Real St. John's wort

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Real St. John's wort
St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum)

St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum )

Eurosiden I
Order : Malpighiales (Malpighiales)
Family : St. John's wort family (Hypericaceae)
Genre : St. John's herbs ( Hypericum )
Type : Real St. John's wort
Scientific name
Hypericum perforatum

The True St. John's Wort ( Hypericum perforatum ), including real-John's wort , ordinary John's wort , Perforated St. John's , St. John's wort or dot-Hartheu , mostly short hypericum or St. John's wort , called, is a species of the genus of hypericum ( Hypericum ) within the family of Hypericaceae (formerly hay family). It is used as a medicinal plant , especially as a mild antidepressant .


The real St. John's wort is popularly known as the blood of God . The name refers to John the Baptist as the plant blooms around St. John's Day (June 24th). The English name St John's word and the Spanish name hierba de San Juan also refer to John the Baptist.


The leaves appear perforated by their oil glands
Stem cross-section
Blossom in detail: the petals form a "wind turbine"
Inflorescence: the "petals" are rolled up to the side as it fades

Vegetative characteristics

The real St. John's wort is a perennial herbaceous plant that reaches heights of 15 to 100 centimeters. It forms strongly branched root creep shoots and a spindle-shaped root that reaches up to 50 centimeters deep. The upright stem is two-edged throughout and filled with pithy inside (not hollow). This is how the real St. John's wort differs from other types of St. John's wort. In the upper part of the stem, the real St. John's wort has bushy branches.

The against-constantly arranged leaves are more or less sitting. The simple leaf blade is oval-ovate to elongated-linear with a length of up to 3 centimeters. The leaf blade is densely covered with translucent oil glands. The leaf margin is dotted with black glands. The numerous translucent punctures on the blade are tissue gaps that have arisen through the splitting or divergence of cell walls and in which the light-colored essential oil is concentrated.

Generative characteristics

The flowering period extends from June to August. The mostly floriferous trugdoldige inflorescence is composed of dichasias with screws (easily recognizable at fruit time) .

The hermaphroditic flowers are radial symmetry and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The five sepals are up to 5 millimeters long, longer than the ovary , (ei) -lanzettlich, finely pointed grannenartig, with bright and black glands. The five golden yellow petals are up to 13 millimeters long, only serrated on one side and dotted with black on the edge. The petals in tissue defects, the blood-red hypericin , which when crushed (preferably more flower buds take) leaves on the fingers of a red color. The individual petals are somewhat asymmetrical due to their twisted bud position, so that the whole flower looks like a "wind turbine" when open. The 50 to 60, sometimes up to 100 stamens , arranged in three clusters, surround the ovary. The three stamens create three clusters with a total of up to 100 stamens through centrifugal dedoublement; see secondary polyandry . The upper, oval ovary is divided into three compartments, which are shorter than the sepals. Instead of nectar, there is a drilled tissue of uncertain ecological importance.

The fruit is a narrow, egg-shaped, up to 10 millimeters long, grooved three- sided split capsule . The seeds are elongated, curved and finely reticulated with a length of about 1 millimeter.

The number of chromosomes is 2n = 32 or 48.


St. John's wort is a deciduous stem plant (wintering plant without a rosette) and hemicryptophytes . It roots up to 50 centimeters deep.

From an ecological point of view, it is a homogeneous "pollen disc flower". Cross-pollination occurs through pollen-seeking insects. Visitors are especially bombus species and species of bees and hoverflies . Self-pollination is made more difficult by the spatial separation of stylus branches and anthers, but is possible when the flowers close, when the shrinking petals envelop the flower again. In the evening and when it blooms, the petals roll up on the sides in the longitudinal axis.

The small seeds of the capsule fruits, which are opened in dry conditions, are carried away by animals ( zoochory ) or spread by the wind ( balloon pilots ). Vegetative reproduction occurs through root creep shoots .


