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Galenou Apanta , 1538

Galen of Pergamon , also (Aelius) Galenus ( ancient Greek Γαληνός , German Galen , in medieval manuscripts and early modern prints also Galienus ; * between 128 and 131 in Pergamon ; † between 199 and 216 in Rome ), was a Greek doctor who mainly worked in Rome and anatomist . Galen is considered to be one of the most important physicians of antiquity, whose extensive teaching dominated all medicine for 1500 years.


Origin and name

The most famous sanctuary of Asclepius around the middle of the 2nd century was located at Galen's birthplace, Pergamon . His father, the architect and mathematician Nikon, taught Galen in Aristotelian philosophy , mathematics and natural science .

Often in specialist publications outside of classical studies it is stated that Galenos had the gentile name Claudius - abbreviated Cl. - carried. In the ancient sources and the handwritten tradition of the Middle Ages, however, this is not attested. Only in modern works, beginning in the 15th century, was the name of Galenus or Galenus prefixed with a "Cl.". Presumably it was not the abbreviation of "Claudius", but the short form of the honorable attribute "clarissimus" ("famous"), with which the humanistic writers of the early modern era gave doctors.

The question of whether Galenus was a Roman citizen is closely related to this problem . It is often assumed that he had the right to be a citizen, with which he would necessarily have had a three-part name (the tria nomina ) according to Roman naming law . In addition to the name Claudius (which is not anciently attested), the names Aelius and Iulius are considered as Galen's gentile names. This is due to the fact that two men named Aelius Nicon and Iulius Nicodemus are known through inscriptions from Pergamon, one of whom could possibly be identical to Galen's father “Nikon”. Ultimately, however, the paternity cannot be proven for both and it is also not at all clearly ascertain whether Galenus actually had Roman citizenship.

Medical activity

From around 146 Galen dealt primarily with medicine . He studied near Smyrna . At the age of 19 he traveled to Alexandria , which at that time was a center of healing and the only place where human sections and examinations on cadavers were allowed. The extensive Alexandria library also had many writings with detailed drawings that aided his academic training. Healing cures and care took place at the time in an Asklepieion , in which both priests and healers were active. 158 Galen returned to Pergamon. There he looked after gladiators as a sports doctor and surgeon and at the same time had his own medical practice. During the Olympics , he provided medical assistance to the athletes. He treated their fresh injuries, which he could also describe scientifically.

From 161 Galen was in Rome. The healing of the respected philosopher Eudemus of Pergamon enabled him to work as a doctor of the Roman aristocracy. He left Rome around 166, probably because of an epidemic that broke out there ( Antonine plague ). Back in Pergamon, he resumed his work as a gladiator doctor. In 168, at the request of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, he traveled to Aquileia , where the “plague” supposedly broke out among the Roman soldiers. His precise description of the symptoms of the disease suggests, however, that it was more of a smallpox epidemic . In accordance with his wishes, from 169 in Rome he became the personal physician of the emperor's son Commodus , and later presumably also of the emperor P. Septimius Severus . In a major fire in Rome in 192, Galen's library was also destroyed, which he lamented in a work called On Indefatigability , only discovered in 2007 .

Galen died in Rome, the exact time is unknown. Some of the research assumes that he died in 199 or 200, but his death is now mostly dated around the year 216, often at least after 204.


Title page of the "Opera" published in Venice in 1547

Galen's main medical work is the Methodus medendi , it consists of 14 books. The main idea is that all appearances in nature and in humans serve a specific purpose. Galen understood the human being as a body-soul unity that is influenced from two sides, from the spiritual and from the matter.

He took up the four-element doctrine developed in philosophy , according to which fire, earth, air and water in different compositions represent the basic elements of all being. He also followed up on in the Hippocratic developed medicine already rudimentary four-juice teachings to which the four humors blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile in each case the four qualities (primary grades) warm and wet, cold and damp, warm and dry and cold and dry assigned. The four taste qualities postulated by Galen (secondary qualities ) are: blood - sweet, mucus - salty, yellow bile - bitter, black bile - sour and hot. In addition, he linked the four juices with the four phases of human life. For him illness was dyscrasia, a faulty mixture of juices. When diagnosing diseases, Galen placed particular emphasis on examining the pulse and urine .

