Marigold ( Calendula officinalis ), illustration
The marigold is an annual herbaceous plant , it seldom grows an annual overwintering or biennial and usually reaches heights of 30 to 50, rarely up to 70 centimeters. The root is spindle-shaped and rich in fibers. The upright stem , with little or only branching in the upper area, is angular and hairy with short fluff.
The leaves are sessile. The simple, hairy leaf blade entire, and elongated lanzettlicher to wrong-ovoid shape . Their color is medium to light green, they are 3 to 12 (rarely up to 18) cm long and 1 to 3 (rarely up to 6) cm wide.
The flowering period lasts from June to October, a flower head usually blooms for four to five days. The flower heads stand individually on long, leafy inflorescence stalks and have a diameter of up to 4 centimeters. The 12 to over 40 bracts are 10 to 12 millimeters long. On the rim of the flower head there are (rarely 30 to) 60 to over 150 female, fertile ray-flowers of yolk-yellow to orange-yellow color. Inside the baskets are 30 to 50 (and rarely more than 100) hermaphroditic tubular flowers .
From the ray florets develop the 9 to 15 (rarely up to 25) millimeters long, single-seeded achenes ( closing fruits ). The achenes are partly winged, sickle-shaped, curved to ringed and gave the plant its name. The marigold is heterocarp : there are scotch, marigold and hook fruits, which differ in the way they spread : it occurs through adhesion to animals ( epizoochory ), through wind ( anemochory ), or through feeding by the ants ( myrmecochory , mouth migration; Stomatochoria ).
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 28, 32 or 36.
The pharmaceutically important ingredients of the flowers are the flavonoids , especially quercetin and isorhamnetic glycosides , the concentration of which is up to 1%. Triterpene saponins are represented with 2 to 10%, carotenoids with up to 3% and polysaccharides with around 15%. Essential oils are represented low at 0.2 to 0.3%, they consist mainly of sesquiterpenes as cadinol and ionone .
The exact origin of the marigold is unknown, but it is believed to be in the Mediterranean region . It is widely cultivated and found wild all over Europe. In Central Europe it is an adventitious plant , but not naturalized. It grows wild easily, but only inconsistently. In Central Europe it grows on rubble and nutrient-rich loose soil in the colline to montane altitude range .
Diseases and Herbivores
Alternaria calendulae , Cercospora calendulae and Entyloma calendulae , which damage the leaves, are important fungal pathogens in cultivation . The powdery mildew can cause large yield losses. Aphids ( Aphis fabae , Myzus persicae ) cause sucking damage to the shoot tips and transmit viruses .
The marigold is grown mainly in Germany and the Netherlands, other growing areas are Egypt, Hungary, Poland and the Balkan countries. Mainly filled varieties are grown. It does not make any special demands on the location; it thrives best on well-supplied clay soils. Excessive nitrogen fertilization or a lack of phosphorus and potassium lead to reduced flower set. The harvest is done by hand or mechanically with picking machines, whereby there are several harvest passes. The baskets are dried and rubbed at air temperature or up to 45 ° C, flowers as decorative drugs at 80 ° C to retain their color. The harvest yields are 0.9 to 1.5 tons of tongue flowers per hectare.
In the EU, the medical application of marigold is by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (Engl. Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, shortly HMPC) of the European Medicines Agency (Engl. European Medicines Agency, shortly EMA) regulated. According to the HMPC, a medical effect has not been sufficiently proven on the basis of studies, but the plant is classified as non-harmful due to its long traditional use. You are warned against using it if you are allergic to plants of the Asteraceae family (sunflower).
In naturopathy, the dried whole or the chopped up flower heads or the dried ray flowers are used. They are administered in the form of tea infusions, aqueous extracts, tinctures, extracts and ointments. Preparations are offered for external use for skin inflammation, for wound healing, for bruises, boils and rashes. They are used internally for stomach and intestinal ulcers and for menstrual cramps .
Marigold in the form of the flower drug (Calendulae flos)
For the marigold there are or existed, in some cases only regionally, the other German-language trivial names : Bleschblommen ( Transylvania ), Brügamsblom, Brüjamsblaum ( Mecklenburg ), Buttercup ( Silesia ), Christ eye, Dannblaume ( Göttingen ), Donnblaume (Göttingen), Dotterblume (Silesia), gäl Gölling (Mecklenburg), Gardryngele, Gartringele, Gelcken ( East Prussia ), Gilken (East Prussia, Silesia), Göldeke, Gölling (Mecklenburg), Goldblome ( Middle Low German ), Goldblume ( Westphalia , Silesia, Mecklenburg), Goldbluome ( Middle High German ), Goldeke (as early as 1483), Goldenblöme ( Ostfriesland ), Goldjenblome (Ostfriesland), Goltje (Ostfriesland), Gugelkopf, house sun vortex, Hunneblöme (Ostfriesland), Ingelbluoma ( St. Gallen near Sargans ), Kolblum, Marienbloem (Mergen-Low German), Middle High German), Morgenbluom (Middle High German), Dawn, Muzelplüm (for variant with curved leaves, Middle High German), Reggele ( Old High German ), bark rblume ( Switzerland ), Ringel und Ringele (Middle High German), Ringela (Middle High German), Ringelbusch ( Franconia ), Ringeli (St. Gallen near Werdenberg ), Ringelken (Göttingen), Ringelkrut (Middle Low German), Ringella, Ringeln ( Swabia near Kirchheim), Ringelplum (Middle High German), Ringelrose ( Weser , Silesia), Ringerbe (Middle High German), Ringila (Old High German), Ringlibluma (St. Gallen near Toggenburg ), Ringula, Rintzeln (Middle High German), Rynzele (Old High German), Sonnenwende (Silesia), Summerlowe (Middle High German), Student Flower ( Mark Brandenburg ), Todtenblume ( Salzburg , Augsburg , Thuringia ), Weckbröseln (Henneberg), Wartwort and Zunenwirvel .