The plant parts are slightly poisonous. The dried flowers of the hairy St. John's wort contain up to 1.4% of the red dye hypericin ("St. John's blood"). In non-pigmented (white) grazing animals (horses, sheep, goats, etc.), hypericin uptake leads to symptoms of hemolysis ("hard hay disease") after exposure to sunlight .


St. John's wort is the most widespread species of the genus Hypericum in Europe and is native to Europe, West Asia and North Africa. It has been naturalized in East Asia, North and South America, and Australia. It is found at low to medium altitudes. It grows widespread in shrubbery fringes, on forest edges, paths and embankments, in poor meadows and lawns, in gorse and heather heaths, in fallow and forest clearings or on railway gravel as a pioneer plant . It thrives in societies of the Trifolio-Geranietea, Epilobietea angustifolii or the association Dauco-Melilotion.

St. John's wort occurs mainly in larger groups, but these are seldom stock-forming. As the ecological indicator values ​​according to Ellenberg , Hypericum perforatum is given as a penumbral plant for moderately warm to warm locations with a moderate maritime climate. The displayed soil condition is uniformly dry to moderately moist and low in nitrogen, but never strongly acidic.


The first publication of Hypericum perforatum was by Carl von Linné .

There are several varieties or subspecies, depending on the author:

  • Narrow-leaved St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum var. Angustifolium DC .; Syn .: Hypericum perforatum subsp. Angustifolium (DC.) Gaud. ): It has narrower leaves and smaller flowers. This variety contains practically no rutin, which makes it largely unusable for pharmaceutical use. This variety thrives in Central Europe especially in societies of the Festuco-Brometea class. Some authors call it Hypericum perforatum subsp. veronense posed.
  • Hypericum perforatum subsp. chinense N.Robson : It occurs in China.
  • Broad-leaved St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum var. Latifolium W.DJKoch , Syn .: Hypericum perforatum subsp. Latifolium (WDJKoch) A.Fröhl. ): It has wider leaves and larger flowers.
  • Small-leaved St. John's Wort ( Hypericum perforatum var. Microphyllum DC. ): It has smaller leaves and smaller flowers. Some authors call it the subspecies Hypericum perforatum subsp. veronense posed.
  • Common St. John's Wort ( Hypericum perforatum L. var. Perforatum ): It thrives from Europe to Siberia and western Turkey.
  • Veronese spotted hard hay ( Hypericum perforatum subsp. Veronense (Closet) A. Fröhl. ): It has egg-shaped leaves that are no more than 1 cm long and sepals that are only 1 mm wide. Its distribution area includes Macaronesia, Central Europe and the Mediterranean area to Sudan and the western Himalayas. It thrives in Central Europe in societies of the Dauco-Melilotion association or the Sedo-Scleranthetea class.
  • Hypericum perforatum subsp. songaricum (Ledeb. ex Rchb.) N.Robson : It occurs from the Ukraine to northwestern China.


When the buds are rubbed, hypericin escapes ("blood of St. John")

Good quality St. John's wort contains an average of 0.1–0.15% total hypericins (Ph. Eur. 5.0, p. 2485), which are mainly located in the excretory leaves of the flowers and buds. These consist of an average of 0.2–0.3% hypericin, pseudohypericin and similar substances . Furthermore, 2–4% flavonoids and bioflavones are responsible for the effectiveness . The were detected so far only in this type antibiotic effective hyperforin and the Adhyperforin in the flowers (2%) and fruit (4%).

After the hypericin content was used to determine the effectiveness of the drug Hyperici herba until 1995 , it is now assumed that the therapeutic effectiveness comes from the interaction of several active ingredients and mechanisms, since a total extract causes a significantly stronger inhibition of monoamine oxidase than isolated hypericin. Hypericine levels of 0.15% and high flavonoid levels are required for drug production, and limit values ​​for cadmium (0.5 mg / kg) and lead (5.0 mg / kg) must be fallen below.

