from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Location of the Hunsrück in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland

Location of the Hunsrück in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland

Location of the Hunsrück in Germany

Location of the Hunsrück in Germany

Highest peak Erbeskopf ( 816.32  m above sea  level )
location Rhineland-Palatinate , Saarland
part of Rhenish Slate Mountains
Coordinates 50 ° 0 ′  N , 7 ° 30 ′  E Coordinates: 50 ° 0 ′  N , 7 ° 30 ′  E
Type Low mountain range
rock Quartzite , slate, etc. a.
surface 2,607,2001 km²

The Hunsrück is in Rheinland-Pfalz and small parts in the Saarland lying Mountain with the legacy header ( 816  m above sea level.  NHN ) as the highest elevation. As the southwestern part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains , it is one of the older mountains in Germany, the rocks of which come predominantly from the Devonian and were folded during the Variscan orogeny.


Geographical location

View in southeast direction over the Külzbach valley to Simmern . In the background the Soonwald

The core of the Hunsrück is formed by the Hunsrück plateau (400 to 500  m high) and the Simmerner Mulde . In the northwest the Hunsrück is bordered by the Moselle and in the east by the Rhine . The northeasternmost tip is therefore formed by the Deutsches Eck .

From the confluence of the Nahe into the Rhine, the southern border of the Hunsrück runs according to the usual division, from east to southwest, across the southern border of Binger Wald , Soonwald , Lützelsoon (Soonwald in the broader sense ) to the southern edge of the Black Forest high forest a few kilometers away . The Nahe flanks the low mountain range here from a distance of a few kilometers - in this respect, the Upper Nahubgland is in front of the Hunsrück. To the west of the high forest, the Hunsrück only emerges locally and just over the Saar near Mettlach . Apart from the area immediately northwest of Mettlach, the Saar forms the western limit of the low mountain range over a long stretch.

The Hunsrück has a south-west-north-east extension of around 100 km, from north-west to south-east it reaches up to 20 km in the south-west to the Saar and Ruwer, and up to 35 km in the north-east to the Rhine. At its core, it consists of around 400  m to 500  m above sea level. NHN high hull area , which is divided by valleys towards the Moselle and Rhine, on which, however, higher quartz ridges or ridges are placed from southwest to northeast. The highest and largest massif in terms of area are the partial landscapes of the Hochwald and Idarwald in the central south. Between the up to 762.7  m high ridges of the Black Forest High Forest and the Idar Forest, slightly offset to the northeast of it (up to 766.2  m ), the 816.32  m high Erbeskopf clearly forms the focus of the low mountain range.

To the northwest of the ridges directly adjoining the Erbeskopf, the Osburger Hochwald (up to 708.1  m ) and the Haardtwald (up to 658  m ) clearly tower over their surrounding area like islands and are also characterized by quartzite ridges. To the north-east of the main ridges follow the ridges of the Soonwald (up to 656.8  m ), which hardly decrease in height towards the Rhine, at the Binger Wald ( Kandrich : 638.6  m ). On the right bank of the Rhine , the ridge line of the Hunsrück continues in the Taunushauptkamm , which is only in the Feldberg-Taunuskamm area around the Großer Feldberg (up to 879  m ) in the eastern High Taunus , the height of the Soonwald - and even that of the Erbeskopf, i.e. that of the Hunsrück as a whole - noticeably exceeds.

The northeastern part of the Hunsrück, which stretches from Idarwald and Soonwald to the Rhine and Moselle, has a clear plateau character (Hunsrück plateau) and usually reaches its highest heights in the east, on the watershed to the Upper Rhine. Here, north-east of Laudert 558  m , further to the north and north-west above Rheinbays still 536.3  m are reached. In the center of the plateau, heights of 500  m are only occasionally reached, but in exceptional cases also 527  m northeast of Kappel . The valley edges on the Nahe, the Moselle and the Rhine are steep, on the Saar they are less pronounced.

Geomorphologically there are very great similarities to the Eifel , Taunus and Westerwald , which are also included in the Rhenish Slate Mountains .

The Hunsrückhöhenstraße runs in a west-east direction from Saarburg to Koblenz . A Roman military road , the so-called Ausoniusstraße , once crossed the low mountain range from west to east and connected Trier with Bingen .

In many elementary schools in the Hunsrück, children are taught the boundaries of the Hunsrück with the following motto: "The Moselle, Nahe, Saar and Rhine include our Hunsrück."

Natural structure

Hunsrück natural area map

In the work on the handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany since the 1950s, the Hunsrück was given the code number 24 as a main unit group and divided into a total of seven main units, which were further broken down into finer units in the later published single sheets 1: 200,000 :

The Soonwald main unit means the Soonwald in the broader sense , which extends from the Lützelsoon via the Soonwald in the narrower sense to the Binger Wald, along with the peripheral valleys of Hahnenbach , Simmerbach and Guldenbach . To the south, this landscape is covered by the Soonwald preliminary stage, which, however, was assigned to the Saar-Nahe-Bergland as an independent main unit . The main choice here was the geological boundary between Rotliegend and Carbon and the older Devonian rocks as the physical boundary of the Hunsrück.

To the north to northwest, the Soonwald unit is joined by the Simmerner Mulde in the catchment area of ​​the Simmerbach around Simmern . In addition to the actual Simmerner Mulde, this unit also includes the so-called Idar-Soon-Gate between the eastern and central elevations of the Hunsrück, where Kyrbach and Idarbach merge to form the Hahnenbach. A large part of the Fischbach also runs through this gate, which, between the partial ridges of the Black Forest high forest, merges into the Kempfelder Mulde near Kempfeld , which is traversed by the upper reaches of the other Idarbach .

The main unit Hoch- and Idarwald is grouped on the quartzite ridges around the Erbeskopf , the actual rump of the high Hunsrück. It connects the two slightly staggered ridges of the Idarwald and the Black Forest Hochwald . In terms of its natural structure, it was assigned to the Idarwald, but it is commonly seen as part of the Black Forest high forest; Ultimately, it towers over both of them by more than 50 meters and merges comparatively fluently into their ridges. The north-eastern part of the Black Forest high forest, which starts directly at the Erbeskopf, is called the Malborn high forest, after Malborn immediately north of the ridges . The ridges of Herrsteiner Forst and Dollbergen , which together form a unit, but are separated from each other by the Traunbach , run parallel to the south-east . Between the two ridges lies the Kempfelder Hochmulde (see above) in the northeast and the Züscher Hochmulde near Züsch , which is also part of the unit, in the southwest .

