As liver sausage is called different in Germany, mostly spreadable cooking sausages ( cook meat paste ). The name is derived from the ingredient liver , which is processed into sausage with other foods .
Well-known regional liver sausage specialties are, for example, the Thuringian liver sausage , the Palatinate liver sausage and the Frankfurt Zeppelin sausage . Like blood sausages and other cooked sausages, liver sausage is traditionally made at home slaughter . Small hot liver sausages go together with blood sausages and pork belly for meat platter .
Liver sausage usually consists of slaughter products from domestic pigs , but depending on the recipe, corresponding products from beef , veal or poultry are also used.
Muscle meat was traditionally used for sausage production , and as noble meat it did not seem suitable for independent use. In addition to long-rich lean meat mostly adipose tissue (is bacon , pork belly , Fettwamme ) and pig's head used.
Depending on the recipe, the proportion of liver is up to 40 percent. In addition, most of the other innards are traditionally used for specialties or variants. In addition, pieces of meat such as udder , meat loaf and, traditionally, veal dumplings are common. However, according to the German food book, Gekröse and beef spleen are not processed; In addition, veal dumplings are classified as “specified risk material” in the European Union and must be destroyed.
The liver is the taste-determining component of the sausage, but also serves in the preparation of an oil-in-water emulsion in the emulsion to produce and stabilize. Their share is approx. 10–40%, in individual cases also above or below. A higher proportion of liver improves the stability, but leads to an intrusive liver aroma. The liver used comes mainly from pigs. Beef liver is very similar in chemical composition, but leads to a bitter taste and dark color; Veal liver is suitable, but it is more expensive than pork liver and has no advantages over it in terms of processing or taste.
Natural casings used are descending colon , Grimm and rectum (for liver sausage for hot consumption and small intestine ) of pig, small intestine of the horse as well as thin or colon of cattle. The artificial intestines, some of which are also inedible, are made of skin fiber, cell glass or plastic and should be as heat-resistant, dimensionally stable and impermeable to air, water vapor and light to avoid discoloration and weight loss.
Liver sausage mass
Standard recipes are often used for commercial production in Germany. A base is prepared for production, which is then customized with additional ingredients. 40% raw pork liver and 60% dewlaps are used for the mass . The minced meat is seasoned with nitrite curing salt , pepper , ginger , cardamom , mace , vanilla and honey . Pre-cooked onions are also added (“steamed golden yellow with lard”). The addition of additives and auxiliaries such as color stabilizers is common.
The majority of the liver sausage types are reddened, i.e. meat, fatty tissue and possibly offal are first cured . In preparation, they are heated to a core temperature of 65 ° C (technically: brewed) or scalded at 80 ° C. Then the meat is chilled just like the steamed onions. The liver is not scalded and should only come into contact with the scalded material when it has cooled down to 55 ° C, because otherwise the liver proteins would denature and their ability to emulsify would decrease. The raw liver is often processed while still warm , which means uncooled. In technical jargon, this term is used for products up to 36 hours after slaughter. In preparation, it is roughly freed of bile , bile ducts and the adhering organ fat.
Food intended as an insert is prepared and cooked accordingly and, depending on the recipe, chopped to the appropriate size.
For production, the chilled ingredients and the spices are crushed in a cutter until the mass is homogeneous. If the sausage has an insert, this is then added and mixed with the sausage mass. The addition "coarse" refers to the size of the cut of the insert, not the degree of shredding of the sausage mass.
The mixture is then filled into sausage casings and cooked at temperatures of approx. 80 ° C. It can then be consumed without further ripening. Some variants are finally smoked and then need a few days to mature.
In the German language , the term is mostly used for a spreadable sausage . This refers to cooked sausages whose pasty consistency allows them to be applied evenly. In addition, there is fried liver sausage in Austrian cuisine as a cooked sausage, which is more stable in consistency. There is also the scalded sausage type “cut-resistant liver sausage”.