Another medically effective ingredient is the sesquiterpene spathulenol with up to 7.2% content in the essential oil .



Because it is used as a medicinal plant , the real St. John's wort is cultivated for agriculture. At the same time, in the rest of agricultural cultivation it is considered to be " weeds " and pasture weeds.

For the production of various preparations based on St. John's wort, cultivars of St. John's wort are grown under field conditions.

When breeding suitable varieties, susceptibility to the fungal disease red wilt plays an important role. There are several varieties available (as of April 26, 2004): Anthos, Hyperixtrakt, Motiv, Uperikon, Hyperimed, Hyperiflor, Vitan, Hyperipharm and Hyperisol.

The sowing takes place in spring or autumn, and it is also possible to plant “early seedlings ” in spring. There is little fertilization, especially high amounts of nitrogen lower the hypericine content in the drug. Weeds must be regulated with a harrow, machine and hand hoe, and a fungicide may be used against red wilt after harvest .

The cultivation takes place over two to three years and is harvested once or twice a year. The buds, flowers and twig tips are harvested at flowering time. For fresh produce, the herb is harvested by hand or with a picking machine. Goods intended for drying are brought in with special machines or converted conventional harvesting machines (combine harvesters, forage harvesters). The herb yields fluctuate widely and are between 4 and 26 t fresh matter per hectare.

The plants immediately after harvesting at 40-60 ° C on batch, tray dryers or belt dryers, the water up to 10% residual moisture removed.

The content of bioactive ingredients changes depending on the environmental conditions, for example irradiation with different levels of UV-B light.



Medical application

Real St. John's wort in the form of the herb drug (Hyperici herba)
Pickled inflorescences in olive oil, the right glass has already matured for a long time and is darker in color ( Thassos , Greece).
Extraction of red oil in Soglio , Graubünden

St. John's Wort is one of Europe's most commonly as a sedative and antidepressant used herbal medicines . The effectiveness has been better documented than with other herbal preparations with a comparable area of ​​application, such as lavender oil and passion flower extract , even if there is criticism of the methodology and the informative value of the studies. In general, fewer side effects are expected than with standard synthetic antidepressants.

St. John's wort was already used as a medicinal plant in ancient times . In addition to real St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), blood St. John's wort (Hypericum androsaemum) and whorl-leaved St. John's wort (Hypericum coris) as well as arnica were also used until modern times . Today Hypericum perforatum is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of mild to moderate depressive moods or nervous restlessness . Externally, oily preparations are used. The plant was chosen in autumn 2014 by scientists from the University of Würzburg ("Study Group Development History of Medicinal Plant Science ") with reference to its great medical potential as " Medicinal Plant of the Year 2015".

Effectiveness in the treatment of depression

The German Society for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychosomatics and Neurology (DGPPN), together with other organizations and specialist societies (BÄK, KBV, AWMF), lists St. John's wort in the S3 guideline / national care guideline Unipolar Depression from 2015 as a possibility of a first attempt at therapy in a mild to moderate depressive episode. Since it is not known exactly which ingredients are responsible for the antidepressant effect of St. John's wort in which dosage and via which mechanism, the guideline recommends the use of preparations whose clinical effectiveness has been shown in our own studies. In the guideline, the use of St. John's wort in mild to moderate depression has the recommendation grade 0 (= "can" recommendation: "reports from expert circles or expert opinion and / or clinical experience of recognized authorities (evidence category IV) or extrapolation from evidence level IIa, IIb or III . This rating indicates that directly applicable clinical studies of good quality were not available or not available. ")

The pharmacological effectiveness of St. John's wort in the therapy of depression is, however, controversial. There are both clinical studies that found efficacy and those that did not show superiority over placebo . A Cochrane review from 2008 evaluated 29 studies with a total of more than 5000 patients who had a major depressive disorder according to DSM or ICD-10 criteria . The authors see evidence in the studies which suggests that the effectiveness of St. John's wort extracts in the studies is superior to placebo and is comparable to synthetic antidepressants with better tolerance and lower dropout rates. Since the efficacy determined in the studies also depends on the country from which the study originates and its precision, it cannot be ruled out that some smaller studies from German-speaking countries are flawed and report overly optimistic results. Clinical guidelines from Germany, Canada, the USA and Great Britain see the effects of St. John's wort as best demonstrated in mild or moderate depression.