Following this approach, Galen developed an independent pharmacotherapeutic system, which he presented in some of his writings. His De compositione medicamentorum in 17 and his De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis et facultatibus in 11 books should be mentioned in particular among these writings devoted to the manufacture of medicines . The aim was a pharmacology derived from experience, based on knowledge of causal relationships and reason, which could be passed on, checked and further developed using the written word. Because "reason teaches us the general goal of healing in every ailment, experience the powers of the substance." Accordingly, the first part of his De compositione medicamentorum presented the theoretical basis of his medicine theory, while in the second part the special recipes followed in detail. With them, Galen insisted that they were tried and tested and that their value would be confirmed by the most recognized pharmacologists.

He divided the drugs he used into elementary ones that had only one of the four elementary qualities, combined them - they had two qualities, a main and a side effect - as well as specific ones for special cases, such as laxatives, emetics or dehydrating agents. While the elementary medicines called simplicia were partly based on the materia medica of the first-century doctor Pedanios Dioscurides , Galen had developed many of his composita through empirical studies. Each illness required its own medication, for the selection and dosage of which one had to consider the temperament , that is, the appropriate mixture of the juices of the patient himself, and of the affected part of the body in particular, as well as the effectiveness of the medication. In doing so, he placed therapy and pharmacology on a systematic basis.

He differentiated the efficiencies (or intensities) of his substances as follows:

  1. barely noticeable
  2. clearly perceptible with the senses
  3. violent, slightly damaging
  4. violent, destructive.

Pathological changes in the balanced mixture of juices , which manifest themselves through heating, moistening, cold or drying out of the affected body parts, must be countered with counteracting drugs. Here, the attraction of a part of the body to certain drugs, which can be caused by the similar nature on an elementary level , must be taken into account.

The pharmacology of the Islamic and Western cultures up to the late Middle Ages was based on the complicated recipes of Galen . It was only under the influence of Paracelsus' medical teaching that this teaching , known as galenics , of the manufacture and preparation of medicines lost its importance in the course of the early modern period, and the term was retained.

In his work, Galen combined two medical approaches that had been in conflict for centuries.

  • The “empirical” tradition was founded by Hippocrates (around 400 BC). This approach was explicitly non-anatomical and prognostic; it consisted solely of the analysis of symptoms. Against the background of humoral pathology , the body was primarily understood as consisting of four juices. On the other hand, he rejected atomistic ideas , as can be seen from his work On the elements in the opinion of Hippocrates .
  • The "dogmatic" tradition goes back to Alexandrian medicine from the 3rd century BC. BC back. In contrast to the empirical tradition, the dogmatic one deals with the solid parts of the body. Their authors, Herophilos of Chalcedon and Erasistratos, were possibly the first to ever dissect a person. A patient's symptoms were considered to be the result of anatomical changes.

This methodical synthesis, which also included the anatomy and physiology or natural philosophy of Aristotle, established Galen's decisive influence on medieval medicine up to the Renaissance . He carried out extensive sections and vivisections on animals and wrote almost 400 writings, which were summarized in 70 books after his death by Oreibasios (326–403). Almost a quarter of it is preserved in the original Greek or in Latin, Arabic or Syrian translations. Until the 17th century and beyond, they served as a medical teaching basis at universities.

However, many of Galen's views on human anatomy were wrong because he had simply transferred what he learned from his sections of pigs, monkeys, and dogs to humans. His works served as the basis for anatomical lectures and were considered so complete that for a long time there was no reason to review. It was not common, and often forbidden, to dissect human bodies. If doctors accidentally found deviations from Galen's teaching on a corpse, they considered the organ examined to be a malformation. Vesalius was the first in the 1530s to realize that Galen probably never dissected anyone. He complained that one could have learned more about anatomy from a butcher than from anatomical lectures. Vesalius' own dissections of corpses in the 1540s, which he had been able to carry out thanks to good relations with the authorities, stimulated anatomical research.