As you cross the Prims , Löster and Wadrill , the quartzite ridges of the Malborner Hochwald gradually disappear, only to allow a compact ridge to appear again beyond the Wadrill. This part with Greimerath in its west is called Greimerather Hochwald .

In order to include the Osburger Hochwald , a little further north , into the unit and to keep it simply coherent , a forest corridor was included immediately east of the main Ruwer valley , which is penetrated by the upper reaches of the river. However, quartzite ridges are completely absent in this corridor and its highest point, the 532 m high Heidkopf , has a ridge direction that is perpendicular to that of the high forests. Ultimately, this corridor is even less high than the one between Kell am See and Reinsfeld , which is also completely forested. All in all, the Osburger Hochwald, like the Haardtwald northeast of it, is an isolated high altitude zone.

The Hunsrück plateau is understood to mean the hull of the low mountain range between Emmelshausen in the northeast and Malborn in the west, plus the high troughs on the upper Löster near Hermeskeil (and the upper Wadrill near Reinsfeld) and the upper Ruwer near Kell. The northeast of the plateau drains to the Moselle and, via Simmerbach and Kyrbach, to the Nahe ; In contrast, the central part consists of almost the entire catchment area of ​​the Dhron (together with the Kleiner Dhron ).

The Rheinhunsrück in the northeast of the Hunsrück flows smoothly into the Upper Middle Rhine Valley and both landscapes contain practically the entire left-hand catchment area of ​​this section of the Rhine.

The situation is similar at the Mosel Hunsrück and become fluent subsequent Moselle valley in the northwest, but the longer run Mosel flows into its headwaters on the Hunsrück plateau. Genetically, the Moselle mountains separated from the Moselle also belong to the Hunsrück, which in this sense only ends at the Wittlich Senke . The Haardtwald (see above), which geomorphologically differs significantly from the rest of the main unit, was also subdivided into the Moselhunsrück main unit.

The Saar-Ruwer-Hunsrück closes the area to the west. While the low mountain range in almost all parts to the east ends abruptly with ridge mountains to the south, in the extreme southwest the Hunsrück ends in the rather submontane Saar loop near the Saarland Mettlach , where the quartzites have formed the valley. The area around this valley is also the only part of the nominal Hunsrück that crosses the Saar on the left. The majority of the main unit lies between the two rivers that give it its name and extends from Mettlach in the south to Tarforst on the eastern edge of Triers in the north.

For a complete listing of the units, see for example the list of natural units in Rhineland-Palatinate .


View from the Erbeskopf

400 million years ago what is now Central Europe was covered by a tropical sea. In the course of time, huge layers of washed-in sand and sludge were deposited on its bottom, which were eroded from the surrounding land masses into the Devon Sea . Their own weight solidified them into rocks: the sands became sandstones (sedimentary rocks) through diagenesis , which were further transformed (metamorphosed) into quartzite ( metamorphic rock) by pressure and load . The washed-in mud or clay changed diagenetically to claystone ( sedimentary rock ) and consequently to shale (metamorphic rock) through pressure and deformation (through tectonic processes ) . The sands were mainly deposited in the edge areas of the Devon Sea, because their coarser grain size caused them to come to a standstill earlier in the water than finer clays, which remained in suspension and then deposited more in the deeper, calmer areas of the sea. The formation of quartzite and schist is strongly related to the Variscan orogeny , which began in the Devonian, but whose high phase was only in the Carboniferous . After continental uplifts had pushed back the sea and the so-called Hunsrück Island of the Devonian Age arched up into a mountain range, weathering began: Precipitation, frost and heat prepared the hard quartzites from the softer clay slates of the surrounding plateaus. This is how the current relief with the quartzite ridges of the Black Forest and Osburger Hochwald, Idarwald, Soonwald and Binger Forest was created. The 816.32  m high Erbeskopf dominates as the highest point of this "geological backbone" of the Hunsrück landscape. It also forms the watershed between the Nahe and the Moselle.

Slate in particular was mined in large quantities in the Hunsrück until the 1950s. In the meantime, however, the Hunsrück slate is no longer competitive due to lower-priced imports, so that mining has largely been discontinued. The slate quarry in Bundenbach has been converted into a show mine. There, the traditional techniques of slate breaking and processing are demonstrated as part of guided tours; This is also in the film stories from the Hunsrück villages of Edgar Reitz shown.

The good preservation of fossils in certain slate deposits (e.g. in the Bundenbach slates) was already known to the geologists of the 19th century. In addition to sea ​​lilies , trilobites and starfish , woodlice spiders such as Palaeoisopus problematicus , Palaeothea devonica and Palaeopantopus maucheri have been found. Dozens of types of ammonites have been found, as well as many types of crabs . One example is the approximately 15 cm tall crab of the Nahecaris stuertzi species , which can be seen today (2012) in the Natural History Museum in Mainz .

At the beginning of 2009, the Hunsrück schist became more important for palaeontology due to the discovery of a fossil : the anomalocarid called Schinderhannes bartelsi , which was "delayed" by about 100 million years, could have been an "uncle" of the arthropods . Furthermore, Marrella -like organisms were found.

The ore mining in the Hunsrück was not very productive; the last ore mines were closed in the second half of the 20th century. Copper was mined in Fischbach . In the Idar-Oberstein area, gemstones such as agates , amethyst , jasper and rock crystal were mined.

A basaltic volcanic vent, the only one in the Hunsrück north of the Soonwald, was discovered in 2005 by Wolfgang Welker (ARRATA e.V.) in Mermuth .


The valley of the Olewiger Bach with noticeable agricultural use

The low mountain range of the Hunsrück can be roughly divided into different landscape types. First, the wooded mountain ranges such as the Soonwald, Idarwald and Hochwald. Second, the agricultural areas below the ridges, where arable farming characterizes the landscape. The stream valleys, some of which are deeply cut, are used extensively as meadows and pastures. The slopes of the streams, like the often steep slopes of the river valleys of the Rhine, Moselle, Nahe and Saar, are planted with coppice forest that is hardly used for forestry. The largest rivers in the Hunsrück include the Simmerbach , which merges into the Kellenbach , the Hahnenbach , the Guldenbach , the Baybach , the Flaumbach , the Dhron and the Ruwer .

Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park

The Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park is a national park in western Germany in the low mountain range of the Hunsrück, in the states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland. It was founded in 2014 after a state treaty between Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland .


Heritage head from the west
The striking Idarkopf characterizes the Hunsrück
Rösterkopf near Reinsfeld

The following is a list of the highest mountains ever by mountain range / natural area. In doing so, natural areas were left out that roof neighboring ones. The Erbeskopf, which was naturally assigned to the Idarwald, but is also commonly assigned to the Black Forest high forest, is listed here separately as the world's highest mountain. The Black Forest high forest is split up into its three natural areas, of which Dollberge and Herrsteiner Forest were divided again into the Dollberge, which has been established by name for a long time, and the Herrsteiner Forest that continues east across the Traunbach - whose name, similar to the Malborner and Greimerather Hochwald , is just through the natural spatial structure was introduced. Also listed are the Orscholz-Tabener Riegel, which is orographically separated by the Saar valley, as well as the Moselle mountains, which are part of the Moselle valley group and which separate the eponymous valley from the low mountain range.

Main article: List of mountains and elevations of the Hunsrück

Surname Height (meters) Location ( natural area ) County / District particularities
Erbeskopf 816.32 Base of the Idar and Malborn high forests Bernkastel-Wittlich Highest mountain in the Hunsrück, observation tower
On the two stones 766.2 Idarwald Bernkastel-Wittlich , Birkenfeld
Ruppelstein 762.7 Malborn high forest Birch field Ruppelstein radio tower
Butterhecker stone heads 722.6 Herrstein Forest Birch field
Roaster head 708.1 Osburger Hochwald Trier-Saarburg Telecommunication tower Rösterkopf
Friedrichskopf 707.4 Dollberge Birch field
Devil head 695.0 Greimerather Hochwald Trier-Saarburg Devil's head transmitter
Haardtkopf 658.0 Haardtwald Bernkastel-Wittlich Haardtkopf transmitter
Ellerspring 657.5 Soonwald Bad Kreuznach Telecommunication tower Ellerspring
Kandrich 638.6 Binger forest Bad Kreuznach Transmission mast
Womrather height 599.1 Lützelsoon Bad Kreuznach , Rhine-Hunsrück
Nameless hill approx. 558, 0 Northeastern Hunsrück plateau Rhine-Hunsrück Wind turbines on the southwest side
Nameless hill 536.4 Saar-Ruwer-Hunsrück Trier-Saarburg Transmission mast
Langensteinchen approx. 453, 0 Orscholz-Tabener bar Merzig-Wadern
Schimmelsberg (on the Hüttenberg) 434.1 Moselle Mountains Bernkastel-Wittlich

Flora and fauna

Despite a sometimes intensive agricultural and forestry use, the Hunsrück is a landscape with high biodiversity , since many parts of the landscape can only be cultivated extensively or not at all due to their nature.


The flora of the Hunsrück is characterized by diversity and uniqueness, in the Soonwald there are over 850 species of ferns and flowering plants. The traditional forest monocultures are giving way to more and more species-rich mixed forests , mainly due to windthrow damage .


Although the Hunsrück is not classified as a bird sanctuary, there are a variety of bird species: woodpeckers , birds of prey and songbirds can be observed at any time. The rare and shy black stork also nests in the forests. The Hunsrück is rich in mammals, deer , red and wild boar hunted intensively are. Only a few specimens of the European wildcat or the lynx occur as larger predatory game, while red fox , badger and marten are common.

The most famous mammal in the Hunsrück is the pug bat . It gained notoriety when the occurrence of this rare bat species west of Hahn Airport significantly delayed the expansion of the runway.

Amphibians such as the fire salamander and insects have an ideal habitat in the numerous wetlands , while numerous reptiles such as the slow worm and the smooth snake have found their habitat in the areas with dry grass and scree slopes .


Erbeskopf massif

Due to the location of the Hunsrück in the west wind zone, the low mountain range is characterized by a relatively mild sub-oceanic climate. Mild winters and cool summer months prevail.

The mountain ridges made of Taunus quartzite (Osburger Hochwald, Schwarzwälder Hochwald, Idarwald, Lützelsoon, Soonwald and Binger Wald), running southwest to northeast, not only represent the backbone of the Hunsrück, but also form a weather divide between north and south. But not only these quartzite ridges , but also the Baumholder highlands with heights of around 500-600 m as the southern part of the Upper Near Highland from Kirn upstream of the Nahe , keep the precipitation coming mostly from west and northwest from the lee wine-growing area of ​​the Lower Naheland . Here the precipitation is even below 550 mm, while it increases to approx. 1100 mm up to the Erbeskopf (Black Forest high forest). In contrast, a maximum of 850 mm is reached in the Soonwald further to the east and 750 mm in the northern Simmern Mulde. The amount of precipitation in the Hunsrück decreases significantly from west to east due to the leeward effect of the high elevations.

Precipitation amounts similar to those on the Erbeskopf can be found in the Hunsrück in the Osburger Hochwald in the area of ​​the Rösterkopf and on the ridge of the Idarwald around the Idarkopf. The highest annual precipitation amounts in the Hunsrück are not reached on the Erbeskopf, but on the southwest slopes of the Black Forest high forest. In Nohfelden-Türkismühle in the Saarland in the south-west of the Hunsrück, the average annual rainfall is 1205 mm and around the 695  m high Teufelskopf on the border between Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland in the southwestern part of the Black Forest high forest, the average annual rainfall is around 1250-1300 mm reached. The high amounts of precipitation in the southwest of the Hunsrück have meant that species-rich moorland and swamp areas (so-called fractures) could develop there, which are now mostly under nature protection, but were often drained in the past.

Together with the relatively low annual mean temperatures, the high amounts of precipitation, the maximum of which is often reached in the winter months, mean that the winters in the high elevations of the Hunsrück are rather mild compared to the low mountain ranges further to the east, but still despite the ongoing climate change can be described as snowy.