Another meta-analysis from 2016, which, compared to the Cochrane Review published in 2008, also includes some more recent studies, comes to a similar conclusion to the latter.

In 2009, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care assumed that St. John's wort has an effect on mild depression. In general, however, there was a clear dependence of the effect estimator on the quality of the study: the poorer the quality of the studies, the greater the extent of the effects shown, and vice versa. If only those studies with the best methodological quality are considered, St. John's wort shows only a very small effect. The institute also assumes that St. John's wort does not help with severe depression. It was not found to be superior to placebo in any study in major depression.

The current studies do not yet provide enough data to be able to compare different St. John's wort extracts with one another or to determine the optimal dose. In the case of mild depression, however, a dose-effect relationship was experimentally proven in a study.

Mechanisms of action and effective latency

Hyperforin is the main active ingredient in St. John's wort . Standardized St. John's wort extract increases the concentration of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine at the synapses by inhibiting the uptake of the neurotransmitters . The concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine and L-glutamate also increases , which no antidepressant can do in this form. As a result, the number of (noradrenergic) β-receptors is reduced , and the extract also downregulates the 5-HT2 receptors .

The effect of St. John's wort preparations is said to be due to the chemically defined substances hyperforin and hypericin , which was previously regarded as an ingredient that determines its effectiveness . These cause a slight to moderate cerebral reuptake inhibition of serotonin , norepinephrine and dopamine ; these are known mechanisms of action of synthetic antidepressants . In animal experiments, the ratio of reuptake inhibition is serotonin: dopamine: noradrenaline: GABA: glutamate = 2: 1: 5: 1: 11. A MAO inhibition has been repeatedly claimed, but could never be proved. Other receptors are not affected.

A study on the effect of the combined intake with extract from the passion flower ( Passiflora incarnata ) came to the result that the inhibition of reuptake for serotonin was increased. If the inhibition with Genuine St. John's Wort alone is 60%, the combination with passion flower extract brings the effectiveness into the range of the fluvoxamine used for comparison , in which the inhibition is 90%. However, increasing the dosage reduces the effectiveness again. Due to the alternating or side effects of the hyperforin contained in St. John's wort, it would be desirable to be able to lower the dosage of the St. John's wort extract by simultaneously taking passion flower extract. Despite certain uncertainties, the quality of the study was rated as acceptable to good.
Combination preparations of St. John's wort, passion flower and valerian are also offered.

Side effects

St. John's wort medicines are generally well tolerated, and undesirable side effects are minor or rare. Manic episodes induced by St. John's wort have been reported in isolated cases . In addition, St. John's wort can cause minor gastrointestinal complaints , headaches , excitement and tiredness and a phototoxic reaction of the skin (tendency to sunburn), as hypericin increases the sensitivity to UV light ( photosensitivity reaction ). In high doses it may work. U. highly phototoxic. However, phototoxicity is only expected after an overdose of 20 times the recommended daily dose of 900 to 1500 mg. Fair-skinned people who take St. John's wort regularly and want to tan in solariums or on vacation trips should consider stopping the St. John's wort preparation 14 days before the first exposure to light or sun exposure. If you are known to be sensitive to light, St. John's wort should be avoided. In rare cases, allergic skin reactions can occur. Cattle and horses that eat too much St. John's wort also show the symptoms mentioned. At very high doses, mild forms of serotonin syndrome can occur. Symptoms include dizziness, flu, clouded consciousness, involuntary muscle twitching, and anxiety. The overdose symptoms can easily be confused with the depressive symptoms and lead to a further increase in the dose.