The following groups are distinguished in the German Food Book:
- 2.222.2 Cut-resistant liver sausage
- 2.231 - Cooked sausage spread
- 2.2312 liver sausages
- 2.2312.1 Delicatessen liver sausage, liver sausage Ia, fine liver sausage, calf liver sausage, veal liver sausage, truffle liver sausage, mushroom liver sausage, Hildesheim liver sausage, cream liver sausage Ia, anchovy liver sausage Ia
- 2.2312.2 Aachen liver sausage, Berlin fine liver sausage, Cologne liver sausage
- 2.2312.3 Meat liver sausage, coarse liver sausage Ia, good liver sausage Ia, ham liver sausage, Kassler liver sausage
- 2.2312.4 Goose liver sausage, Pomeranian goose liver sausage
- 2.2312.5 Good liver sausage, spread liver sausage, Braunschweig liver sausage, Frankfurter liver sausage, Franconian liver sausage, Halle liver sausage, Hamburg liver sausage, Hamburg homemade liver sausage, Hamburg country liver sausage, Hanover liver sausage, Pork liver sausage, Hessian liver sausage, Holstein liver sausage, Hessian liver sausage (Kassel liver sausage) Liverwurst, Saxon liverwurst, Silesian liverwurst, Swabian liverwurst, Black Forest liverwurst, Westphalian liverwurst, herb liverwurst, cream liverwurst, anchovy liverwurst, shallot liverwurst, tomato liverwurst
- 2.2312.6 Home made liver sausage, farmer liver sausage, country liver sausage, greave liver sausage, onion liver sausage
- 2.2312.7 Poultry liver sausage, turkey liver sausage
- 2.2312.8 Liver cream
- 2.2312.9 Leberwurst simple, Lippische Leberwurst
- 2.2312.10 Liver sausages, sausage bowl liver sausage, boiled liver sausage
- 2.2312.11 Berlin fresh liver sausage, bowl sausage, well sausage, white Silesian well sausage, bread loaf sausage, bread sausage, groats liver sausage, groats liver sausage, cabbage liver sausage, flour liver sausage (flour beetle)
- 2.2312 liver sausages
In the butcher's trade, a distinction is made in product knowledge:
- Delicatessen liver sausage, veal liver sausage, truffle liver sausage, mushroom liver sausage, cream liver sausage Ia, anchovy liver sausage Ia, Hildesheim liver sausage, fine liver sausage / BEFFE over 10% without meat
- Ia Gutsleberwurst, meat liverwurst, ham liverwurst, Thuringian liverwurst, Kassel liverwurst, coarse liverwurst / BEFFE over 10% with meat
- Braunschweiger Leberwurst, Halle liver sausage, Hamburg liver sausage, Hamburg country liver sausage, Hanover liver sausage, Holstein liver sausage, Kassel liver sausage, Pomeranian liver sausage, Rhenish liver sausage, Saxon liver sausage, Silesian liver sausage, Swabian liver sausage, Sausage liver sausage, Sausage liver sausage, Thuringian liver sausage, Sausage sausage, Thuringian liverwurst Tomato liver sausage / BEFFE over 8%, some with masks
- Homemade liver sausage, farmer liver sausage, country liver sausage, greave liver sausage / boneless, but with masks, liver and other offal, coarse-grained
- Goose liver sausage
- Poultry liver sausage, turkey liver sausage
- Liver sausages for hot meals: Berlin fresh liver sausage, well sausage, white Silesian well sausage, bowl sausage, bread sausage, bread liver sausage, groats liver sausage, cabbage liver sausage, flour liver sausage (flour beetle)
In the GDR, among other things, the varieties were standardized in TGL 29213/01:
- Top sorts: Guts liver sausage, Kaßler liver sausage, Delikateß liver sausage, veal liver sausage
- Medium varieties: liver sausage, fine, homemade liver sausage, country liver sausage, slaughtered liver sausage
- Simple varieties: onion liver sausage, simple liver sausage, liver sausage with bread roll
According to the Austrian Food Code, Codex Chapter B14 Meat and Meat Products, there are:
- Cut-resistant liver sausage, liver press sack (B.184.108.40.206 Cut-resistant blood, tongue and liver sausages): No minimum requirements for liver content
- Spreadable sausage (B.4.3.3 Spreadable cooked sausages)
- Liver sausage with an indication of an animal species or with emphasis (e.g. veal, goose, farm, fine liver sausage): 30% pork or veal liver; if calf or goose is specified, at least 5% liver from the animal mentioned, at least 30% liver in total
- Liver spread: 25% pork liver
- Sausage spread, onion spread sausage: 15% liver, possible with onion spread sausage, but not mandatory
- Roast liver sausage (B.4.3.4 Cooked sausages intended for roasting): at least 5% liver.
Many types of sausage have standardized recipes that have developed in the butcher's trade. The names mostly indicate essential ingredients and the (supposed) area of origin.
