Calophyllum inophyllum

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Calophyllum inophyllum
Calophyllum inophyllum

Calophyllum inophyllum

Eurosiden I
Order : Malpighiales (Malpighiales)
Family : Calophyllaceae
Genre : Calophyllum
Type : Calophyllum inophyllum
Scientific name
Calophyllum inophyllum

Calophyllum inophyllum , Alexandrian laurel , also Tamanu , Kamani , or Foraha , is a species of tree from the genus Calophyllum , from the family Calophyllaceae . Calophyllum inophyllum is a hardwood tree , the wood of which wastradedas Indian mahogany or rosewood , it is also sold as Bintangor . The resin was sold under the name Takamahak , and Tamanu oil (Calophyllum or Foraha oil) is obtainedfrom the seeds.


Vegetative characteristics

The evergreen tree can grow up to around 20 m high or a little higher (up to 35 m) and has a wide spreading and low branching habit. The thick bark is grayish and longitudinally fissured. It contains a white-yellowish and sticky latex juice .

The foliage is dense, shiny and dark green on both sides, light green on the underside and rounded to blunt or rounded at the outer end, also partly indented. The cross-opposed , elliptical to oblong or ovate to obovate, thick, leathery, entire-margined and short-stalked leaves are about 8-20 x 4.5-11.5 cm in size, they are wedge-shaped to rounded at the base. The leaf margin is sometimes curved. The nerve is pinnate with many closely spaced lateral nerves, stipules are missing. The leaves have latex canals and the median nerve and the leaf margin are conspicuously pale yellow.

Generative characteristics

The inflorescences are racemose and up to 15 cm long. The 2 to 2.5 centimeters wide, white, mostly hermaphrodite flowers have a strong scent. The perigon consists of 8–13 obovate tepals, the flowers have 150 to 300 or more stamens in several circles with yellow anthers. The plump, uni- and Short-stalked ovary with anatroper ovule is upper constant and pink to reddish, the stylus is long, thin and flexible, the scar is flattened top.

The solitary stone fruits are about 2.5 to 4 centimeters in diameter and wrinkled and orange-brown when ripe. They contain a large, round to pear-shaped, about 2–3 cm large, dark brown, oil-containing seed. The fruit peel ( exocarp ) is thin, leathery and soft, underneath is a thin, about 1–3 mm thick, fibrous, corky layer (mesocarp) which is connected to the thin endocarp, which is dark brown, up to 1.5 mm thick, bony Testa has a spongy layer up to 12 mm thick on the outside. Among them are the large cotyledons , they often do not completely fill the inner cavity. The fruit is buoyant, this is supported by internal air chambers (mesocarp and testa), this is used for nautochoria . However, the seeds also spread through animals . Approximately (100) 180-230 seeds weigh one kilogram. The seeds contain various coumarins and 40–55% oil.


Calophyllum inophyllum is native to East Africa to Malesia and Northern Australia . It is comparatively tolerant of salt, which is why it can be found on coasts, where it is often planted on beaches as a coastal protection and shade provider.



Web links

Commons : Calophyllum inophyllum  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Umberto Quattrocchi: CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants. CRC Press, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4200-8044-5 , pp. 740 f.
  2. Bintangor ( Memento of the original from November 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.64 MB), from, accessed on November 15, 2016. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. ^ Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. Harvard Univ., 55 (2), 1974, p. 223 f, online at, accessed on December 20, 2017.
  4. B. Palanikumaran, KT Parthiban et al .: Variability studies for seed and seedling traits in Calophyllum inophyllum (L.) at south India. In: J. Andaman Sci. Assoc. Vol. 20 (1), 2015, pp. 63-69, online (PDF; 375 kB) at, accessed on December 20, 2017.
  5. Sabine Krist: Lexicon of vegetable fats and oils. 2nd edition, Springer, 2013, ISBN 978-3-7091-1004-1 , p. 172.
  6. ^ P. Barry Tomlinson: The Botany of Mangroves. Second Edition, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2016, ISBN 978-1-107-08067-6 , p. 226.