At the end of the 1990s it was found that St. John's wort leads to an increased breakdown of other active substances . This is why St. John's wort, which was previously freely available, was made subject to pharmacy requirements in 2003 . Preparations that contain up to 1 g drug equivalent and up to 1 mg hyperforin in a daily dose , tea and fresh plant juice or oily preparations intended for external use (red oil) are excluded from the pharmacy obligation . Because of the interactions , St. John's wort was made subject to prescription in the Republic of Ireland several years ago . St. John's wort preparations with the indication "moderate depression " have been subject to prescription in Germany since April 1, 2009.

St. John's wort induces the degradation enzymes cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 1A2 in the liver . The rate of degradation of a large number of active ingredients increases and they can lose their effectiveness. Cytochrome P450, subtype 3A4 metabolized u. a. Hormones . St. John's wort can impair the effectiveness of birth control pills and other hormonal contraceptives. There are also interactions with certain AIDS drugs ( HIV protease inhibitors ), antibiotics such as clarithromycin, and some antidepressants . The HIV protease inhibitors and the antibiotic may lose some or all of their effectiveness, which can have serious consequences for the serious underlying diseases. Also, immunosuppressants , for example, by grafting are added to the rejection reaction of the body, are attenuated. Fatal cases of St. John's wort with simultaneous immunosuppression have been described. In a Swedish study, a dose of 600 mg per day with a (comparatively high) hyperforin content of 4% lowered the maximum plasma concentration, the area under the curve and the half-life of finasteride by about 50% after 14 days . Affected (with attenuation of the impact or effect of cancellation) are also the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and nortriptyline , cardiac glycosides , anti-coagulants ( warfarin ), methadone , buprenorphine , antiepileptics (for. Example, carbamazepine , valproic acid ), benzodiazepines (eg. As diazepam , alprazolam , Lorazepam ) and benzodiazepine-like substances (e.g. zolpidem and zopiclone ) as well as several other groups of active substances.

With serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine , paroxetine , citalopram , etc., there is the possibility of reinforcing serotonergic -related side effects (nausea, diarrhea, blood pressure fluctuations, excitation) through to the release of the life-threatening serotonin syndrome (severe blood pressure fluctuations, fever, depression of consciousness, confusion, convulsions) . On the other hand, some of the serotonin reuptake inhibitors can also be weakened in their effects by accelerating their breakdown. When taking such combinations, the effect is difficult to predict.

Use during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Caution should be exercised when used during pregnancy and breastfeeding. St. John's wort was used in folk medicine as an abortion agent.

Use in folk medicine

In folk medicine , St. John's wort is also used as a tea and tincture for menstrual cramps and depression caused by puberty .

St. John's wort oil ( "red oil, locust oil", formerly Sant Johan oil ; Oleum Hyperici) is as liniments for lumbago , gout , rheumatism , for pain relief after sprains and sprains , for wound healing (St. John's wort has anti-inflammatory) in bruises and shingles used, but can also be used internally. Sunburn and burns should also be alleviated. St. John's wort oil is considered a non-irritating, "cold oil". It is obtained by soaking St. John's wort flowers in cold - pressed olive or sunflower oil for two months , shaking it vigorously from time to time and letting it stand in the sun. This process is called maceration .

Difficulty falling asleep and inner restlessness are treated with a liquor made from flowers and herbs.

Use in food

St. John's wort preparations can also be found sporadically in food supplements : there as St. John's wort oil ("red oil"), to which, however, the internal medicinal effects cannot be ascribed.

