from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Marigold (Calendula officinalis), illustration

Marigold ( Calendula officinalis ), illustration

Order : Astern-like (Asterales)
Family : Daisy family (Asteraceae)
Subfamily : Asteroideae
Tribe : Calenduleae
Genre : Marigolds ( calendula )
Type : Marigold
Scientific name
Calendula officinalis

The marigold ( Calendula officinalis ), also marigold is a plant from the family of the daisy family (Asteraceae). Plant parts are used in medicine .


The marigold is an annual herbaceous plant , it seldom grows an annual overwintering or biennial and usually reaches heights of 30 to 50, rarely up to 70 centimeters. The root is spindle-shaped and rich in fibers. The upright stem , with little or only branching in the upper area, is angular and hairy with short fluff.

The leaves are sessile. The simple, hairy leaf blade entire, and elongated lanzettlicher to wrong-ovoid shape . Their color is medium to light green, they are 3 to 12 (rarely up to 18) cm long and 1 to 3 (rarely up to 6) cm wide.

The flowering period lasts from June to October, a flower head usually blooms for four to five days. The flower heads stand individually on long, leafy inflorescence stalks and have a diameter of up to 4 centimeters. The 12 to over 40 bracts are 10 to 12 millimeters long. On the rim of the flower head there are (rarely 30 to) 60 to over 150 female, fertile ray-flowers of yolk-yellow to orange-yellow color. Inside the baskets are 30 to 50 (and rarely more than 100) hermaphroditic tubular flowers .

From the ray florets develop the 9 to 15 (rarely up to 25) millimeters long, single-seeded achenes ( closing fruits ). The achenes are partly winged, sickle-shaped, curved to ringed and gave the plant its name. The marigold is heterocarp : there are scotch, marigold and hook fruits, which differ in the way they spread : it occurs through adhesion to animals ( epizoochory ), through wind ( anemochory ), or through feeding by the ants ( myrmecochory , mouth migration; Stomatochoria ).

The number of chromosomes is 2n = 28, 32 or 36.


The pharmaceutically important ingredients of the flowers are the flavonoids , especially quercetin and isorhamnetic glycosides , the concentration of which is up to 1%. Triterpene saponins are represented with 2 to 10%, carotenoids with up to 3% and polysaccharides with around 15%. Essential oils are represented low at 0.2 to 0.3%, they consist mainly of sesquiterpenes as cadinol and ionone .

The achenes, fruits contain up to 25% fat, 20 to 60% of the fatty acids they contain is the otherwise rarely occurring calendulic acid .


The exact origin of the marigold is unknown, but it is believed to be in the Mediterranean region . It is widely cultivated and found wild all over Europe. In Central Europe it is an adventitious plant , but not naturalized. It grows wild easily, but only inconsistently. In Central Europe it grows on rubble and nutrient-rich loose soil in the colline to montane altitude range .

Diseases and Herbivores

Alternaria calendulae , Cercospora calendulae and Entyloma calendulae , which damage the leaves, are important fungal pathogens in cultivation . The powdery mildew can cause large yield losses. Aphids ( Aphis fabae , Myzus persicae ) cause sucking damage to the shoot tips and transmit viruses .


The marigold is grown mainly in Germany and the Netherlands, other growing areas are Egypt, Hungary, Poland and the Balkan countries. Mainly filled varieties are grown. It does not make any special demands on the location; it thrives best on well-supplied clay soils. Excessive nitrogen fertilization or a lack of phosphorus and potassium lead to reduced flower set. The harvest is done by hand or mechanically with picking machines, whereby there are several harvest passes. The baskets are dried and rubbed at air temperature or up to 45 ° C, flowers as decorative drugs at 80 ° C to retain their color. The harvest yields are 0.9 to 1.5 tons of tongue flowers per hectare.


In the EU, the medical application of marigold is by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (Engl. Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, shortly HMPC) of the European Medicines Agency (Engl. European Medicines Agency, shortly EMA) regulated. According to the HMPC, a medical effect has not been sufficiently proven on the basis of studies, but the plant is classified as non-harmful due to its long traditional use. You are warned against using it if you are allergic to plants of the Asteraceae family (sunflower).

