from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kiggelaria africana

Kiggelaria africana

Nuclear eudicotyledons
Eurosiden I
Order : Malpighiales (Malpighiales)
Family : Achariaceae
Scientific name

The achariaceae are a plant family of the order of Malpighienartigen (Malpighiales). It contains 30 to 32 genera with around 145 species. The family has a pantropical distribution.

Description and ecology

Illustration by Pangium edule
Simple leaves and inflorescences with female flowers of Kiggelaria africana

Appearance and leaves

Most of the species are woody plants: they grow in the form of trees and shrubs ; they are seldom herbaceous (climbing) plants . On the branches the leaves are arranged alternately and in a spiral or two in two lines, with Carpotroche they are heaped at the branch ends. The leaves are divided into a petiole and a leaf blade. The petioles, which are short to long depending on the species, are thickened at the top and bottom. The leaf margin is entire, serrate or serrated. The leaf surfaces are bald or downy-haired, usually with simple, rarely hairy, scaly trichomes . There is pinnate veins; in the case of Kuhlmann diodes with many parallel lateral nerves. Usually stipules are present; in Chiangiodendron they are absent.

Inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds

Depending on the type, the flowers are hermaphroditic or unisexual (functionally male or female). The species can be monoecious ( monoecious ), dioecious ( dioecious ), separate sexes or sub- diocesan . The flowers stand together individually or in small numbers in lateral to almost terminal, differently structured inflorescences . For example, at Carpotroche there is cauliflower .

The radial symmetry flowers are three to five-fold. There are no flower cups (hypanthium) and no discus. The bracts are clearly divided into sepals and petals, as a special feature in clearly different numbers. The rarely two, mostly three to five sepals are fused in the lower part and already open in the bud stage. The three to five (six to twelve) petals are fused bell-shaped. There are five to many (around 50) free stamens in the male and hermaphrodite flowers . The bald to hairy stamens are usually long. The linear-elongated or chiangiodendron arrow-shaped anthers open with a longitudinal slit . In the female and hermaphrodite flowers are three to five carpels an above-permanent, single-chamber ovary grown, with parietal placentation . The one to eight, rarely up to ten styles end in barely recognizable, heady or frayed scars.

The mostly large fruits can be berries or capsule fruits, which sometimes open late. The thin to thick fruit skin can be woody and is smooth or patterned with warts or is prickly to bristly or can be vertically winged. The fruits contain one to many seeds. The seeds have an aril . The distribution units ( diaspores ) are the seeds.

Sets of chromosomes

The basic chromosome numbers are x = 10, 12, 23.

Fruits of the cauliflower species Carpotroche platyptera
In the evergreen tree Gynocardia odorata , the fruits are almost directly on the trunk
Branch with alternate, simple leaves and fruit of Hydnocarpus alpinus
Branch with simple leaves and fruits of Lindackeria paludosa
Open fruit of Xylotheca tettensis and the seeds have a Arillus

Systematics and distribution

The Achariaceae family was established by Harms in The Natural Plant Families , 1, p. 256 in 1897 . The type genus is Acharia Thunb. Synonyms for Achariaceae Harms nom. cons. are Erythrospermaceae Doweld , Kiggelariaceae Link and Pangiaceae Endl. contain. Many taxa were previously classified with the Flacourtiaceae, the other taxa of which today mostly belong to the willow family (Salicaceae). Some taxa were placed in a family Kiggelariaceae Link for a short time , but this could not be confirmed and did not prevail. There used to be only three genera with only three species in this family. According to AGP III, the Achariaceae family belongs to the order of the Malpighiales .

In the Achariaceae family there are 30 to 32 genera with around 145 species:


Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Mac H. Alford, 2009: Neotropical Achariaceae. Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics .
  2. a b The Achariaceae family on the AP website .
  3. Achariaceae at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, accessed August 5, 2014.
  4. a b c Achariaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
  5. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III . In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society . tape 161 , no. 2 , October 2009, ISSN  0024-4074 , p. 105–121 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x (English).
  6. a b c MA Hyde, BT Wursten, P. Ballings, M. Coates Palgrave, 2014: data sheet at the Flora of Zimbabwe .
  7. Pedro Fiaschi, Milton Groppo: Kuhlmanniodendron Fiaschi & Groppo, a new eastern Brazilian genus of Achariaceae sensu lato segregated from Carpotroche Endl. (formerly included in Flacourtiaceae). In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society , Volume 157, 2008, pp. 103-109.
  8. a b Milton Groppo, Bruno Simões Garcia Favaretto, Cláudia Inês da Silva, Jomar Gomes Jardim, Pedro Fiaschi: A New Species of Kuhlmanniodendron (Lindackerieae, Achariaceae) from Eastern Brazil and the Systematic Position of the Genus in Achariaceae. In: Systematic Botany , Volume 38, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 162-171. doi: 10.1600 / 036364413X662114
  9. ^ A b c Frans J. Breteler: Novitates Gabonenses 82. A new species of Mocquerysia (Achariaceae, formerly Flacourtiaceae) from Gabon. In: Plant Ecology and Evolution , Volume 146, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 250-253. doi: 10.5091 / plecevo.2013.784
  10. Prockiopsis at In: Catalog of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis

Web links

Commons : Achariaceae  - collection of images, videos and audio files