Delicatessen liver sausage
As Delikatessleberwurst is called non-sausage in Germany. A lot of pork liver (40%) and medium-fat, cured dewlaps (60%) are used for the preparation. The minced meat is seasoned with nitrite curing salt , pepper , ginger , cardamom , mace , vanilla and honey . In addition, pre-cooked onions are added (“steamed golden yellow in lard”). The addition of additives and auxiliaries such as color stabilizers is common. As a sausage casing be Sterildärme (sterile artificial casings ) filled with calibers 60/50. The sausage mass is used as a base for other types.
Well-known variants of the sausage are:
- Brunswick liver sausage : without honey
- Liver sausage 1a : natural casing (middle casing) caliber 60/50, the sausage is cold- smoked
- White liver sausage : not reddened, use of table salt instead of curing salt, without honey
- Göttinger Leberwurst : not reddened, use of table salt instead of curing salt, without bee honey, filled in wreath casing caliber 40/43, stored in brine until it is sold
- Paris liver sausage : filled in midgut caliber 60/50
Fine liver sausage
As Fine liver sausage is called a species without lining, the very strong ( fine was crushed), as opposed to roughly liver sausage , partly that is fine also related to the use of higher-quality meats. Pork liver, pre-cooked uncured fat dewlap is used for the preparation. The tendon-rich pork and the medium-fat pork belly are cured and also pre-cooked. In contrast to the delicatessen liver sausage, significantly fewer onions are used. Salt, pepper, marjoram , allspice , mace and cardamom are used as spices . The sausage is filled into medium or sterile casings with a caliber of 60/65. Other names are Hildesheim liver sausage , Stuttgarter liver sausage and Oberland liver sausage .
Veal liver sausage
The name is derived from the veal used and not from the use of (higher quality) veal liver. The veal and dewlaps are salted and pre-cooked beforehand. The same spices are used as for the base. The sausage is filled into mid or sterile casings with a caliber of 60/65. A quality feature compared to the delicatessen liver sausage is that no visible fat rim should form during sausage production. If this occurs due to production, processing the sausages by massaging is permitted. An alternative name is Hildesheim liver sausage with veal .
Veal liver sausage contains at least 15% veal or stripped young beef. Since the beginning of 2010, veal liver sausage in Germany must also contain a proportion of veal liver. In addition to veal, it contains a. instead of veal liver only pork liver, their sales name is veal liver sausage . In general, the veal liver sausage available on the market contains a significantly higher proportion of pork than veal raw materials. This is in accordance with the food law regulations in Germany.
- Berlin fine liverwurst : In addition to pork liver and jowls used to crave poor, lean beef, and meats-base meat . The beef and dewlaps are cured and pre-cooked beforehand. The only spices used are curing salt, pepper, mace and onions. The sausages are traditionally in pig fatty bottled Sterildärme with caliber 60/65 are also common.
- Palatinate liver sausage is a coarse-grained, non-reddened liver sausage with a protected geographical designation of origin . It is bottled in the fatty ends and middle intestines. If the sausage mass is finely chopped and filled into fat ends, it is also called Worms liver sausage .
The phrase insulted liver sausage refers to this type of sausage, as the liver was considered the source of body juices that determine emotions.
- ^ A b Oskar Prändl, Albert Fischer, Thomas Schmidhofer: meat. Technology and hygiene of extraction and processing . Ulmer, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-8001-2135-2 .
- ^ German food book, guidelines for meat and meat products , 1.61
- ↑ Regulation (EC) No. 999/2001 in the consolidated version of July 17, 2007 , Annex V, Section 1. a) iii) (p. 44)
- ↑ a b Hermann Koch; Martin Fuchs: The production of fine meat and sausage products , Deutscher Fachverlag 2009, 22nd edition, ISBN 978-3-86641-187-6 .
- ^ Entry liver sausage at duden.de .
- ↑ Guiding principles for meat and meat products (PDF) of the DLMB
- ↑ Heinrich Keim and Ralf Franke: Modernes butcher's trade, Volume 1; Sales and merchandise , 9th edition 2004, Deutscher Fachverlag, Frankfurt a. M. 1981, ISBN 3-87150-844-6 .
- ↑ B.4.3 Cooked sausages, point B.4.3. of the Austrian Food Book ( Memento of the original dated November 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ BVDF press release of February 8, 2010 ( Memento of the original of August 3, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.