|Rhineland-Palatinate , emigrants in Brazil , Rio Grande do Sul|
(hrx - for Riograndenser Hunsrückisch in Brazil)
Hunsrückisch , also Hunsrücker dialect or Hunsrücker Platt , is a German dialect that is spoken on the Hunsrück in Rhineland-Palatinate as well as in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and in the area around Antônio Carlos (see Hunsrik ).
The Hunsrück has clear geographical borders, but the Hunsrück by no means. On the one hand, it reaches beyond the Hunsrück, but on the other hand it also has a good internal differentiation, so that there is actually no uniform Hunsrückish. The few written dialectical certificates do not make clear statements easier. Since the 1990s, the Middle Rhine Language Atlas has been used to document the local dialects precisely and scientifically. The Rhenish dictionary from 1928–1971 was digitized and placed online by the University of Trier .
Like almost all German dialects, Hunsrück is divided into many small local dialects, and almost every village has its own variety. The small-scale structure of the individual language areas grew out of the small-scale rulership structures in the Hunsrück, where borders often even divided villages. The ecclesiastical divisions in (predominantly) Protestant or Catholic areas also underlined the divide.
An extraordinary and accelerated decline in the active use of the dialect can also be observed in the Hunsrück. Some of the young people no longer speak dialect and rarely understand their special words. Local associations or individuals try to counteract this with the means of modern communication and documentation.
Emigrants took this dialect with them to their new home. In southern Brazil , especially in the area of Santa Cruz do Sul in the state of Rio Grande do Sul , there are still communities in which Riograndens Hunsrückisch is actively spoken. Peter Joseph Rottmann drastically addressed the emigration to Brazil in his poem The Farewell .
The Hunsrück is divided into two groups; the first belongs to the Rhine Franconian language and is spoken from the Nahe to about shortly after Kastellaun . The second belongs to the Moselle Franconian and is spoken from Kastellaun to the Moselle . The characteristic distinction between the two groups is formed by the dat / das line. To the north, for example in Idar-Oberstein , Gemünden , Kirchberg and Boppard it says dat . According to Roland Martin, however, what is more important is an isoglosse (dialect border) that he called the Sobernheim line , which separates, for example, eastern Herrd and western Heerd "Shepherd", eastern Gorrjel and western Goorjel "Gurgel", eastern Rerre and western Rierer "wheels". In addition, the sprout sounds : the village becomes Dooref, the church becomes Keerisch, and Berg becomes Beerisch .
On other isoglosses Georg servant called the distinction between spoken in the western Hunsrück o and eu and east of the line Mastershausen - Book - Mannebach -Nörterhausen applicable u and ou or au, or about Bruure (brother), Hau (hay). The d / t is replaced by r ; so lives in Kappel de Peere Prappel (Peter); he mingles fri ous / us de Fäärre (he gets out of bed early). The g between two vowels omitted: Aue, saan (eyes, say). In this broad pronunciation it means Bräämerre for "blackberries" : Et git kä brärer Blaad as en bräd, bräd Bräämerreblaad (There is no broader leaf than a broad, broad blackberry leaf - saying from Siemerre (Simmern) after Pastor R. Christmann, Simmern) .
The grammatical rules of the Hunsrücker Platt are similar to the rules of Standard German.
De stands for that, that and that . Dat is in large parts of the Hunsrück for the . In contrast to the standard language, the Bach and the Salat in the Hunsrück are feminine: the Bach, the Salaad, whereas females usually have a masculine gender : de Marri (Maria), de Suffi (Sophia). Fraa (woman) becomes neuter if it is supplemented by -human - dat Fraamensch, neuter are also the diminutive of women's names ( as in standard language): dat Kattche (Katharina), but usually a house or place name is added . Conversely, the glasses - de Brill - and the butter - de Bodder - are male.
In the Hunsrücker Platt, the perfect is mainly used. The use of the past tense is limited to a few verbs, such as saht 'said', fung ' fing '. For the conjugation, for the most part, rules corresponding to standard German apply.
In the Hunsrücker Platt, as in High German, there are the cases of nominative, dative and accusative, but the genitive is not used.
Example: "Dämm seine Brorer" (his brother)
The plural formation follows the rules of standard German with one exception. If the plural form ends with -en in High German , it ends with -e in Hunsrücker Platt .
|Hunsrücker Platt||The clothing||The Zeidunge|
|German||The newspaper||The newspapers|
In Hunsrück there are independent words that do not appear in High German or not at all.
Bischordna = from French jardin . Old Mittelhunsrück term for garden. Proven since the French occupation. Short form "Bi" is rarely used.
Breadly Woman = English bread and woman . Common name for bread since the American occupation. The background is the aid provided by American soldiers in the form of fresh bread for the battered population after the end of the war. Preferably young women were given bread.