The annual mean temperatures in the Hunsrück fluctuate between 7 and 10 ° C, depending on the altitude. On the crests of the Osburger Hochwald, Schwarzwälder Hochwald and Idarwald (around Rösterkopf, Erbeskopf and Idarkopf), however, the lowest annual average temperatures of the Hunsrück between 5 and 6 ° C are recorded.


Early days

A settlement of the Hunsrück has been proven by finds since the Neolithic Age (e.g. stone axes ). Older finds that prove a settlement or inspection of the Hunsrück plateau during the Paleolithic are rare. Exceptions are mainly Middle Paleolithic (approx. 200,000–40,000 BC) readings from Weiler near Bingen . In contrast , the Gravettian (around 30,000–20,000 BC) sites in Heddesheim (municipality of Guldental ) and Brey (municipality of Rhens ) show the first settlements in the Hunsrück area. Mention should also be made of the somewhat more recent Paleolithic Nussbaum site near Bad Sobernheim and the late Paleolithic deer hunters' camp site in Boppard, which was only established in 2001 by the ARRATA e. V. was discovered. In 2014, for the first time in Germany, Upper Palaeolithic rock carvings, as they are mainly known from southern France and Spain, were found in the Hunsrück. It is about 25,000 years old depictions of animals, especially horses, which are on a 1.2 m² slate surface.

The oldest evidence from the Neolithic age dates back to the Middle Neolithic , at the latest , in the so-called Rössen culture (sites: including Biebernheim , Reckershausen ). Most of the finds, especially stone axes, however, date to the early Neolithic and belong to the Michelsberg culture . Especially in the Vorderhunsrück ( Morshausen , Beulich and Macken ) numerous oval rock axes could be discovered by 2007 . Finds of arrowheads made of flint also show early Neolithic (including Bell ) and end Neolithic ( Hirzenach ) settlement. Further finds from the Bronze Age prove a continuous settlement (mainly documented by graves and grave goods). A larger Aufsiedlungsprozess took place in the early Iron Age ( Hallstatt period ) with the Laufelder culture and in the La Tene period (5th-first century. V. Chr.) With the Hunsrück-Eifel culture instead that the Celts connected can be. This show e.g. B. the wagon grave of Bell , the Waldalgesheimer princely grave , the ring wall of Otzenhausen , the Pfalzfelder column , the hill settlement Altburg in the Hahnenbach valley as well as numerous burial mound fields. At that time the Hunsrück belonged to the tribal area of ​​the Treverians .

Roman times

Between about 50 BC BC and AD 400 the Romans opened up the Hunsrück through a widely ramified road system. The best known rest is the Ausoniusstraße . Numerous finds of Roman farms ( Villa Rustica ), settlements such as the Vicus Belginum , and military buildings indicate that the area was almost completely developed by the Romans. Towards the end of Roman times, Sarmatians were settled in the Hunsrück because the Germanic attacks had decimated the local population.

Franc time

At the end of the 4th century, the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire finally set in. The Franks as conquerors began to divide up the Roman inheritance. This was the beginning of the western and central European empire of the Franks . In the middle of the 8th century this was divided into Gaue under the reign of the Carolingians . The northern part of today's Vorderhunsrück belonged to the Trechirgau , the southern part to the Nahegau . The Trechirgau was administered by the so-called Bertholden , the Nahegau by the Emichonen . The main town of the Trechirgau called Trigorium was Treis

Middle Ages to the French era

The dog smear is mentioned for the first time in the founding document of the Ravengiersburg monastery from 1074 .

In the Middle Ages, the Hunsrück was severely divided between the Count Palatine near Rhine , the Archbishops of Trier , the Counts of Sponheim and the successors of the Emichons ( Wild and Raugrafen and Counts of Veldenz ). There were also a number of smaller gentlemen.

In 1410 the Principality of Simmern was established as a branch line of the Count Palatine. In the period that followed, Simmern developed into the most important residence of a noble family on the Hunsrück. With Duke Johann II (16th century), the city briefly gained supraregional importance.

The rock church in Idar-Oberstein

After the Thirty Years' War , Louis XIV of France made reunification claims on several domains in the Palatinate, the Hunsrück and the Eifel and had his troops deployed, thus triggering the Palatinate War of Succession . In 1689 Kirchberg, Kastellaun, Simmern as well as the town and castle Stromberg were set on fire. Then came the chaos of war caused by the War of the Spanish Succession . It ended in 1713.

In the period that followed, trade and change picked up. The Hauzeur, Pastert and Stumm families created the first industrial structures on the Hunsrück. They operated mining, processing and smelting of ores. Objects for house, field and handicraft businesses were made from it: ovens, pans, kettles, weight stones, spades, grave nails, hammers, anvils, looms, spinning wheels and also ammunition (solid and pointed balls weighing 2–30 pounds). The Stumm family were leaders in iron processing. The ancestor Christian Stumm was a blacksmith in Rhaunensulzbach . Two of his sons became important entrepreneurs. The son Johann Nikolaus Stumm (1668–1743) was a hut owner and his sons Johann Ferdinand, Friedrich Philipp and Christian Philipp Stumm bought the Neunkirchen ironworks, part of today's Saarstahl AG , on March 22, 1806 . Johann Michael Stumm (1683–1747) founded an organ workshop .

The robbers Johannes Bückler (Schinderhannes) and Johann Peter Petri (Black Peter) made the Hunsrück unsafe at the end of the 18th century.

As a result of the French Revolution and Napoleon's takeover , the French military re-conquered the areas west of the Rhine in 1792 and annexed them to France during the French era . After Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo , the greater part of the Hunsrück fell to Prussia as a Rhine province due to the redistribution by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 . Parts of today's Birkenfeld district and northern Saarland belonged to the Oldenburg principality of Birkenfeld until 1937 .

Prussian times and emigration

The economic situation in the Hunsrück was also very bad from 1815 to 1845. A small harvest in 1815 and the year without a summer of 1816 caused grain prices to rise rapidly, and 1817 went down in history as a year of famine.