The cardinal signs of inflammation described by Celsus and later supplemented by Galen are still valid today :

  • Rubor (redness)
  • Calor (overheating)
  • Tumor (swelling)
  • Dolor (pain)
  • Functio laesa (functional restriction )

Galen's pathophysiological ideas

If all body components - Galen understands the juices, the pneuma and the res naturales (the "constitutional conditions" of individual life) - are available in sufficient quality and quantity and these bodily functions in the sense of an expediency ( teleology ) in free flow, the result is health , sanitas .

For Galen there are flowing transitions between the state of health, sanitas , of being ill, aegritudo , and an intermediate state, neutralitas . This equilibrium or imbalance is regulated by the sizes of the res naturales , res non naturales (the non-constitutional and thus "conditional-physiological conditions or procedural processes" in the individual organism) and res praeter naturales . The influencing factors of these three groups determine how to deal with prophylaxis, praeservatio , health maintenance, conservatio sanitatis , or therapy, curatio . Galen regards as "res naturales":

  • elementa , fire, air, water, earth and their qualities warm, cold, damp and dry;
  • complexiones sive commixtiones , the different mixing ratios of the elementa and their inherent qualities;
  • compositiones sive humores , the four humors of blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile and their interactions with one another;
  • membra , the organs of the body;
  • virtutes , the forces working in the body virtus animalis , virtus naturalis and virtus spiritualis ;
  • operationes sive actiones , the effects of virtutes in the body
  • spiritus , the organ-related force mediated by a breath-like substance, which flows as spiritus vitalis from the heart into the arteries, which, according to Galen and Aristotle, contradicts the idea of ​​two chambers, including to a plexus of arteries under the skull. There it undergoes a transformation into a spiritus animalis , which then reaches the cerebral ventricles and from there to the nerves and, as a spiritus naturalis, pulls from the liver into the veins. According to Galen, some of the blood from the liver passed through the large vena cava into the right ventricle and from there into the lungs. In the heart septum he assumed pores that enable this blood to find its way into the left ventricle.

In contrast, the so-called sex res non naturales (the name does not come directly from Galen) are those six fundamental conditions or basic conditions of human health that influence the correct mixture of body fluids :

  • aer , the quality of the surrounding air (brightness, temperature, humidity, smell and purity as well as wind conditions and the seasonal climate in certain areas; also the quality of the apartment and clothing);
  • cibus et potus , the quality of food and drinks according to their properties warm, cold, moist, dry, whether of vegetable or animal origin, and the way they are prepared; also the time and type of food intake;
  • motus et quies , the influence of moderate but also excessive movement of the body or individual body parts during work, motus , and training exercises, exercitia , as well as the time of rest and relaxation;
  • somnus et vigilia , the importance of correct time and duration of sleeping and waking times for the course of physiological processes; also the health-promoting design of the bed (head end higher than foot part) and correct sleeping posture;
  • repletio et evacutio , the regulation and observation of body excretions such as stool and diaper , urine, semen and menstrual blood, tears and saliva, expectorations from the mouth and nose, vomit, ear wax;
  • accidentia animi , the beneficial or harmful influence of the six affects anger, ira , joy, gaudium sive laetitia , fear, angustia , fear, timor , sadness, tristitia , and shame, verecundia .


Galen, lithographic fantasy portrait of the modern age

Reception in medicine, galenism

Galen's systematically expanded work, which was also translated into Syriac and Arabic by Hunain ibn Ishāq (808-873) in the early Middle Ages (see also Articella ) was of such authority for posterity that it was published in 1400 It took years for it to be slowly overcome by recent research. His false hypothesis of the blood flow from the center, where the blood is formed in the liver, to the periphery of the body was not made significant until the 17th century by William Harvey and Marcello Malpighi , and in part by Ibn an-Nafīs as early as the 13th century Resistances revised.

In the 16th century, the "Galenists" (such as Leonhart Fuchs ) as followers of Galen's teachings and the "Arabists", who mainly referred to Avicenna , faced each other. "Galenism" increased at this time, "Arabism" decreased.

Galen's conception of humoral pathology persisted as a disease concept into the 19th century. His teachings were rightly preferred to others, especially in the Middle Ages, and were the basis of medical knowledge at European universities until the 19th century.

