.
- Hermann Josef Roth: The Westerwald. From the Siebengebirge to the Hessian hinterland. Culture and landscape between the Rhine, Lahn and Sieg. 4th edition. Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-7701-1198-2 .
- Hermann Josef Roth: Siegerland, Westerwald, Lahn and Taunus. Geology, mineralogy and paleontology. 2nd Edition. Bindlach 1993, ISBN 3-8112-1055-6 .
- Hermann J. Roth, Herbert A. Ebert, Bruno P. Kremer: Westerwald cultural landscape. Perspectives of an ecological regional development. Pollichia book 35.Bad Dürkheim 1997, ISBN 3-925754-34-2 .
- Westerwaldverein Altenkirchen (Hrsg.): The Westerwaldbuch Volume 1 - contributions to regional studies, history, culture and economy in the area between the Rhine and Dill, Sieg and Lahn. Knowledge 1972.
- Map services
Landscape profiles of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( notes ) - by main units:
- 291 ( Middle Rhine Basin )
- 292 ( Lower Middle Rhine Region )
- 310 ( Lahn valley )
- 321 ( Dill Valley )
- 322 ( High Westerwald )
- 323 ( Oberwesterwald )
- 324 ( Niederwesterwald )
- 330 ( Middle Siege Mountains )
- Map / aerial view of the Westerwald with mountains and rivers / Placemarks download ( Google Earth required)
- Labeled panorama over the Hohen Westerwald on www.panorama-photo.net
References and comments
- Map service of the landscape information system of the Rhineland-Palatinate Nature Conservation Administration (LANIS map) ( notes )
- Emil Meynen , Josef Schmithüsen (editor): Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany . Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen / Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 deliveries in 8 books, updated map 1: 1,000,000 with main units 1960).
- Ewald Glässer: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 122/123 Cologne / Aachen. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1978. → Online map (PDF; 8.7 MB)
- Heinz Fischer: Geographical Land Survey: The natural spatial units on sheet 124 Siegen. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1972. → Online map (PDF; 4.1 MB)
- Gerhard Sandner: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 125 Marburg. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1960. → Online map (PDF; 4.9 MB)
- Heinrich Müller-Miny, Martin Bürgener: Geographical land survey: The natural spatial units on sheet 138 Koblenz. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1971. → Online map (PDF; 5.7 MB)
- Map and legend of the natural areas of Hesse (online copy of Die Naturraum Hessens , Otto Klausing 1988) in the Hessen Environmental Atlas of the Hessian State Office for Environment and Geology
- Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
- Landscape the large landscape 29 of the landscape information system of the nature conservation administration Rhineland-Palatinate ( notes )
- Landscape the large landscape 31 of the landscape information system of the nature conservation administration Rhineland-Palatinate ( notes )
- Landscape the large landscape 33 of the landscape information system of the Rhineland-Palatinate nature conservation administration ( notes )
- Landscape the large landscape 32 of the landscape information system of the Rhineland-Palatinate nature conservation administration ( notes )
- Karl-Josef Sabel, Eberhard Fischer: Soil and vegetation-geographic investigations in the Westerwald (1987); Hans-Joachim Häbel: The cultural landscape on the basalt plateau of the Westerwald from the 16th to the 19th century (1980)
- Westerwald. Ministry of Economy, Climate Protection, Energy and State Planning Rhineland-Palatinate , accessed on April 21, 2015 .
- The criteria were based on the fact that the catchment area is at least 50 km² or that the river valley is of particular natural importance.
- Water map service of the Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection ( information )
- Topographical Information Management, Cologne District Government, Department GEObasis NRW ( Notes )
- Rhineland-Palatinate Water Management data via GeoExplorer
- Natural area codes shortened to one decimal place for reasons of sorting
- The remarks on the medieval history of the Westerwald are taken from the book "Der Westerwald" by Hermann-Josef Roth (DuMont).
- The remarks on the early history of the Westerwald are in the book of the Westerwaldverein "Das Westerwaldbuch", p. 33ff. taken.
- Strength analysis of the Westerwaldkreis economic development agency. (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved April 24, 2017 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) (PDF; 3.1 MB)
- Hiking and hiking trails in the Westerwald: experience quality and more. Website of Westerwald Touristik-Service. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Marliese Birk, Friedel Schweitzer: Westerwald recipes. Publisher: Westerwald-Brauerei H. Schneider, 1985.