See also



Historical illustrations


Web links

Commons : Echtes St. John's Wort ( Hypericum perforatum )  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Wirtgen: About the vegetation of the high and volcanic Eifel . In: Decheniana : Negotiations of the Natural History Association of the Prussian Rhineland and Westphalia . Volumes 22-23. Bonn 1865, p. 284 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  2. ^ Heinrich Marzell : Our medicinal plants: Their history and their position in folklore. 2nd edition (under the title History and Folklore of German Medicinal Plants ), Stuttgart 1938, pp. 133-136 (“[…] standing around Johannis in the most beautiful bloom”).
  3. Derivatives in St. John's Wort. (PDF; 358 kB)
  4. a b c d e Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp.  665 .
  5. Elke Wolf: St. John's wort: There is something wrong with the quality. In: Pharmazeutische Zeitung , Volume 27, 2001.
  6. a b c d e Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Hypericum perforatum. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved April 22, 2020.
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  8. Information System Renewable Resources fact sheet ( Memento of the original dated February 2, 2008 at the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link is automatically inserted and not yet tested. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , February 12, 2008. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  9. protected / approved varieties.
  10. Germ, M., Stibilj, V., Kreft, S., Gaberščik, A., Kreft, I. (2010). Flavonoid, tannin and hypericin concentrations in the leaves of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) are affected by UV-B radiation levels. Food Chemistry, 122: 471-474, doi: 10.1016 / j.foodchem.2010.03.008 .
  11. Jürgen Clausen: Double comfort with St. John's wort and passion flower? , Rubric: Studies in a nutshell, In:; accessed in March 2019
  12. Corinna Schraut: Herbal psychotropic drugs - What to expect from passion flower, lavender and St. John's wort , In:; accessed in March 2019. The following studies are cited:
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  15. Elected: Medicinal Plant of the Year 2015. In: Main-Post , October 7, 2014
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  18. K. Linde, L. Kriston, G. Rücker, S. Jamil, I. Schumann, K. Meissner, K. Sigterman, A. Schneider: Efficacy and acceptability of pharmacological treatments for depressive disorders in primary care: systematic review and network meta-analysis. In: Annals of family medicine. Volume 13, No. 1, January / February 2015, pp. 69-79, doi: 10.1370 / afm.1687 , PMID 25583895 , PMC 4291268 (free full text) (review).
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  20. ^ Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care: Synopsis of guidelines on the subject of "Depression". IQWiG reports - Year: 2009 No. 34, p. 121. (PDF)
  21. IQWiG health information: Can remedies made from St. John's wort help?
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  23. Wolfgang P. Kaschka, Rolf Kretzschmar, Martin Jandl: Psychopharmaka compact (clinic and practice guide). Schattauer Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-7945-2591-1 , p. 77.
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  25. ^ Walter E. Muller: St. John's Wort and its active principles in depression and anxiety. 1st edition. Birkhäuser, 2005, ISBN 3-7643-6160-3 , p. 34.
  26. Jürgen Clausen: Double comfort with St. John's wort and passion flower?, category: Studies in a nutshell; Retrieved March 2019. This source refers to the following studies:
    1) BL Fiebich, R Knörle, K Appel, T Kammler, G Weiss: Pharmacological studies in an herbal drug combination of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) and passion flower ( Passiflora incarnata): in vitro and in vivo evidence of synergy between Hypericum and Passiflora in antidepressant pharmacological models . In: Fitoterapia , 2011 Apr; 82 (3), pp. 474-280, PMID 21185920 .