Galen as the namesake

  • In anatomical terminology, the great vena cerebri is sometimes referred to as the "Galen's vein" and the laryngeal ventriculus as the "Galen's ventricle".
  • Galenics , the theory of the preparation of medicines, is named after Galenus .
  • Carl von Linné gave a genus in the midday flower family (Aizoaceae) the name Galenia .
  • The moon crater Galen is named after Galenus .
  • Streets are also named after Galenus.
  • The Galenus von Pergamon Prize has been promoting pharmacological research in Germany since 1985.
  • Galen Peak , mountain on the Brabant Island in the Palmer Archipelago in Antarctica
  • The pseudogalenic writings that have been added to the Corpus Galenicum in manuscripts and in early book printing since the Middle Ages and that circulated under his name, but did not come from Galen's hand, such as the urine booklet of Magnus of Ephesus, are also named after Galen .

See also


Modern total editions

  • Claudii Galeni opera omnia. 20 volumes. Edited by Karl Gottlob Kühn , Leipzig 1821–1833 (= Medicorum Graecorum opera quae exstant. Volume 1–20; digital copies ); New print (with an afterword by Konrad Schubring ) Olms, Hildesheim 1965 - (Still a relevant modern complete edition, but also contains non-galenic texts and has been replaced in parts by text-critical individual editions).
  • Galenus Latinus. Edited by RF Durling and Fridolf Kudlien , Berlin 1976 and Stuttgart 1992.

Renaissance editions

  • Recettario di Galieno: a tutte le Infirmita de che acadeno ali Corpi humani: Cosi di dentro como di Fora . [Sl], 1520 ( digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf ).
  • Claudii Galeni Pergameni Historiales Campi / Per D. Symphorianum Campegium, Equitem auratum… Lotharingiae Ducis archiatrum, in quatuor libros congesti, & commentarijs… illustrati. - Basileae: Apud and. Cratandrum , Et Io. Bebelium, Mense Augusto, 1532 ( digitized edition ).
  • Claudii Galeni Pergameni De Compositione Medicamentorum Secundum Locos:… libri decem… / nunc primum latinitate donatum ac in lucem aeditum per Ioannem Guinterium Andernacum. - Basileae: Cratander, 1537 ( digitized edition ).
  • Epitomes omnium Galeni operum. Venice 1548.
  • Claudii Galeni Pergameni De Sanitate tuenda: libri sex. Nuperrime ad Exemplar Venetum recogniti, & divulgati . - Lugduni: Rouil, 1549 ( digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf ).
  • Galeni septima Classis: curandi Methodum tum diffuse tum breviter descriptam, Victus Rationem in Morbis acutis, singulorum Morborum facile paranda Remedia, privatam quorundarum Morborum Curationem, Chirurgiae Constitutionem, Fracturarum ac Luxation continamentum Sanationem & Fascqueorum denique . - Venetiis: Iunta, 1550 ( digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf ).

