Ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), illustration
The ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), also Ingber , Imber , Always root and ginger root called, is a species of the genus ginger ( Zingiber ) within the family of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The main subterranean sprout of ginger, the ginger rhizome (also called ginger rootstock), is used as a kitchen spice or medicinal drug (also called ginger ) ; the pharmaceutical name for the ginger rhizome is Zingiberis rhizoma .
Ginger is a perennial herbaceous plant that reaches heights of 50 to over 150 centimeters. The thick stem and long leaves give the plant a reed-like appearance. A branched rhizome is formed as a persistence organ, which grows horizontally in the earth and is yellowish and very aromatic on the inside. The roots are created along the rhizome as adventitious roots .
The more or less two-line leaves are sessile. The simple, parallel-veined leaf blades are 15 to 30 inches long and 2 to 2.5 inches wide.
The inflorescence is formed directly from the rhizome ; it consists of an inflorescence stem up to 25 centimeters long, light green bracts , which sometimes have a yellowish edge, and many flowers.
The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and threefold. The inflorescence is not divided into calyx and crown, it is a two-circle perigon . The three outer tepals are about 1 centimeter long and spathe-shaped. The three inner tepals are fused with tubes; the yellowish green corolla tube is 2 to 2.5 centimeters long; the three petals are about 1.8 centimeters long, the additional, shorter "petals", the "labellum" (the two petaloid fused staminodes in the inner stamen circle), is three-lobed and reddish in color and lightly dotted, the two small, lateral lobes of the Labellums are about 6 millimeters long. The fertile stamen in the outer circle, opposite the labellum, is dark purple with a short, runny stamen and an approximately 9 millimeter long, long spurred anthers which together encompass the style. There are two petaloid staminodes in the outer circle of the stamen. Three carpels are fused to form a subordinate, three- chamber ovary. The long stylus is protruding.
There are fruit capsules formed. The black seeds are wrapped in a white aril .
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 22.
The smell of the ginger is aromatic, the taste burning hot and spicy. Essential components are an essential oil , resin acids and neutral resin as well as gingerol , a pungent aromatic substance. The gingerol gives the ginger its spiciness .
Ginger also contains zingiberen , zingiberol , shogaol and diarylheptanoids . The ginger rhizome also contains the digestive, stomach-strengthening, appetite and circulation-stimulating substances borneol , cineol , the pungent substances shogaol and zingerone as well as vitamin C , magnesium , iron , calcium , potassium , sodium and phosphorus .
The word ginger (Middle High German ingewër ) comes from Old High German gingibero and Old French gimgibre from the Latin gingiber or zingiber . This, in turn, is borrowed from Central Indian through the mediation of Greek (ζιγγίβερις zingiberis ) (cf. Pali siṅgivera ). The first component of this is a wandering word that can be found in almost all languages of Southeast Asia without the origin being clarified (cf. Tamil inji , Sinhala inguru , Burmese gyin ). The second component is a Dravidian word for "root" (cf. Tamil vēr ). The derivation of Sanskrit śṛṅgavera "horn root" (because of the curved shape) is based on a later reinterpretation.
Distribution and cultivation area
Ginger grows in the tropics and subtropics . It is grown in countries such as Sri Lanka , India , Indonesia , Vietnam , China , Japan , Taiwan , Australia , France and Nigeria, as well as in South America . The home of the ginger plant is not known for certain. It may have its origin in Sri Lanka or the Pacific islands. In the 9th century the plant became known in German-speaking countries. The largest producer is India with around 250,000 tons per year, the largest growing area is in Nigeria, and the largest exporter is China.
As a food plant
Green ginger is the name given to the young, milder-tasting rhizomes. The rhizomes are used - especially in South and East Asia , and there for a long time - as a spice and remedy (e.g. for coughs). Before chili peppers were introduced from America at the beginning of modern times, ginger was usually the only hot spice available in East Asia alongside pepper . Ginger has anti -bacterial and antiviral effect acting antiemetic (against vomiting protectively), promotes blood circulation , which increases bile production. In Japan, the particularly thick ginger roots are harvested from rhizotomes because they are very popular as an aphrodisiac . Depending on the production method, harvest time and preparation method, ginger is a mild or hot spice. Ginger is also available as a natural herbal drink (ginger press juice).
Food chemists have found that the hot substance gingerol-6 contained in ginger can neutralize bad breath by stimulating precisely the salivary enzyme that is able to dissolve sulfur compounds.