    2) R Madabushi, B Frank, B Drewelow, H Derendorf, V. Butterweck: Hyperforin in St. John's wort drug interactions . In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. , 2006 Mar; 62 (3), pp. 225-233, PMID 16477470 .
  27. Sabine Anagnostou: St. John's wort, valerian and passion flower - the siblings of the soul ., November 29, 2011
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  31. Torsten Kratz, Albert Diefenbacher: Psychopharmacotherapy in old age. Avoidance of drug interactions and polypharmacy. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt. Volume 116, Issue 29 f. (22 July) 2019, pp. 508-517, pp. 510 f.
  32. ^ AA Izzo, E. Ernst: Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review. In: Drugs . Volume 69, Issue 13, 2009, pp. 1777-1798, PMID 19719333
  33. ^ St John's wort: interaction with hormonal contraceptives, including implants Drug Safety Update. In: MHRA , March 12, 2014, accessed February 19, 2017 .
  34. A. Lundahl, M. Hedeland, U. Bondesson, L. Knutson, H. Lennernäs: The effect of St. John's wort on the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biliary excretion of finasteride and its metabolites in healthy men. In: Eur J Pharm Sci , Volume 36, 2009, pp. 433-443. doi: 10.1016 / j.ejps.2008.11.009 , PMID 19073252 .
  35. F. Borrelli, AA Izzo: Herb-drug interactions with St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): an update on clinical observations. In: The AAPS journal. Volume 11, number 4, December 2009, pp. 710-727, doi: 10.1208 / s12248-009-9146-8 , PMID 19859815 , PMC 2782080 (free full text) (review).
  36. L. Henderson, QY Yue, C. Bergquist, B. Gerden, P. Arlett: St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): drug interactions and clinical outcomes. In: Br J Clin Pharmacol , Volume 54, Issue 4, 2002, pp. 349-356. Review. PMID 12392581 . PMC 1874438 (free full text)
  37. May 2007: Arkocaps St. John's Wort - technical information
  38. ^ John M. Riddle, Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance . Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1994, ISBN 978-0-674-16876-3 , pp. 103 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  39. See for example Jürgen Martin: The 'Ulmer Wundarznei'. Introduction - Text - Glossary on a monument to German specialist prose from the 15th century. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1991 (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 52), ISBN 3-88479-801-4 (also medical dissertation Würzburg 1990), p. 167.
  40. Peter Spiegels: Old and new knowledge of medicinal herbs. BLV, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-8354-0047-9 , pp. 55-56.
  41. Pedanios Dioscurides . 1st century: De Medicinali Materia libri quinque. Translation. Julius Berendes . Pedanius Dioscurides' medicine theory in 5 books. Enke, Stuttgart 1902, pp. 361-363 (Book III, Chapter 161 Hypericon - Chapter 162 Ascyron - Chapter 163 Androsaimon - Chapter 164 Coris ) (digitized version )
  42. Pliny the Elder , 1st century: Naturalis historia book XXVI, chapter liii – liv (§ 85–86): Hyperikon (digitized version ) - translation Külb 1855 (digitized version ) ; Book XXVII, Chapter x (§ 26-27): Askyron (digitized version ) - Translation Külb 1855 (digitized version )
  43. Galen , 2nd century De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus , Book VIII, Chapter XX / 5 (based on the Kühn 1826 edition, Volume XII, p. 148): Hypericum (digitized version)
  44. Pseudo-Dioscorides de herbis femininis . 6th century edition: HF Kästner. Pseudo-Dioscorides de herbis femininis. In: Hermes , Vol. 31 (1896), pp. 622–623 (Chapter XLVII): Ipericon (digitized version )
  45. Avicenna , 11th century: Canon of Medicine . Translation and adaptation by Gerhard von Cremona , Arnaldus de Villanova and Andrea Alpago (1450–1521). Basel 1556, Volume II, Chapter 363: Hypericon (digitized version )
  46. Constantine the African , 11th century: Liber de gradibus simplicium . Pressure. Opera . Basel 1536, p. 378: Hypericon (digitized version )
  47. ^ Pseudo-Serapion 13th century, print. Venice 1497, sheet 133v - 134r: (No CCLXVII): Ypericon (digitized)