It is the classic flower that is used to answer the question He loves me, he doesn't love me . Picking the flowers is said to cause thunderstorms.
The marigold can also be used for prophecy of love in dreams: it is dried, ground and made into an ointment with honey and vinegar together with summer herbs. Young women applied the ointment before going to bed and called on Saint Luke to make them dream of their great love.
The marigold was held in high regard by farmers because it is said to be used to predict the weather of the day. If the flowers are already open between 6 and 7 a.m., this promises a nice sunny day. However, if they are still closed after 7 a.m., rain must be expected.
- Antiquity: In the 16th century, Leonhart Fuchs , one of the fathers of botany , interpreted the marigold as the chrysanthemon or the caltha of Dioscurides .
- Middle Ages: In the Physica manuscripts from the 14th to 15th centuries attributed to Hildegard von Bingen , a plant with the name ringula was described as an internally toxic agent. Prepared to an ointment with the black of a bacon rind, it should be effective externally against "grinning on the head". The external use of "marigolds" against "warts" and against "major spots" was also recommended in the 15th century in the Alemannic Herb Book (Cod. P. 386).
- In the German Macer , a widespread herb book from the 13th century, a plant was mentioned with the name solis sponsa or "ringel". According to the theory of juices , it should be "cold and dry", strengthen the stomach , have an anti-toxic effect and stimulate menstruation .
- In the little book on burnt-out waters attributed to Michael Puff , the distillate made from "ringel" was recommended against "aching eyes" and against "all sick days of the head". Hieronymus Brunschwig took over this information in the chapter ringel flower water of his small distilling book (1500).
- A reliable assignment of the names "Kalendula" and "Marigolds" to the species Calendula officinalis L. was made possible by the illustrations in Vitus Auslasser's book of herbs (1479) and in the Garden of Health (1485).
- Modern times: In the first half of the 19th century, the use of preparations made from marigolds in the treatment of breast and uterine cancer was controversial.
- On March 13, 1986, Commission E of the former Federal Health Office published a (positive) monograph for marigold flowers for internal use in changes in the oral and pharyngeal mucosa and for external use in poorly healing wounds, and on July 14, 1993 a (negative) Monograph for marigold herb.
- Antiquity: Pedanios Dioscurides 1st century
- Middle Ages: Hildegard von Bingen 12th century --- Cod. P. 386 --- German Macer 13th century --- Michael Puff 15th century --- Garden of Health 1485 --- Hieronymus Brunschwig 1500
- Modern times: Otto Brunfels 1532 --- Hieronymus Bock 1539 --- Leonhart Fuchs 1543 --- Mattioli / Handsch / Camerarius 1586 --- Nicolas Lémery 1699/1721 --- Westring 1817 --- Siebold 1822 --- Encyclopedic dictionary 1831 --- Theodor Husemann 1883
Viennese Dioscurides … .. 6th century
Vitus outlet 1479
Garden of Health 1485
Hortus sanitatis 1491 to the chapter "Cordumenum" (I / 139)
Otto Brunfels 1532
Leonhart Fuchs 1543
Hieronymus Bock 1546
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- Hildegard von Bingen . 12th Century Physica , Book I, Chapter 122nd Edition. Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1179 (digitized) . Translation: Herbert Reier. Hildegard von Bingen Physica. Translated into German after the text edition by JP Migne, Paris 1882 . Kiel 1980, p. 72: Ringula is cold and damp and has a strong power, helps against poison. Whoever has eaten poison or to whom it has been given boil Ringula in water, squeeze it out and place it on his stomach; the poison is softened and removed. The same person would soon warm up good wine, put enough ringula in it, use it to warm the wine again, and because he was consuming poison, he would drink the wine half warm. He will either spit out the poison through his nose or give it off through schum. When cattle or sheep have eaten something bad that is quickly swamped with them, ringula is crushed, the juice squeezed out, and with moderate amounts of water the juice is poured into their mouths to taste, and they are cured. But if beef or sheep cough, pour Ringula juice into their nostrils without water. The harmful juices will soon be excreted and the animals will do better. When a person's head cracks, he cut off the soft and the rind from the ham, take the hard and pound it with ringula in a mortar, often anoint his head with it, and fall off and his head becomes beautiful. If you have a grin on your head, take flowers and leaves from ringlets, squeeze out the juice and make dough from it with a little water and with simeln or wheat flour, cover your whole head with the cloth and a felt cap while it is heated and while the dough is being cut and then removed. Then again similarly prepare dough, put it on his head, do that for nine days, and every time he picks dough from his head, he just as often has lye of ringlet juice ready and just as often wash his head with it, and he will cured.
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- Cpg 226 , Alsace 1459–1469, sheet 202r (digitized version )
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