Marigold is used as a coloring agent in the food industry, including cheese and butter. In tea mixtures it is used as a jewelry drug . In the past it was used to adulterate saffron .

In naturopathy, the dried whole or the chopped up flower heads or the dried ray flowers are used. They are administered in the form of tea infusions, aqueous extracts, tinctures, extracts and ointments. Preparations are offered for external use for skin inflammation, for wound healing, for bruises, boils and rashes. They are used internally for stomach and intestinal ulcers and for menstrual cramps .

In folk medicine , the marigold is considered a diaphoretic , diuretic , antispasmodic , antihelminthic , emmenagogue and was used against liver problems.

Common names

For the marigold there are or existed, in some cases only regionally, the other German-language trivial names : Bleschblommen ( Transylvania ), Brügamsblom, Brüjamsblaum ( Mecklenburg ), Buttercup ( Silesia ), Christ eye, Dannblaume ( Göttingen ), Donnblaume (Göttingen), Dotterblume (Silesia), gäl Gölling (Mecklenburg), Gardryngele, Gartringele, Gelcken ( East Prussia ), Gilken (East Prussia, Silesia), Göldeke, Gölling (Mecklenburg), Goldblome ( Middle Low German ), Goldblume ( Westphalia , Silesia, Mecklenburg), Goldbluome ( Middle High German ), Goldeke (as early as 1483), Goldenblöme ( Ostfriesland ), Goldjenblome (Ostfriesland), Goltje (Ostfriesland), Gugelkopf, house sun vortex, Hunneblöme (Ostfriesland), Ingelbluoma ( St. Gallen near Sargans ), Kolblum, Marienbloem (Mergen-Low German), Middle High German), Morgenbluom (Middle High German), Dawn, Muzelplüm (for variant with curved leaves, Middle High German), Reggele ( Old High German ), bark rblume ( Switzerland ), Ringel und Ringele (Middle High German), Ringela (Middle High German), Ringelbusch ( Franconia ), Ringeli (St. Gallen near Werdenberg ), Ringelken (Göttingen), Ringelkrut (Middle Low German), Ringella, Ringeln ( Swabia near Kirchheim), Ringelplum (Middle High German), Ringelrose ( Weser , Silesia), Ringerbe (Middle High German), Ringila (Old High German), Ringlibluma (St. Gallen near Toggenburg ), Ringula, Rintzeln (Middle High German), Rynzele (Old High German), Sonnenwende (Silesia), Summerlowe (Middle High German), Student Flower ( Mark Brandenburg ), Todtenblume ( Salzburg , Augsburg , Thuringia ), Weckbröseln (Henneberg), Wartwort and Zunenwirvel .


It is the classic flower that is used to answer the question He loves me, he doesn't love me . Picking the flowers is said to cause thunderstorms.

The marigold can also be used for prophecy of love in dreams: it is dried, ground and made into an ointment with honey and vinegar together with summer herbs. Young women applied the ointment before going to bed and called on Saint Luke to make them dream of their great love.

The marigold was held in high regard by farmers because it is said to be used to predict the weather of the day. If the flowers are already open between 6 and 7 a.m., this promises a nice sunny day. However, if they are still closed after 7 a.m., rain must be expected.