Ginger is one of the better known kitchen herbs and spices, fresh as well as dried and ground . For example, you can grind a peeled piece of the ginger rhizome on the kitchen grater and add it (shortly after cooking or frying) in soups or on chicken. It goes well with poultry and lamb, as well as fish and seafood . It serves pure or in mixtures ( curries , chutneys , jams , sauces ) as a spice. Also gingerbread , Printen , rice pudding , fruit salad , tea and fruity cold dishes are seasoned with ground ginger.
Ginger plums or ginger nuts are pieces of fresh ginger in syrup . Other sweet ginger preparations are candied ginger (also coated with chocolate ) and ginger jam, which is popular especially in Great Britain . Young ginger sprouts are occasionally used in the tropics as a very spicy vegetable or as a seasoning herb . Pickled ginger comes from Japan and is eaten as a gari between different sushi courses and as such is common in sushi restaurants all over the world.
Ginger is widely used in the beverage ( ginger ale , ginger beer ) and food industries. Ginger Ale is a non-alcoholic ginger-flavored lemonade that was particularly popular around the mid-20th century. Because of its stimulating effect on sweating , ginger is popular in hot countries as an addition to coffee or tea . Pure ginger tea is also used.
As a medicinal plant
The "ginger root stock" contains a viscous balsam ( oleoresin ), which consists of essential oils and a hot substance, the gingerols and shogaols . Preparations made from the “ginger rootstock” are said to have antioxidant , antiemetic , anti-inflammatory and stimulating effects on gastric juice , saliva and gall formation as well as intestinal function and are therefore prescribed in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of rheumatism , muscle pain and colds . The Commission E and the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP) advocate the use of ginger roots on gastrointestinal discomfort and anti-nausea.
Ginger was named Medicinal Plant of the Year 2018 by the NHV Theophrastus .
Against nausea and vomiting
The antiemetic effect appears to be mediated by a direct effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Is also discussed a antagonism of serotonin - type 3 receptors . A meta-analysis showed a moderate effect of ginger on the incidence of postoperative vomiting compared to treatment with placebo (RR: 0.69 (95%) confidence interval : 0.54-0.89).
Even if many sailors swear by the effects of ginger against seasickness , there is so far little evidence for the effectiveness of ginger in the treatment of seasickness : In a small double-blind study carried out on 80 Danish midshipmen on the high seas, however, ginger reduced in The incidence of vomiting was significant compared to placebo. In a study at Brigham Young University in the United States, twelve students were given a placebo, twelve a well-known drug against seasickness ( dimenhydrinate ) and twelve dried ginger. The students were then asked to sit in a chair that rotated, raised, and lowered simultaneously for six minutes. While the group with the placebo could not stand the full time and felt the strongest nausea, the ginger group could stay in the stool for the full six minutes. The group that received the drug dimenhydrinate endured it longer than the placebo group, but only four minutes on average and with more nausea than the ginger group.
For efficacy in the treatment of pregnancy vomiting , there is no convincing evidence.
Effects on blood clotting
Ginger may have an inhibitory effect on blood clotting , as described in some case reports . This has been observed both when taken alone and as an intensifying effect on coumarin therapy. However, due to a lack of data, the nature of the relationship is unclear.
The ingredient gingerol inhibits the expression of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 , which causes inflammatory reactions such. B. mediated in osteoarthritis and rheumatism . In the treatment of osteoarthritis patients, the same pain relief was achieved with ginger extracts as with ibuprofen .
Since 2002, ginger has also been used in horse feeding as a remedy for inflammation and osteoarthritis , especially the bitter substances shogaole and gingerole have a metabolism-promoting and anti-inflammatory effect.
History of medical use
Raw ginger (shēng jiāng 生姜) was mentioned in the Shennong ben cao jing .
The Taoist doctor Tao Hongjing (452-536) distinguished in his collection of recipes by famous doctors (míngyī biélù 名医 别 录) between raw ginger (shēng jiāng 生姜) and dried ginger (gān jiāng 干姜). This distinction is still valid today and different levels of effect are ascribed to the different forms of condition.
- On the surface of the body, raw ginger fends off illnesses that penetrate from the outside ("colds"). It warms the upper digestive system ("spleen" - "stomach"), loosens phlegm and relieves coughs.
- Dried ginger warms the upper digestive system and removes mucus if you are short of breath - so it does not affect the body surface.
