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Calophyllum inophyllum, Calophyllaceae

Calophyllum inophyllum , Calophyllaceae

Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Nuclear eudicotyledons
Eurosiden I
Order : Malpighian-like
Scientific name
Yuss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl
Caryocar brasiliense , Caryocaraceae
Campylospermum schoenleinianum , Ochnaceae
Ochna serrulata , Ochnaceae
Phyllanthus juglandifolius , Phyllanthaceae
Tetracoccus dioicus , Picrodendraceae
Turnera ulmifolia , Passifloraceae

The Malpighiales (Malpighiales) is one of the largest and most diverse orders of the flowering plants (Magnoliopsida). It comprises 39 families , over 700 genera and around 16,000 species . Thus the Malpighiales make up about 6% of the flowering plants (Magnoliopsida) and 7.8% of the Eudicotylenes. It's okay with most families too. Most of the species of Malpighiales are woody plants that are predominantly found in the tropics and subtropics of the New World. There they are of great ecological importance, because around 28% of the woody plants in the undergrowth of tropical rainforests belong to families of this order.

Within the Malpighiales there are many well-known families and genera, such as the milkweed family (Euphorbiaceae), willow family (Salicaceae), passion flower family (Passifloraceae), violet family (Violaceae) and linaceae . There are also many useful plants such as flax ( Linum , Linaceae), willow ( Salix , Salicaceae), passion fruit / grenadilla ( Passiflora , Passifloraceae), St. John's wort ( Hypericum , Hypericaceae), acerola ( Malpighia , Malpighiaceae) and cassava ( Manihotea , Euphor) ).


The families were assigned to this order according to molecular genetic data; morphologically they are very heterogeneous . There are hardly any common morphological characteristics for all families.

There are mostly stipules present. Most are three carpels an ovary grown.


History of the classification

The Malpighiales were one of the great unexpected results of molecular systematics. The first evidence for this group came from the first large molecular systematic study of flowering plants by Chase et al. (1993). A monophylum consisting of the families Chrysobalanaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Violaceae, Ochnaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Humiriaceae, Passifloraceae and Malpighiaceae was found here. However, a close relationship between these families was not suspected in earlier classification systems. The first edition of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification (APG I, 1998) recognized the Malpighiales as a new order. The name Malpighiales was given in honor of the Italian doctor and biologist Marcello Malpighi . The first author to whom the name Malpighiales is ascribed is Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius in his “Conspectus regni vegetabilis” (1835). However, the APG took the name from Hutchinson (1967). In the two classifications before APG by Arthur John Cronquist (1981) and Armen Tachtadschjan (1997), the families now summarized as Malpighiales were divided into 10 to 18 orders in the classes Rosidae and Dilleniidae. All phylogenetic studies confirmed the Malpighiales as a clear monophyletic group. However, the relationships between the individual families could not be adequately reconstructed so far, and the Malpighiales are the least understood order of flowering plants.

Relatives within the Rosids

The Malpighiales belong to the Rosids, within their subgroup Eurosiden I the Malpighiales are part of the so-called COM-Clade, COM stands for Celastrales, Oxalidales and Malpighiales. These three orders form a well-established group in which the Malpighiales are most likely sister to the Oxalidales.

Spindle tree-like





Internal system

The APG II classification (2003) largely followed that of 1998. In the last version, APG III (2009), the two families Rafflesiaceae and Calophyllaceae were added as new families to be recognized.

According to APG III (2009), the following families belong to the Malpighiales:

The relationships between families are the subject of current research. Wurdack & Davis (2009) summarize the following families in groups:

The families Ctenolophonaceae , Centroplacaceae , Caryocaraceae , Humiriaceae , Irvingiaceae , Ixonanthaceae , linaceae (Linaceae) and Pandaceae are isolated.

Sources and further reading

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The order of the AP website. (engl.)
  2. ^ Charles C. Davis, Campbell O. Webb, Kenneth J. Wurdack, Carlos A. Jaramillo, Michael J. Donoghue: Explosive radiation of Malpighiales supports a mid-Cretaceous origin of modern tropical rain forests , in The American Naturalist. Volume 165, No. 3, 2005, pp. E36 – E65, doi: 10.1086 / 428296 , (PDF file; 378 kB) ( Memento of the original from October 11, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. Mark W. Chase and 42 other authors: Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL. In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Volume 80, No. 3, 1993, pp. 528-580, doi: 10.2307 / 2399846 , (PDF file; 1.5 MB) .
  4. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group: An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Volume 85, No. 4, 1998, pp. 531-553, doi: 10.2307 / 2992015 , (PDF file) ( Memento from June 8, 2011 in the Internet Archive ).
  5. ^ John Hutchinson: The Genera of Flowering Plants. Dicotyledones Volume II. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1967.
  6. Arthur J. Cronquist: An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York 1981, ISBN 0-231-03880-1 .
  7. Armen Takhtajan: Diversity and Classification of Flowering Plants. , Columbia University Press, New York 1997, pp. 1-643, ISBN 0-231-10098-1 .
  8. Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Mark W. Chase, Mark E. Mort, Dirk C. Albach, Michael Zanis, Vincent Savolainen, William H. Hahn, Sara B. Hoot, Michael F. Fay, Michael Axtell, Susan M. Swensen, Linda M. Prince, W. John Kress, Kevin C. Nixon, James S. Farris: Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA, rbcL, and atpB sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 133, No. 4, 2000, pp. 381-461, doi: 10.1006 / bojl.2000.0380 , (PDF file, 5.3 MB) .
  9. ^ V. Savolainen, MF Fay, DC Albach, A. Backlund, M. Van der Bank, KM Cameron, LA Johnson, MD Lledó, J.-C. Pintaud, M. Powell, MC Sheaham, DE Soltis, PS Soltis, P. Weston, WM Whitten, KJ Wurdack, MW Chase: Phylogeny of the eudicots: a nearly complete familial analysis based on rbcL gene sequences. In: Kew Bulletin. Volume 55, No. 2, 2000, pp. 257-309, doi: 10.2307 / 4115644 .
  10. C. Davis, MW Chase: Elatinaceae are sister to Malpighiaceae; Peridiscaceae belong to Saxifragales. In: American Journal of Botany. Volume 91, No. 2, 2004, pp. 262-273, doi: 10.3732 / ajb.91.2.262 .
  11. ^ N. Korotkova, JV Schneider, D. Quandt, A. Worberg, G. Zizka & T. Borsch. (2009) Phylogeny of the eudicot order Malpighiales: analysis of a recalcitrant clade with sequences of the petD group II intron. In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, Volume 282, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 201-228 doi: 10.1007 / s00606-008-0099-7 , (PDF file) .
  12. ^ A b Kenneth J. Wurdack, Charles C. Davis: Malpighiales phylogenetics: gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the angiosperm tree of life. In: American Journal of Botany. Volume 96, No. 8, 2009, pp. 1551–1570, doi: 10.3732 / ajb.0800207 , (PDF file) ( Memento of the original from February 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and still Not checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. Hengchang Wang, Michael J. Moore, Pamela S. Soltis, Charles D. Bell, Samuel F. Brockington, Roolse Alexandre, Charles C. Davis, Maribeth Latvis, Steven R. Manchester, Douglas E. Soltis: Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . Volume 106, No. 10, 2009, pp. 3853-3858, doi: 10.1073 / pnas.0813376106 .
  14. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 141, No. 4, 2003, pp. 399-436, doi: 10.1046 / j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x , (PDF file).
  15. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 105-121, doi: 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .

Web links

Commons : Malpighienartig  - collection of images, videos and audio files