Violet family

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Violet family
Grove violets (Viola riviniana)

Grove violets ( Viola riviniana )

Nuclear eudicotyledons
Eurosiden I
Order : Malpighiales (Malpighiales)
Family : Violet family
Scientific name

The violet family (Violaceae) are a family of plants within the order of the Malpighiales (Malpighiales). The best known genus in Central Europe are the violets ( viola ).


Flower diagram of viola
Tribus Violeae: Hybanthus enneaspermus

Vegetative characteristics

There are annual and perennial herbaceous plants or woody plants: Half bushes , shrubs , trees and vines .

The leaves are usually arranged alternately and spirally. The mostly simple, rarely divided leaf blade has a smooth or serrated leaf margin. The stomata are anisocytic or paracytic. Many species have stipules that can be leaf-like or small.

Generative characteristics

The flowers, surrounded by two bracts, stand individually in the leaf axils or in differently structured inflorescences .

In the violet family there are both types with radial symmetry and types with zygomorphic flowers . The mostly hermaphrodite flowers are five-fold with double perianth . Often there is a spur. The five sepals are free or only fused at their base. The five petals are free and unequal. There is only one circle with five stamens . Filaments are often very short or absent. Most three (two to five) carpels have become a top permanent ovary grown. In parietal placentation there are 1 to 100 anatropic ovules in an ovary chamber . Pollination occurs by insects ( entomophilia ).

Most species form capsule fruits . However, there are also species that produce berries or nuts . In many species, the large seeds have an aril , so that they are often carried away by ants. The abundant endosperm is fleshy. The embryo is erect.


The Violaceae family was established in 1802 by August Johann Georg Karl Batsch in Tabula Affinitatum Regni Vegetabilis , 57 under the name "Violariae". The type genre is viola . Synonyms for Violaceae Batsch are: Alsodeiaceae J.Agardh and Leoniaceae A.DC.

Tribe Rinoreeae: Hymenanthera crassifolia , a shrub
Tribe Rinoreeae: branch with berries of Melicytus dentatus
Tribus Rinoreeae: flowers of Amphirrhox longifolia
Tribe Rinoreeae: Section of an inflorescence of Rinorea melanodonta
Tribus Violeae: Two- flowered
violet ( Viola biflora )

The family Violaceae is divided into three subfamilies: Violoideae divided into tribe and subtribe with most genera and species and the two monogeneric, species-poor Leonioideae and Fusispermoideae . It contains about 23 genera with 800 to 1000 species:

Subfamily Fusispermoideae Hekking : It contains only one genus:
Subfamily Leonioideae : It contains only one genus:
  • Leonia Ruiz & Pav .: It contains about six species in tropical South America.
Subfamily Violoideae Beilschmied : It contains two tribes and about 21 genera:
  • Tribus Rinoreeae : It contains four subtribes and 13 genera:
  • Subtribe Hymenantherinae: It contains only two genera:
  • Hymenanthera R.Br. : With a maximum of eight species.
  • Melicytus J.R. Forst. & G.Forst. : With about six kinds; they are dioecious separately sexed ( diocesan ) and form berries.
  • Subtribus Isodendriinae: It contains only one genus:
  • Isodendrion A.Gray : With a maximum of 15 species, predominantly found in Hawaii.
  • Subtribus Paypayrolinae: It contains about five genera:
  • Amphirrhox explos . : It contains only two species that occur in Brazil.
  • Hekkingia H.E.Ballard & Munzinger : With only one species:
  • Paypayrola Aubl. : It contains about eight species that occur in tropical South America.
  • Subtribus Rinoreinae: It contains about five genera:
  • Allexis Pierre : It contains about four species that occur in tropical West Africa.
  • Decorsella A. Chev. (Syn .: Gymnorinorea Keay ): It contains only one species:
  • Gloeospermum Triana & Planch. : It contains about 12 species found in tropical America.
  • Rinorea Aubl. (including Alsodeia Thouars , Phyllanoa Croizat , Scyphellandra Thwaites ): It contains 160 to 270 species.
  • Rinoreocarpus Ducke : It contains only one species:
  • Tribus Violeae : It contains about ten genera:
  • Agatea A.Gray (including Agation Brongn. ): It contains about six species found in New Caledonia.
  • Anchietea A.St.-Hil. : It contains about eight species that occur in tropical South America.
  • Corynostylis Mart. : It contains about four species in tropical America.
  • Hybanthopsis Paula-Souza : With only one species:
  • Hybanthus Jacq. (Including Acentra Phil. , Clelandia J.M.Black , Cubelium Raf. ex Britton & A.Br. , Ionidium Vent. , Pigea DC. ): It contains 90 to 150 species, but is polyphyletic to that extent.
  • Mayanaea Lundell : With only one species:
  • Noisettia Kunth : With only one species:
  • Orthion Standl. & Steyerm. : With about five species.
  • Schweiggeria Spreng. : With about two species in Mexico and Brazil.
  • Violets ( Viola L. ) (including Erpetion Sweet , Mnemion Spach ): contains 400 to 600 species.


Individual evidence

  1. Violaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  2. a b c d e f g h i David John Mabberley: Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses . 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press 2008. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4

Web links

Commons : Violet Family (Violaceae)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files