According to Dioscurides and Pliny , ginger came from "troglodytic Arabia" , according to Galen from "Barbaria". Dioscurides recommended it as a digestive spice - similar to pepper - as a remedy for "darkening the eyes" , as good for the stomach and as an antidote. This information was taken over by doctors who published Arabic and by the northern European doctors of the Middle Ages.
- Antiquity: Pedanios Dioscurides 1st century --- Pliny 1st century
- Arab Middle Ages: Avicenna 10.-11. --- Constantine the African 10th-11th century --- Pseudo-Serapion 11th century --- Circa instans 12th century
- Latin Middle Ages: Macer floridus . 11th century --- Innsbruck (Prüller) herb book . --- 12th century Hildegard of Bingen . 12th century --- galangal Spice treatise . --- 14th century Conrad of Megenberg 14 --- Herbarius moguntinus 1484 --- Gart der Gesundheit 1485 --- Hortus sanitatis 1491
- Modern times: Hieronymus Bock 1550 --- Mattioli / Handsch / Camerarius 1586 --- Garcia da Orta 1563 --- Nicolas Lémery 1699/1721 --- Onomatologia medica completa 1755 --- William Cullen 1789/90 --- Jean-Louis Alibert 1805/05 --- Hecker 1814/15 --- Pereira / Buchheim 1846/48 --- Bentley / Trimen 1880 --- Husemann 1883
In the 19th century, ginger root was still a component of Tinctura aromatica - the aromatic tincture . This was included in the group of "irritating drugs (Erethistica)":
“Take: two ounces of cassie , small cardamoms , cloves , galangal root , ginger root each half an ounce [4 grams]. Powder them coarsely and pour two pounds of rectified alcohol on them. Macerate for eight days in a closed vessel that must be shaken frequently, then squeeze and filter. It is red-brown in color. "
In the English language, the term ginger refers to the use of ginger in certain well-known foods, for example in the drink ginger ale or in gingerbread ( gingerbread ).
A prepared ginger rhizome is used in the figging sexual practice .
The growing areas for ginger are in the tropics and subtropics. With an area of 172,028 hectares (2018), India has the largest growing area in the world (46.1% of 373,121 hectares). India is also the largest producer in terms of volume, but mostly for its own use. According to the food and agriculture organization FAO, around 2.8 million tons of ginger were produced worldwide in 2018 .
The following table gives an overview of the six largest producers of ginger worldwide, who produced a total of 87.3% of the harvest.
(in t )
|2||People's Republic of China||510.035|
After a growth phase of a good eight months, the ginger is harvested in India. This ginger is still young and tender and is therefore mainly used in the kitchen. After a further eight to ten months of growth, when the reed-like leaves turn yellow, you can start harvesting the spice ginger. This is dried and later ground into powder. The ginger is mostly harvested by hand or with forks , but harvesting machines can also be used.
- Gernot Katzer's spice pages : Ginger as a spice.
- Reading list on ginger and seasickness. esys.org, accessed August 9, 2019
- Wolfgang Hübner, Michael Wissing: Ginger, the noble spiciness from the land of smiles - stimulating, history and recipes. AT, Baden 2006, ISBN 3-03800-259-3 .
- Anne Iburg: DuMont's little spice dictionary. DuMont-Monte, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-8320-8780-X .
- Elisabeth Vaupel : Spices - Eight cultural and historical treasures , Deutsches Museum, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-924183-85-6 .
- Birgit Frohn: Lexicon of medicinal plants and their active ingredients. Weltbild, Augsburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-89897-354-0 , pp. 263-267.
- Delin Wu, Kai Larsen: Zingiberaceae. Zingiber officinale. P. 325 - the same text online as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (Ed.): Flora of China. Volume 24: Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis 2000, ISBN 0-915279-83-5 , (Description section).
- ^ Michael G. Simpson: Plant Systematics. Academic Press, 2006, ISBN 0-12-644460-9 , pp. 197 f, 200.
- ↑ Zingiber officinale at Tropicos.org. In: IPCN Chromosome Reports . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- ↑ Entry on spicy taste. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on July 19, 2014.
- ↑ Christian Rätsch: Lexicon of magic plants from an ethnological point of view. Akademische Druck- und Verlags-Anstalt, Graz 1988, p. 79.
- ↑ Friedrich Kluge: Etymological Dictionary of the German Language , edited by Elmar Seebold, 23. Erw. Ed., Berlin; New York 1999, keyword ginger. P. 400.