In September 1822, the Brazilian government sent Georg Anton Schäffer to Germany to recruit colonists and mercenaries . He came in 1823 as an agent of the Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and visited the Hanseatic cities , as well as Frankfurt am Main and numerous German courts. This mission started the first major wave of German emigration to Brazil . Above all people from the Hunsrück, the northern and western parts of today's Saarland and the western Palatinate let themselves be recruited by Schäffer's agents.

The first immigrants from the Hunsrück settled in what is now the state of Rio Grande do Sul , near the city of São Leopoldo , in 1824 . Emigration to Brazil initially decreased around 1830.

The 1840s were marked by price increases, bad harvests and a certain social unrest across Europe , so that many Hunsrückers decided to emigrate in two further waves (especially 1846 and 1861), mainly to North America and Brazil .

In August 1846 it was announced in Dunkirk that free crossings to Brazil were no longer possible. At that time, over 800 people were already vegetating there. Prussia declined any responsibility for the impoverished and helpless emigrants. They were brought to Algeria from France in three warships and settled in the villages of Stidia and Sainte-Léonie. a Most of the descendants settled back to France after the Algerian War in 1962.

Due to the increasing neglect and impoverishment of parts of the population in Germany in the course of industrialization , an association of the Inner Mission was founded in Simmern on the initiative of the Simmern pastor and later superintendent Julius Reuss with the aim of building a rescue house for children from neglected backgrounds on the Hunsrück . In 1851 a site between Simmern and Nannhausen, the Schmiedel , was acquired. A first building was erected there as the mother house, which was inaugurated on September 13, 1851 for a householder and twelve boys. The headquarters of the charitable organization Schmiedel e. V. housed.

German Empire

After the war of 1870/1871 and the establishment of the German Empire under Prussia's leadership, the so-called Gründerzeit began . Their success on the Hunsrück was only felt late, which is why many jobseekers and entire families looked for work in the Ruhr area and emigrated there.

The Protestant pastor and later Prussian member of the state parliament Richard Oertel , founder of the Hunsrück Farmers' Association in 1892 , and Albert Hackenberg , pastor in Hottenbach from 1879 to 1912 , tried successfully to improve the economic, social and technical conditions in the Hunsrück region during these years. This was achieved through the establishment of dairy co-operatives , the establishment of postal agencies and, above all, through adult education and the elimination of religious school supervision .

First and Second World War

The First World War , the occupation and inflation brought great economic disadvantages for the Hunsrück and its inhabitants; but there were no political tensions as in many places in the German Reich.

The entrepreneur Michael Felke was regarded as a pioneer of industrialization in the Hunsrück . The Felke Möbelwerke , which he founded in 1919, became one of the first major employers in the region. They produced until the late 1990s and sold in Central Europe.

In 1938 and 1939, the Hunsrück region became interesting again for the military with the construction of the Hunsrückhöhenstrasse (140 km in just 100 days) as a strategic military route to the Franco-German border ( Westwall ). On both sides of the road, replenishment stores and field airfields were set up in the woods. During the time of the Second World War and after its end, two places in the Hunsrück gained notoriety: the Hinzert concentration camp and the POW camp near Bretzenheim .

Cold war and present

In 1946 the Hunsrück became essentially part of the new federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate , small parts around Nonnweiler belong to the Saarland.

Field barn at Bell

From the Cold War to the early 1990s, there were many military airfields, ammunition depots, command posts and rocket launch sites on the Hunsrück. The best known were the Hahn Air Base , the NATO airfield horse field , the command bunker Börfink and the rocket station Pydna as well as the still active artillery school of the Bundeswehr in Idar-Oberstein.

In 1986/87, 96 cruise missiles equipped with nuclear warheads were to be stored on the Pydna as a result of NATO's double resolution . On October 11, 1986, the largest known demonstration in Hunsrück history took place on the Beller market square . Around 200,000 people, including around 10,000 from the Hunsrück, protested against the stationing of the rockets. At the end of the day, the Hunsrück Declaration was read out, which advocated a reversal in security policy. The demonstration participants showed a particular peacefulness, so that there were no riots, injuries or arrests. The rocket time on the Hunsrück ended on August 31, 1993 with the takeover of the site by the Kastellaun site administration.

In 1993 the Hahn Air Base, used by the US military as Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , was also handed over to a civil administration. The airport has been expanding steadily since then.

The director Edgar Reitz shot the first part of his film trilogy Heimat on the Hunsrück in the early 1980s , a large part of it in Woppenroth alias Schabbach . From April to August 2012 Reitz chose the Hunsrück village of Gehlweiler for the filming of the movie Die Another Heimat - Chronik einer Sehnsucht . The film focuses on the pre-March era in the middle of the 19th century and the wave of emigrants from the Hunsrück to Brazil.

Origin of name

The meaning of the name Hunsrück is still unclear today. The low mountain range was mentioned for the first time in 1074 in the Ravengiersburg monastery document under the name "hundesrucha". Several hypotheses exist to explain the name :

  • Hohun: Term from Old High German and means high mountain ridge.
  • Dog back: This is supported by the fact that the name was often interpreted in this way in the Middle Ages. There are e.g. B. The following notations: Cynonotus ( gr . Dog back , 15th century), Hundsrücken (1250), dorsum canis ( lat . Dogs backs , 1320), Hondesruck (1380). - There are several mountains in southern Germany, in Switzerland and the Netherlands ( Hondsrug ) that are called Hunsrück and where the origin of the name is more certain, not least with the name variant Hundsbuckel . In addition, many landforms are named after animals such as Roßrück, Rindsrück, Katzenbuckel and Eselsrück.
  • Derived from the people of the Huns : This is suggested that many Celtic popularly ramparts on the Schwarzwälder- and Osburger Hochwald and in Idarwald as Huns rings are called.
  • Possibly the Hunsrück got its name from the term Hont , the word for Hundertschaftsführer in the Franconian era : Early maps designate two areas of Hontschaften near Laudert and in the Idar area as Hunnesrucha / Hundsric , "ric" = (rulership) of a Hont Hundsrügen legal and judicial district ; the “complainant” was a judge; (in the Rhenish Netherlands: the "Dinger" → "Hund (s) ding"; see " Thingstätte " as a meeting place for jurisdiction).
  • Origin of Hundswrock , which designates a demarcated property of a hundred, more precisely a pasture cooperative . Accordingly, the word Hun would be short for Hundertschaft and Rock , "Rück" or "Röck" meant hedge or border tree. This is supported by the fact that in the area surrounding the municipality of Mengigart, and thus in the immediate vicinity of Ravengiersburg, field names with the name Hunsrück are piling up. Later the name would have been transferred to the entire landscape between the Nahe and Moselle.
  • There are also other interpretations.