  • Antiquity: In the 16th century, Leonhart Fuchs , one of the fathers of botany , interpreted the marigold as the chrysanthemon or the caltha of Dioscurides .
  • Middle Ages: In the Physica manuscripts from the 14th to 15th centuries attributed to Hildegard von Bingen , a plant with the name ringula was described as an internally toxic agent. Prepared to an ointment with the black of a bacon rind, it should be effective externally against "grinning on the head". The external use of "marigolds" against "warts" and against "major spots" was also recommended in the 15th century in the Alemannic Herb Book (Cod. P. 386).
In the German Macer , a widespread herb book from the 13th century, a plant was mentioned with the name solis sponsa or "ringel". According to the theory of juices , it should be "cold and dry", strengthen the stomach , have an anti-toxic effect and stimulate menstruation .
In the little book on burnt-out waters attributed to Michael Puff , the distillate made from "ringel" was recommended against "aching eyes" and against "all sick days of the head". Hieronymus Brunschwig took over this information in the chapter ringel flower water of his small distilling book (1500).
A reliable assignment of the names "Kalendula" and "Marigolds" to the species Calendula officinalis L. was made possible by the illustrations in Vitus Auslasser's book of herbs (1479) and in the Garden of Health (1485).
  • Modern times: In the first half of the 19th century, the use of preparations made from marigolds in the treatment of breast and uterine cancer was controversial.
On March 13, 1986, Commission E of the former Federal Health Office published a (positive) monograph for marigold flowers for internal use in changes in the oral and pharyngeal mucosa and for external use in poorly healing wounds, and on July 14, 1993 a (negative) Monograph for marigold herb.


further reading

  • Otto Isaac: The marigold. Botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacy and therapeutic uses. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-8047-1227-4 .
  • David I. Macht: Calendula or Marigold in medical history and in Shakespeare. In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 29, 1955, pp. 491-502.

Web links

Commons : Marigold  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: marigold  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


  • Siegmund Seybold (Ed.): Schmeil-Fitschen interactive . CD-ROM, version 1.1. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2002, ISBN 3-494-01327-6 . (Characteristics, distribution)
  • Klaus-Ulrich Heyland, Herbert Hanus, Ernst Robert Keller (eds.): Oil fruits, fiber plants, medicinal plants and special crops (=  manual of plant cultivation . Volume 4 ). Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2006, ISBN 3-8001-3203-6 , pp. 383-390 . (Characteristics, ingredients, cultivation, use)