- ↑ Ginger: preparation and effects of the spicy tuber. In: Meine-vitalitaet.at
- ↑ Christian Rätsch: Lexicon of magic plants from an ethnological point of view. Akademische Druck- und Verlags-Anstalt, Graz 1988, ISBN 3-201-01437-0 , p. 79.
- ↑ Ginger against bad breath. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. Issue 8., August 2018, p. 14.
- ^ J. Grünwald, C. Jänicke: Green pharmacy. 6th edition. Gräfe and Unzer Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7742-6464-3 , p. 268.
- ↑ Ginger named Medicinal Plant of the Year 2018. In: Pharmazeutische Zeitung 2017-06-09. Retrieved July 23, 2017 .
- ↑ HC Lien et al .: Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003; 284: G, pp. 481-489. PMID 12576305
- ↑ Abdel-Aziz et al .: Mode of action of gingerols and shogaols on 5-HT3 receptors: binding studies, cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum. Eur J Pharmacol . 530, 13. 2006, pp. 136-143. PMID 16364290
- ↑ Chaiyakunapruk et al: The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. In: Am J Obstet Gynecol. Volume 194, 2006, pp. 95-99. PMID 16389016
- ↑ Grontved et al: Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol. 105, 1988, pp. 45-49. PMID 3277342
- ↑ See Stephen Fulder: The Ginger Book. Ph.D., ISBN 978-0-89529-725-9 , p. 34 f.
- ^ Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015: CD007575. PMID 26348534
- ↑ LP Vaes, PA Chyka. Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother. 34 (12), 2000, pp. 1478-1482. Review. PMID 11144706 .
- ↑ JK. Kim, Y. Kim, KM. Well, YJ. Surh, TY. Kim:  -Gingerol prevents UVB-induced ROS production and COX-2 expression in vitro and in vivo. In: Free Radic Res. Volume 41, No. 5, 2007, pp. 603-614.
- ↑ M. Haghighi, A. Khalva, T. Toliat, S. Jallaei: Comparing the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and ibuprofen on patients with osteoarthritis. In: Arch Iran Med. Volume 8, 2005, pp. 267-271.
- ↑ Dr. Stefan Brosig: Ginger, horseradish and liquorice in horse feeding. 3. Edition. Norderstedt 2010, ISBN 978-3-8334-6928-2 .
- ↑ Gān干 can be interpreted as “dried”, but also as “processed”. Under gān jiāng 干姜 is to be understood a ginger that has been freed from its coarse heat.
- ↑ Bencao Gangmu , Book 26 (Annotated Reprint, PR China 1975, Volume III, p. 1620).
- ↑ Pharmacopoeia of the PR China 1985 , Volume I, p. 79.
- ↑ Bencao Gangmu , Book 26 (Annotated Reprint, PR China 1975, Volume III, p. 1625).
- ↑ Pharmacopoeia of the PR China 1985 . Volume I, p. 8.
- ↑ George Arthur Stuart: Chinese Materia Medica. Vegetable Kingdom. Shanghai 1911, p. 466 (digitized version)
- ^ Hermann Stadler : Ginger . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IX, 2, Stuttgart 1916, Sp. 1554.
- ↑ Pedanios Dioscurides : De Medicinali Materia libri quinque. Book II, Chapter 189. In the translation by Julius Berendes . Enke, Stuttgart 1902, pp. 239–240 (digitized version )
- ↑ Pliny : Naturalis historia . Volume XII, § 28 (Chapter XIV) (Digitized Latin) ( Digitized Edition Külb 1840–1864 German)
- ↑ Avicenna : Canon of Medicine . In preparation by Andrea Alpago (1450–1521). Basel 1556. Book II: Simple Medicines , Chapter 746 (digitized version)
- ↑ Constantine the African : Liber des gradibus simplicium = translation of Liber des gradibus simplicium of Ibn al-Jazzar . 10th century printing. Opera . Basel 1536, p. 367 (digitized version)
- ^ Pseudo-Serapion : Liber aggregatus in medicinis simplicibus. Pressure. Venice 1497, sheet 146v (digitized version )
- ↑ Approximately instans . Pressure. Venice 1497, sheet 211r (digitized version )
- ↑ Macer floridus Edition: Ludwig Choulant: Macer floridus de virtutibus herbarum… Leipzig 1832, chapter 68 (digitized version )
- ↑ Innsbrucker (Prüller) herb book , 12th century. Friedrich Wilhelm : Monuments of German prose. Munich 1914-1918, Volume I, pp. 44-45 (digitized version ) ; Volume II, p. 113 (digitized version) . - Munich, Clm 536, sheet 86v (digitized version ) . - Innsbruck, Codex 652, sheet 78v (digitized version )