  48. ^ Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Physica , Book I, Chapter 222: Hartenawe . Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1208 (digitized version ) - Translation: Herbert Reier: Hildegard von Bingen Physica. Translated into German after the text edition by JP Migne, Paris 1882. Kiel 1980, p. 42: Hartenaue is cold and gets the cattle at the pasture. It is not very suitable for medicine because it is an uncultivated and neglected herb
  49. Guy de Chauliac Chirurgia magna , 1363. In the translation by Édouard Nicaise: La grande chirurgie de Guy de Chauliac, chirurgien, maître en médecine de l'université de Montpellier, composée en l'an 1363. Editions Alcan, Paris 1890, p 649: Hypericon, est l'herbe mille pertuis, chaude, et seiche. Elle incarne, consolide et mondifie (digitized version ) . Translated into: Hieronymus Brunschwig: Dis is the book of the Cirurgia. Handling of the wundartzny. Johann Grüninger , Strasbourg 4th July 1497, p. 127r: Jpericon sant iohans krut hot vnd ​​trucking vnd makes meat / it cleans and strengthens (digitalized)
  50. ^ Konrad von Megenberg , 14th century: Book of nature. Output. Franz Pfeiffer . Aue, Stuttgart 1861, p. 391 (V / 24): Künigskron (digitized version )
  51. Gart der Gesundheit . Mainz 1485, chapter 430: Ypericon. Sant iohans krut (digitized version )
  52. Hortus sanitatis 1491, Mainz 1491, Part I, Chapter 516: Ypericon (digitized version )
  53. Hieronymus Brunschwig : Small distilling book , Strasbourg 1500, sheet 100r: Sant Johanns krut (digitized version )
  54. Hieronymus Brunschwig : Liber de arte distillandi de compositis. Strasbourg 1512, sheet 208r – 208v: Ypericon… herba fuga demonis (digital copy )
  55. Paracelsus : Herbarius approx. 1525, Huser edition 1590, 7th part. Pp. 152–162: From the Sanct Johanns Krautt (digitized version )
  56. ^ Otto Brunfels : Contrafayt Kreüterbůch . Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1532, p. 251: Text Johannskraut. Harthaw. Waldthopff (digitized version )
  57. Hieronymus Bock : New Kreütter Bůch . Wendel Rihel, Strasbourg 1539, Part I, Chapter 23: Harthaw. Wild Raut (digitized version )
  58. Leonhart Fuchs : New Kreütterbuch… Michael Isingrin, Basel 1543, chapter 323: S. Johanskraut (digitized version )
  59. Other part of the treasure Euonymi… first carried together by Mr Doctor Cunrat Geßner / Accordingly by Caspar Wolffen… described and manufactured in truck / now and recently interpreted by Johann Jacobo Nüscheler in Teütsche language . Zurich 1583, pp. 144–147: Das Oele von dem Harthauw (digitized version ) ; P. 283: Das Harthaw or S. Johanns Saltz (digitized version )
  60. ^ Pietro Andrea Mattioli : Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Franckfurt am Mayn 1586, sheet 317v – 319r: Sanct Johannskraut (digitized)
  61. Nicolas Lémery : Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples. , Paris 1699, pp. 372-373: Hypericum (digitalisat) ; Translation. Complete material lexicon. Initially drafted in French, but now after the third edition, which has been enlarged by a large [...] edition, translated into high German / By Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...]. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, Sp. 558–559: Hypericum (digitized version )
  62. Albrecht von Haller (editor): Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to the science of medicine and the art of pharmacy clearly and completely [...]. Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, Sp. 795–797: Hypericum (digitized version )
  63. August Friedrich Hecker 's practical medicine theory. Revised and enriched with the latest discoveries by a practicing doctor . Camesius, Vienna, Volume I 1814, p. 360: Herba Hyperici (digitized version )
  64. Johann Gottfried Rademacher : Justification of the misunderstood, intellectual empirical teaching of the old divorced secret doctors and faithful communication of the result of 25 years of testing this teaching on the sickbed . 2 volumes. Berlin 1841-1848. 2nd edition 1846, Volume I, p. 661: Hypericum as a brain remedy (digitized version )