Geheischnis / Gehäischnis = trust, security, human warmth (stem from "enclosure", "cherish")
Grumberry / Krumbier / Gumbi = The potatoes (ground pears / potatoes / potatoes) are identified with the Kaarscht , a three-pronged hoe.
Maje / Meie-go = in the evening to go to the neighbors (with the knitted clothes or earlier with the spinning wheel) to visit and talk.
Muskouri = Until the late 19th century, the banana was largely unknown in the Hunsrück. Formerly known as the yellow fat bean , the name muskouri became common at the beginning of the 20th century, as it was wrongly assumed that the banana was cultivated in Greece.
leppsch = bland, tasteless.
ei allemoo (l) = affirmative agreement yes of course
Muufel = mouthful (cf. handful), pictorial for a small bite
Schinnooz = Schinderaas . Used mostly for bad women
Flabbes and Stickel / Schdickel for a stupid, clumsy person (after the connection piece from the wheel hub to the ladder tree on top of the car)
Schlambambes / Schalumbes / Schnorkes = name for a flighty person
Hannickel . The Hunsrück workers in the Ruhr area were all called the Hannickel after the previously common first name Johann Nikolaus, who was conveniently pulled together by the Hunsrückers to Hannickel. Hannickel is also synonymous with an unfamiliar person. Similar variants also allow other forms of name; for example, Johannes Peter becomes the short form Hampit (as in Jakob Kneip 's novel of the same name) or Johannes Paul Hannappel .
Knubbespaller = log splitter . The derisive Saarland name for the Hunsrückers who used to work as "guest workers" in Saarland as woodcutters.
eepsch = clumsy or wrong . Both in terms of people and on the other (right) side of the Rhine. See Schäl Sick
meggalisch = Especially in some places in the Vorderhunsrück, the highest form of increase used in the sense of very special , extraordinary , wonderful ; For example, if you particularly enjoyed an evening festival event, then the evening was meggalisch schie .
Many terms from the French language have also entered the Hunsrück dialect :
- Schenniere = to be embarrassed,
- allee (from French. allez = go!) = forward
- loo (from là ) = here or there
- Troddewa (trottoir) = sidewalk
- Parbel (from parapluie) = umbrella
- Baggasch (from bagage) = luggage or colloquially "rabble"
- Schisselong (from chaise longue ) = seating and reclining furniture
- Schutt (from fr. Chute) = a heavy shower (example of a sentence: Et hot e Schutt genn. ); see also Luxembourgish: Schluet
- Da is in the dalles (from Ashkeno-Hebrew dallus 'not') = it is economically bad
- Schaales is a potato cake (often made by Jewish families) in a roaster in the Backes (bakery), the Dibbekouche
Dialect audio library
In order to pass on the diversity of the Hunsrücker and other dialect variants with their many nuances, at least partially also phonetically, as spoken language to future generations, the local researcher Dr. Norbert J. Pies founded the dialect audio library in the Pies Archive Family Foundation, Research Center Vorderhunsrück . One of the goals is to archive as many local dialect variants as possible and to be able to compare them scientifically using standardized texts.
- Georg Walter Diener: Hunsrück Dictionary. M. Sendet, Niederwalluf 1971. ISBN 3-500-23370-8 , ISBN 3-253-02337-0 .
- Bernd Bersch: Dictionary - Hunsrück means Honsreck. 2nd revised edition, Contrast-Verlag, Pfalzfeld 2017. ISBN 3-941200631 , ISBN 978-3941200630 .
- Georg Drenda: Hunsrücker Platt. Dialects between the Moselle, Rhine, Nahe and Saar. Edited by the Institute for Historical Regional Studies at the University of Mainz eV Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2019. ISBN 3-86110-741-4 , ISBN 978-3-86110-741-5 .
- Rhenish dictionary. On behalf of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, the Society for Rhenish History and the Provincial Association of the Rhine Province on the basis of the collection started by Johannes Franck and supported by all circles of the Rhenish people, edited and edited by Josef Müller, Heinrich Dittmaier, Rudolf Schützeichel and Mattias Zender. 9 volumes. Bonn / Berlin 1928–1971.
- Roland Martin: Investigations on the Rhine-Moselle-Franconian dialect border . In: F. Wrede (Ed.): Deutsche Dialektgeographie . Booklet XI a, Marburg 1922 (quoted in Diener).
- Quoted by Diemer, p. 46.
- Examples except for a few additions from Diener.
- Bernd Bersch: Hunsrück means Honsreck dictionary Hunsrück dialect - High German and vice versa - as well as grammar . Contrast, Pfalzfeld 2012, ISBN 978-3-941200-27-2 , p. 144-148 .
- Diener, pp. 44, 46, 52.
- Diener, p. 104, after Rottmann, 3rd ed., P. 224.