- ↑ Hildegard von Bingen : Physica . Book I, Kapitel15 Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1135 (digitized)
- ↑ Galangal Spice Treatise . Latin 1356. Munich, Clm 13 076, sheet 20v: Cynaber (digitized) . - Northern Bavarian around 1450. Heidelberg, Cpg 620, sheet 76r: Cynaber (digitized)
- ^ Konrad von Megenberg : Book of nature. Edition Franz Pfeiffer , Aue, Stuttgart 1861, V / 86, p. 425 (digitized version)
- ↑ Herbarius moguntinus , Mainz 1484, Part II, Chapter 28 (digitized version)
- ↑ Gart der Gesundheit , Mainz 1485, Cap. 434 (digitized version)
- ↑ Hortus sanitatis , Mainz 1491, Cap. 525 (digitized version)
- ↑ Hieronymus Bock . Teütsche pantry. Rihel, Strasbourg 1550, chapter 17: Von Specerei vnd Wurtz / so the Teütschen in jren kuchen need. Sheet 93r-94r: From Imber / wa / vnd how he grows. (Digitized version)
- ^ Pietro Andrea Mattioli . Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Franckfurt am Mayn 1586, sheet 183r – 184r: ginger (digitized)
- ↑ Garcia de Orta Coloquios dos Simples e Drogas e Cousas Medicinals da India. 1563/67 Aromatum et Simplicium aliquot medicamentorum apud Indos nascentium historia. Ante biennium quidem Lusitanica lingua per Dialogos conscripta, D. Garcia from Horto, Proregis Indie Medico auctore. Nunc vero pri, u, Latina facta, & in Epitomen contracta a Carolo Clusio Atrebate. Christoph Plantini, Antwerp 1567, p. 177 180 (Chapter XLI) Gingiber (digitized version )
- ↑ Nicolas Lémery . Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples. , Paris 1699, pp. 837-838: Zingiber (digitalisat) ; Translation. Complete material lexicon. Initially drafted in French, but now after the third edition, which has been enlarged by a large [...] edition, translated into high German / By Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...]. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, Sp. 1223–1224: Zingiber (digitized version)
- ^ Albrecht von Haller (editor). Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to the science of medicine and pharmacists art clearly and completely [...]. Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, pp. 1349–1351: Zingiber (digitized version )
- ^ William Cullen, A treatise of the materia medica. Charles Elliot, Edinburgh 1789. Volume II, pp. 206-207: Gingiber (digitized) . German. Samuel Hahnemann . Schwickert, Leipzig 1790. Volume II, p. 235: Ingber (digitized version )
- ^ Jean-Louis Alibert Nouveaux éléments de thérapeutique et de matière médicale. Crapart, Paris Volume I 1803, pp. 127–130: Gingembre (digitized)
- ↑ August Friedrich Hecker 's practical medicine theory. Revised and enriched with the latest discoveries by a practicing doctor . Camesius, Vienna, Volume I 1814 (digitized version ) Volume II 1815, pp. 32–34: Ingwer (digitized version )
- ↑ Jonathan Pereira’s Handbook of Medicines Doctrine. From the point of view of the German Medicin edited by Rudolf Buchheim . Leopold Voss, Leipzig Volume II 1848, pp. 127–130: Zingiber officinale (digitized version)
- ^ Robert Bentley / Henry Trimen . Medicinal plants. J. & A. Churchill, London 1880, Volume 4 (No 270) (digitized version)
- ↑ Handbook of the Entire Pharmaceutical Science. Springer, Berlin 2nd ed. 1883, pp. 566–567: Rhizoma Zingiberis (digitized version )
- ^ Theodor Husemann . Handbook of the entire pharmacology. Springer, Berlin. 2nd ed. 1883, Volume II, p. 517 (digitized version)
- ↑ Mohr 1854, Volume II, p. 373 (digitized version)
- ^ Theodor Husemann (1833-1901): Handbook of the entire drug theory. 2nd Edition. Volume II, Springer, Berlin 1883, p. 565 (digitized version)
- ^ Crops and livestock products> Ginger. In: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) trade statistics. fao.org, accessed February 29, 2020 .
- ^ Crops> Ginger. In: FAO production statistics for 2018. fao.org, accessed on February 29, 2020 .