Hunsrück language

The historically determined small-scale fragmentation of the Hunsrück also had an effect on the differentiated structure of the Hunsrück . Several language borders run across the Hunsrück within the large Rhenish or Rhine or Moselle-Franconian language area and the so-called dat-das-line .

Due to the emigration to Brazil in the 19th century, there are still many Hunsrück-Palatinate language islands in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in the vicinity of São Leopoldo as well as in numerous daughter colonies in which the Riograndenser Hunsrückisch is spoken.

Hunsrück History Association

To research the history Hunsrücker cares since 1901 or 1958, publications, lectures and field trips of more than 600 members strong Hunsrücker Historical Society .

ARRATA archeology association

The association for interdisciplinary and applied archeology - ARRATA e. V. (ARcheology with RAt and TAt) focuses on the scientific research of all epochs from the Paleolithic to the Second World War in the Middle Rhine, Hunsrück, Eifel and Taunus region. In addition to the field of activity of research and the aspects of Bodendenkmalpflege are (eg. As the discovery of endangered archaeological monuments) and public relations (publications and an annual program of events u. A. With guides to building and archaeological monuments, the Hunsrück Colloquium and Hunsrücker Archeology days on the Schmidtburg ) at the center of the association's work. The association publishes the magazine Abenteuer Archäologie - a magazine for interdisciplinary and applied archeology .


The Hunsrück is considered a structurally weak area, larger industrial companies are the exception.


Kirchberg , the city of towers and the oldest city in the Hunsrück

Industrial and large craft companies have settled along the main traffic axes of the federal autobahn 61 and A 1 as well as the federal roads 50 and B 327 .

Larger companies include: BOMAG in Boppard-Buchholz , Schottel in Spay with a production facility in Dörth , Continental - Teves in Rheinböllen , Boge GmbH and CompAir in Simmern , Papier-Mettler in Morbach , Hochwald Nahrungsmittel-Werke in Thalfang as well as the laboratory equipment manufacturer Fritsch and the cookware manufacturer Fissler . Smaller craft and service companies offer most jobs in the region, but a large proportion of the employees commute daily from the Hunsrück to jobs in the Rhine-Main area , the Koblenz basin as well as Trier, Luxembourg and the Saarland.


Agriculture, which was once dominant, especially milk production , is becoming increasingly less important. Nevertheless, the Hochwald dairy in Thalfang is one of the largest German dairies, as the milk is now delivered nationwide. Until the beginning of the 1960s, the Red Holstein Glan cattle was both a workhorse and a milk producer.


The mining plays only a minor role, underground mining is no longer in the Hunsrück instead. Some medium-sized quarries supply quartzite and basalt for the regional construction sites. Today only two companies mine slate above ground.

Gemstone industry

The German Gemstone Exchange in Idar-Oberstein

The gemstone industry once dominated the part of the Hunsrück between Idar-Oberstein and the Idarwald . Agates were still mined until the 19th century , later almost exclusively imported rough stones were cut . H. processed into the end product. Today only high quality gemstones are processed in smaller factories. The oldest gemstone cutting shop in Germany, PH Hahn Söhne, dates back to 1886 and is still a family business. In addition, the region is the European focus for the import and distribution of gemstone products manufactured abroad. In 1974 the German diamond and gemstone exchange, which belongs to the world association of diamond exchanges, was opened in Idar-Oberstein .

Timber industry

The concentration has changed the timber industry, only a few small sawmills process wood from local forests. The sawmill near Hochscheid on the Hunsrückhöhenstrasse, which belongs to a Belgian group, processes wood around the clock from all of Rhineland-Palatinate, the neighboring federal states as well as France, Luxembourg and Belgium.


Up until the 1990s, the military was an important economic factor, and civilian jobs were primarily offered. After the Cold War, the largest military facilities, e.g. B. the NATO airports Hahn and Pferdfeld , the command bunker Börfink , the US depot Nahbollenbach and the missile base Pydna closed quickly.

The last active military facilities in the Hunsrück are the Bundeswehr artillery school in Idar-Oberstein , the Baumholder military training area and the Hunsrück barracks in Kastellaun .

The other military installations were closed. Weapons and soldiers were withdrawn, and at the same time many civilian jobs at the military facilities disappeared. The municipalities are trying to use the former military properties as conversion areas primarily for commercial purposes.


The largest conversion project is Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , the former NATO-US Airbase Hahn in the central Hunsrück. Due to the specialization in low-cost airlines , Eastern European freight companies and military service flight movements, the airport was optimistically forecast good growth potential at the beginning of the millennium, but this turned out to be unsustainable in the course of the following year, also due to a weakening global economy (as of 2013) .

Housing market

The rental housing market has long been based on rentals to members of the US armed forces. In Sohren, Kirchberg, Rhaunen, Kastellaun and Idar-Oberstein, entire residential areas were built exclusively for employees and family members of US institutions. After the Americans left, the apartments were largely occupied by repatriates from the former Soviet Union.

Part of the Mehringer Höhe wind farm above Lorscheid on the edge of the Osburger Hochwald

Wind, solar and bioenergy

Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in 2000, the decentralized generation of electricity through solar , wind and bioenergy has played an important role in economic life. Private investors generate electricity by photovoltaic . Agricultural biogas plants use biomass and liquid manure to generate electricity.

Most of the electricity is generated by wind turbines , the Hunsrück heights offer sufficient to good locations. The municipalities of Kirchberg and Simmern with the Kirchberg and Neuerkirch wind farms have replaced Morbach with the Morbach energy landscape as the focus of wind energy. There are larger wind farms in Kastellaun, Rheinböllen, Zell, Thalfang and Ruwer.