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d John L. Strother: Calendula. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico . Volume 19: Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 6: Asteraceae, part 1 (Mutisieae – Anthemideae). Oxford University Press, New York / Oxford a. a. 2006, ISBN 0-19-530563-9 , pp. 331 (English, online ).
  2. ^ Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp. 957 .
  3. Sabine Krist: Lexicon of vegetable fats and oils. 2nd edition, Springer, 2013, ISBN 978-3-7091-1004-1 , p. 693.
  4. ^ Ingrid Schönfelder, Peter Schönfelder : Die Kosmos-Mediterraneanflora. Over 500 Mediterranean plants in color photos (=  Kosmos nature guide ). 2nd Edition. Franckh, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-440-05300-8 , p. 236 .
  5. Calendulae flos | European Medicines Agency. European Medicines Agency, accessed February 27, 2019 .
  6. Calendula officinalis - Plant of the Month. ( Memento from July 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  7. ^ Georg August Pritzel , Carl Jessen : The German folk names of plants. New contribution to the German linguistic treasure. Philipp Cohen, Hannover 1882, pp. 72-73 (online) .
  8. The marigold in the medicinal herb dictionary .
  9. Gerhard Lauchs, Healing Petals. In: Nürnberger Nachrichten. 21/22 April 2007.
  10. Commission E 1986 (positive) monograph for marigold blossoms (digitized version)
  11. 1993 (negative) monograph for marigold herb (digitized version)
  12. Pedanios Dioscurides . 1st century De Medicinali Materia libri quinque. Book IV, Chapter 58. In the translation by Julius Berendes . Pedanius Dioscurides' medicine theory in 5 books. Enke, Stuttgart 1902, p. 394 (digitized version)
  13. Hildegard von Bingen . 12th Century Physica , Book I, Chapter 122nd Edition. Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1179 (digitized) . Translation: Herbert Reier. Hildegard von Bingen Physica. Translated into German after the text edition by JP Migne, Paris 1882 . Kiel 1980, p. 72: Ringula is cold and damp and has a strong power, helps against poison. Whoever has eaten poison or to whom it has been given boil Ringula in water, squeeze it out and place it on his stomach; the poison is softened and removed. The same person would soon warm up good wine, put enough ringula in it, use it to warm the wine again, and because he was consuming poison, he would drink the wine half warm. He will either spit out the poison through his nose or give it off through schum. When cattle or sheep have eaten something bad that is quickly swamped with them, ringula is crushed, the juice squeezed out, and with moderate amounts of water the juice is poured into their mouths to taste, and they are cured. But if beef or sheep cough, pour Ringula juice into their nostrils without water. The harmful juices will soon be excreted and the animals will do better. When a person's head cracks, he cut off the soft and the rind from the ham, take the hard and pound it with ringula in a mortar, often anoint his head with it, and fall off and his head becomes beautiful. If you have a grin on your head, take flowers and leaves from ringlets, squeeze out the juice and make dough from it with a little water and with simeln or wheat flour, cover your whole head with the cloth and a felt cap while it is heated and while the dough is being cut and then removed. Then again similarly prepare dough, put it on his head, do that for nine days, and every time he picks dough from his head, he just as often has lye of ringlet juice ready and just as often wash his head with it, and he will cured.
  14. Solothurn, Cod. P. 386, Ravensburg 1463–1466, sheet 70v: … Fur die warts… or nim ringelblůmen… To whom the houpt flecket is… (digitized version )
  15. ^ German Macer . 13th century. Critical edition with extensive bibliographical information. Bernhard Schnell , William Crossgrove: The German Macer. Vulgate version. With an impression of the Latin Macer floridus "De virtutes herbarum". Issued critically. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2003, p. 370 and p. 478.Source:
  16. Cpg 226 , Alsace 1459–1469, sheet 202r (digitized version )
  17. Michael Puff : Booklet of the burnt-out waters . (. 15C) Pressure Augsburg (John Blaubirer) 1481, Journal 10r: marigold water (digitized)
  18. Gart der Gesundheit . Peter Schöffer , Mainz 1485, Chapter 98: Caput monachi. Ryngel blomen (digitized version )
  19. Hieronymus Brunschwig . Small distilling book , Johann Grüninger, Strasbourg 1500, sheet 91v: Ringel flowers (digital copy )
  20. Otto Brunfels : Contrafayt Kreüterbůch after right perfect art, and description of the old, best-famous doctor, formerly in Teütscher spoke of masszen nye seen. Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1532, p. 211 (digitized version)
  21. Hieronymus Bock : New Kreütter Bůch. Wendel Rihel, Strasbourg 1539, part 1, chapter 46 (digitized version)
  22. Leonhart Fuchs . New Kreütterbuch . Michael Isingrin, Basel 1543, Chapter 143 (digitized version)
  23. ^ Pietro Andrea Mattioli : Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Frankfurt am Main 1586, sheet 435r – 435v: marigolds (digitized)
  24. Nicolas Lémery : Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples, contenant leurs noms, origines, choix, principes, vertus, étymologies, et ce qu'il ya de particulier dans les animaux, dans les végétaux et dans les minéraux , Laurent d'Houry, Paris , 1699, p. 133: Caltha (digitized version ) . Complete material lexicon . Complete material lexicon. Initially designed in French, but now after the third edition, enlarged by a large one [...] translated into High German / by Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...]. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, Sp. 206: Caltha (digitized)
  25. Westring’s experiences on the healing of cancerous ulcers. Translated from Swedish with additions by K. Sprengel . Renger, Hall 1817 (digitized version)
  26. ^ Adam Elias von Siebold : Journal for obstetrics, women's and children's diseases. Engelmann, Frankfurt am Main 1822, Volume 3, 1.2, p. 49 (digitized version)
  27. ^ Encyclopedic Dictionary of Medicinal Sciences. Published by the professors of the medical faculty in Berlin: Dietrich Wilhelm Heinrich Busch , Carl Ferdinand von Graefe , Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland , Heinrich Friedrich Link , Karl Asmund Rudolphi , 6th volume (1831), pp. 519-521 (digitized version )
  28. ^ Theodor Husemann : Handbook of the entire drug theory. 2nd Edition. Springer, Berlin 1883. Volume II, p. 841 (digitized version)