In the Rhein-Hunsrück district alone (as of February 2013) there are 152 wind power plants, 203 plants have been planned , applied for or in the construction phase. The first plants were built near Beltheim in the 1990s by private investors, the goals being more ideal than commercial . Global funds are now investing in wind power generation in the Hunsrück. The municipal households participate through the rental and business tax income from wind energy generation. However, many citizens are increasingly resisting the increasing and uncoordinated pollution of their home landscape .

Educational institutions

Educational institutions that are of supraregional importance have been established in the Hunsrück. The Rhineland-Palatinate Police University took over the buildings and grounds of the former Family Housing airport of the United States Air Force and has been located near Frankfurt-Hahn Airport since 1996 . The jewelry design department of the Trier University of Applied Sciences , as well as the research institute for mineral and metallic materials / precious metals / gemstones and the German diamond testing laboratory are located in Idar-Oberstein . In the village of Neubrücke , the Birkenfeld environmental campus has been built on the site of a former US military facility.


Sulzbacher church with Stumm'scher organ

In contrast to the adjacent Middle Moselle , the Hunsrück is far less developed for tourism and is still largely untouched.

Nevertheless, there are numerous offers for overnight stays and restaurants, as well as opportunities for leisure activities. In addition, there have recently been approaches to the tourist marketing of the films Heimat and Heimat 3 by Edgar Reitz .


  • The German jewelery and gemstone prize was awarded for the first time in Idar-Oberstein in 1970 and has been awarded annually since then and is attended by numerous national and international celebrities.
  • The German gemstone queen has been crowned every two years in Idar-Oberstein since 1976 . It represents the German gem industry.
  • The Lott Festival is a music event that has been taking place since 1977 and is also called Woodstock on the Hunsrück because of the wide range of music on offer .
  • The Nature One , Europe's largest festival of electronic dance music, which takes place in the Hunsrück since 1995, attracts tens of thousands in August guests from all over Germany and Europe under its spell.
  • In 1996, the first Idar-Oberstein Jazz Days were held, at which international artists performed free of charge in the Idar pedestrian zone.
  • Since 2001, the Hunsrück Marathon has been taking place on the Schinderhannes cycle path on the last weekend in August .
  • The Rallye Deutschland , a run of the rally world championship , has been taking place in the Saar-Hunsrück Nature Park and the surrounding area since 2002 , which attracts around 200,000 spectators every year.
  • Since 2007 the Schinderhannes Festival has been taking place in Simmern / Hunsrück in June / July ; since 2008 every two years.

Hiking trails

The Ausoniusweg is around 118 km long and today, as a hiking trail, mostly leads over field and forest paths over the Hunsrück. It largely follows the historic Roman road that connected the Middle Rhine Valley ( Bingen ) with the Upper Moselle ( Trier ). Since June 2013 the Ausoniusweg has also been dedicated as the Hunsrücker Jakobsweg , as it was already used as a pilgrimage route in the Middle Ages.

The 84 km long long- distance hiking trail Soonwaldsteig leads from Kirn an der Nahe over the Hahnenbachtal , the Lützelsoon , the Soonwald , the Binger Wald to the Rhine to Bingen .

Other long-distance hiking trails through the Hunsrück are the Saar-Hunsrück-Steig , the Keltenweg Nahe-Mosel , the Sirona-Weg and the Sponheimer Weg .

Around the Saar-Hunsrück-Steig, a number of circular routes with lengths between 6 and 20 km have been laid out and marked as so-called dream loops in order to open up small-scale landscapes that are particularly exciting. The dream loops meet the requirements of the German Hiking Institute for premium hiking trails .

Cycle path network

A dense network of cycle paths runs through the Hunsrück. The Schinderhannes cycle path between Simmern and Emmelshausen on the old railway line of the Hunsrückbahn should be emphasized . Here you can cycle for 40 km without significant gradients. Numerous secondary routes of various difficulty levels are connected to this cycle path. The Hunsrück Marathon also takes place on it.

In May 2011 the Hunsrück cycle path was opened, it leads from the Saar over the Hunsrück to the Rhine.

Sights and special features

Transport links


The Frankfurt-Hahn Airport is an international airport with 24-hour operation.


There are train stations B. Koblenz , Boppard, Emmelshausen, Oberwesel, Bingen.

  • Hunsrück Railway : Boppard – Emmelshausen 15 km.
  • Nahe Valley Railway : Mainz – Saarbrücken (via Bad Kreuznach and Idar-Oberstein).
  • The Bullay, Cochem, Treis-Karden and Wittlich railway stations on the Moselle line from Koblenz to Trier are used from the Hunsrück.
  • In the current political discussion there is a reactivation of the Hunsrückquerbahn from Langenlonsheim via Stromberg and Rheinböllen to Simmern to Hahn Airport. Alternatively, a new line between Bingen and Hahn Airport is in the preliminary planning.
B 41 with four lanes in Idar-Oberstein


aProbably more correct information in the French Wikipedia under the link Stidia

See also

Portal: Hunsrück  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of the Hunsrück


  • Uwe Anhäuser: Hunsrück culture experience. Literature publisher Dr. Gebhardt and Hilden, Idar-Oberstein 2000, ISBN 3-932515-29-3 .
  • Uwe Anhäuser: The Ausoniusstraße from Bingen over the Hunsrück to Trier. An archaeological travel and hiking guide. Rhein-Mosel-Verlag, Alf / Mosel 2006, ISBN 3-89801-032-5 .
  • Uwe Anhäuser: Hunsrück and Naheland. Discovery trips between the Moselle, Nahe, Saar and Rhine. 3rd edition, DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne 1991, ISBN 3-7701-2126-0
  • Hans-Martin Braun, Carsten Braun: Hunsrück - nature experience between Nahe and Moselle. Literature publisher Dr. Gebhardt and Hilden, Idar-Oberstein 2000, ISBN 3-932515-09-9 .
  • Bolko Cruse (Hrsg.): On the mineralogy and geology of the Koblenz area, the Hunsrück and the Eastern Eifel (= Der Aufschluss, special volume 30). Association of Friends of Mineralogy and Geology, Heidelberg 1980, (pdf; 14 MB) .
  • Friedrich Hachenberg : Forest management and forest landscape design in the front Hunsrück in two centuries. On the forest history of the Kastellaun Forestry Office in the years 1815 to 1985 (= series of publications by the Hunsrück History Association. 18; series of publications by the Rhineland-Palatinate State Association of the SDW. 6). Protection Association of German Forests (SDW), Landesverband Rheinland-Pfalz e. V., Obermoschel 1988.
  • Volker Kneidl: Hunsrück - island of the tropics . Quelle & Meyer Verlag, Wiebelsheim 2011, ISBN 978-3-494-01480-7 .
  • Gustav Schellack, Willi Wagner, Walter W. Vollrath: The Hunsrück: between the Rhine, Moselle and Nahe . Gondrom, Bindlach 1990, ISBN 3-8112-0656-7 .
  • Wolfgang Welker: First insights into the Michelsberg culture in the Hunsrück - newly discovered Neolithic stone axes from the Vorderhunsrück. In: Adventure archeology. Issue 8, 2007, ISSN  1615-7125 , pp. 24-31.

General sources

Web links

Wiktionary: Hunsrück  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Pictures from the Hunsrück  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. How high is the Erbeskopf really? on: , January 17, 2008. (accessed January 31, 2013)
  2. Universal Lexicon DECADEMIC - Hunsrück. In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon. Volume 9. Leipzig 1907.
  3. Nameless mountain northeast of Laudert
  4. ^ Zeilberg northwest above the Rhine Bay
  5. Nameless hill northeast of Kappels
  6. Hunsrück. In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon. Volume 1905-1909.
  7. ^ Emil Meynen , Josef Schmithüsen (Ed.): Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany . Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen / Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 deliveries in 8 books, updated map 1: 1,000,000 with main units 1960).
  8. Heinz Fischer, Richard Graafen: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 136/137 Cochem. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1974. →  Online map (PDF; 5.6 MB)
  9. Heinrich Müller-Miny, Martin Bürgener: Geographical land survey: The natural spatial units on sheet 138 Koblenz. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1971. →  Online map (PDF; 5.7 MB)
  10. ^ Otmar Werle: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 148/149 Trier / Mettendorf. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1974. →  Online map (PDF; 4.5 MB)
  11. Harald Uhlig : Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 150 Mainz. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1964. →  Online map (PDF; 4.7 MB)
  12. Helga Schneider: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 159 Saarbrücken. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1972. →  Online map (PDF; 4.1 MB)
  13. ^ Petrified witnesses in: FAZ from January 4, 2012, page N2
  14. Karin Ochel-Spies: A basaltic volcanic vent near Mermuth / Hunsrück. In: Adventure archeology. Issue 8, 2006/7, ISSN  1615-7125 , pp. 38-39.
  15. Nameless mountain northeast of Laudert , 1.2 km north of the Luftekopf
  16. Nameless mountain northwest of Greimerath , district Irsch
  17. Langernsteinchen northwest of Saarhölzbach (activate DTK25-V!)
  18. Nameless mountain northwest of Piesport , district Monzel ; the name is only displayed when zooming in south of the summit.
  19. Airport: Pug bats cause trouble ; Focus Online June 2, 2005; Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  20. Volker Kneidl: Hunsrück - island of the tropics . Edited by Gunnar Meyenburg. Ed. Goldschneck in Quelle - & - Meyer-Verlag, Wiebelsheim, 2011, ISBN 978-3-494-01480-7 .
  21. ^ [1] German Weather Service Homepage
  22. Rhineland-Palatinate, Competence Center for the Impacts of Climate Change: Hunsrück: Climate & Weather . Retrieved January 2, 2015.
  23. Wolfgang Welker: The ice age hunters of Armsheim (Rheinhessen) and Nussbaum (Nahe valley). In: Writings of the Regional and Folklore Working Group , Volume 6. Koblenz 2007, ISSN  1610-8132 , pp. 1–13.
  24. Wolfgang Welker: Archaeological Findings from ARRATA e. V. - The discovery of the late Paleolithic site Boppard / Rhine. In: Adventure Archeology, Issue 4, 2002, ISSN  1615-7125 , pp. 49–51.
  25. ^ First Paleolithic rock art in Germany , message from the Ministry of Education, Science, Further Education and Culture of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate.
  26. Wolfgang Welker: Archaeological Findings from ARRATA e. V. - A winged arrowhead. In: Adventure Archeology, Issue 3, 2001; ISSN  1615-7125 , p. 64.
  27. Lukas Clemens, Norbert Franz: History of Rhineland-Palatinate (= Beck'sche series 2611: CH Beck knowledge). Beck, Munich, 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60505-5 , p. 25 ( online ).
  28. cf. Josef Heinzelmann : The way to Trigorium…. In: Jahrbuch für Westdeutsche Landesgeschichte 21 (1994), pp. 91–132.
  29. H. Beyer : Document book on the history of the Middle Rhine territories now forming the Prussian administrative districts of Coblenz and Trier . tape 1 : From the oldest times up to the year 1169. Koblenz 1860, p. 431 ( full text in Google Book Search).
  30. ^ Frank Westenfelder: For Dom Pedro. Export from Europe's poor houses and prisons ; Article on; accessed on February 22, 2014.
  31. ^ Roland Paul: Goals of the emigration - Brazil. Article on the website of the Emigration Museum Oberalben; accessed on February 22, 2014.
  32. Roland Paul: The second and third wave of immigration. Institute for Historical Regional Studies at the University of Mainz e. V., accessed on January 5, 2020 .
  33. Björn Effgen: Petrópolis - A Brazilian "Versailles" . Article on the website of the Emigration Museum Oberalben; accessed on February 22, 2014.
  34. Algeria emigration in regional history
  35. ^ Large landscapes in Rhineland-Palatinate ; Landscape information system of the nature conservation administration Rhineland-Palatinate; accessed on February 22, 2014.
  36. Gustav Schellack: What does the name "Hunsrück" mean? ( Memento from January 20, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Annual issue 1999 of the Hunsrückverein e. V.
  37. ^ Archeology Association ARRATA eV
  38. Carl Zuckmayer's Schinderhannes as a musical . Report on the production of the Schinderhannes Festival Simmern 2012 in: SWR3 Landesart , June 23, 2012, accessed on March 5, 2016 (3:59 minutes).
  39. ^ Regional group Hunsrück of the Jakobusgesellschaft
  40. ^ Website of the operator , accessed on June 9, 2019