Single issues

  • Galen, Commentary on Hippocrates, On the Joints. The introduction and the first six commentary sections of Book I. Edited and translated by Christian Brockmann ( digital edition of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences ).
  • Galen: On the anatomy of the uterus. Ed., Trans. u. explained by Diethard Nickel . Dissertation Humboldt University 1968. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1971 (= Corpus medicorum Graecorum. V, 2, 1).
  • Galen: On Prognosis. Ed., Trans. u. commented by Vivian Nutton . Berlin 1979 (= Corpus Medicorum Graecorum. V, 8, 1).
  • Galeni De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis (On the doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato) . Edidit, in linguam Anglicam vertit, commentatus est Phillip De Lacy . 3 vols. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1978, 1980, 1984 (Corpus medicorum Graecorum V 4, 1, 2). - Vol. I: Editio tertia lucis ope expressa, vol. II: editio altera lucis ope expressa, vol. III: editio altera lucis ope expressa addendis et corrigendis aucta, Berlin 2005.
  • Galeni De semine (On Semen). Edidit, in linguam Anglicam vertit, commentatus est Phillip De Lacy. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992 (Corpus medicorum Graecorum V 3.1)
  • Galeni De elementis ex Hippocratis sententia (On the elements according to Hippocrates). Edidit, in linguam Anglicam vertit, commentatus est Phillip De Lacy. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1996 (Corpus medicorum Graecorum V 1,2)
  • Galen on the Affected Parts. Translation from the Greek Text with Explanatory Notes by Rudolph E. Siegel . S. Karger, Basel 1976, (excerpt online)
  • Galen on the natural faculties , Loeb Classical Library , Arthur John Brock translator, 1916, Classics, MIT
  • J. Marquardt, I. Müller, G. Helmreich (Eds.): Claudii Galeni Pergameni Scripta minora. 3 volumes, Leipzig 1884–1893.
  • Vivian Nutton : A translation of Galen's De substantia virtutum naturalium by Niccolò da Reggio. In: Dominik Groß , Monika Reininger (Hrsg.): Medicine in history, philology and ethnology. Festschrift for Gundolf Keil. Würzburg 2003, ISBN 3-8260-2176-2 , pp. 321-331.
  • Galien tome II: Exhortation à l'étude de la médecine. Art médical. Édition critique et traduction établie par Véronique Boudon-Millot . Paris, Les Belles Lettres, Collection des Universités de France, 2000.
  • Galien tome I: Introduction générale; Sur l'ordre de ses propres livres , Sur ses propres livres , Que l'excellent médecin est aussi philosophe. Édition critique et traduction établie par Véronique Boudon – Millot. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, Collection des Universités de France, 2007.
  • Galien tome IV: Ne pas se chagriner. Édition critique et traduction établie par Véronique Boudon – Millot (together with J. Jouanna and A. Pietrobelli), Paris, Les Belles Lettres, Collection des Universités de France, 2010.


Bibliographic resources

  • Gerhard Fichtner : Corpus Galenicum. Directory of galenic and pseudogalenic scripts. Institute for the History of Medicine, Tübingen 1985 and 1997.
  • Vivian Nutton : Karl Gottlob Kühn and his edition of the works of Galen. A bibliography. Oxford Microform Publications, Oxford 1976.


  • Gotthelf Bergsträsser : Ḥunain ibn Isḥāq and his school. Studies of the history of language and literature on the Arabic Hippocrates and Galen translations. Leiden 1913.
  • Gotthelf Bergsträsser (Ed.): Ḥunain ibn Isḥāq About the Syrian and Arabic Galen translations. Leipzig 1925 (= Treatises for the customer of the Orient. Volume 17, 2).
  • Gotthelf Bergsträsser: New materials on Ḥunain ibn Isḥāq's Galenbibliographie. Leipzig 1932 (= treatises for the customer of the Orient. Volume 19, 2).
  • Véronique Boudon: Galien de Pergame. In: Richard Goulet (ed.): Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques. Volume 3. CNRS Éditions, Paris 2000, ISBN 2-271-05748-5 , pp. 440-466.
  • Michael Boylan:  Galen. In: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
  • Cajus Fabricius: Galen's excerpts from older pharmacologies (= Ars medica. Texts and studies on source studies in ancient medicine. II. Department, 2). De Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1972.
  • Robert J. Hankinson (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Galen. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-52558-9 ( review ).
  • Jürgen Helm: Galen reception in the 16th century using the example of Philipp Melanchthon. In: European History Online , ed. from the Institute for European History (Mainz) , 2010, accessed on: June 13, 2012.
  • Jutta Kollesch , Diethard Nickel : Bibliographia Galenia. The contributions of the 20th century to galen research. In: Wolfgang Haase (Ed.): Rise and decline of the Roman world. Volume II, 37, 2. Berlin / New York 1994, pp. 1351-1420.
  • Margaret T. May: Galen on the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body , Ithaca. NY: Cornell University Press, 1968
  • Diethard Nickel : Galen of Pergamon. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 448–452.
  • Vivian Nutton : Galen from Pergamon. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, Metzler, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01474-6 , column 748.
  • Peer-Gunnar Ottosson: Scholastic medicine and philosophy. A study of commentaries on Galen's "Tegni" (approx. 1300-1450). Naples 1984.
  • Heinrich Schipperges : Galenos. In: Exempla historica. Epochs of World History in Biographies, X: Imperium Romanum and Early Middle Ages: Researchers and Scholars. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 978-3-596-17010-4 , pp. 189-209.
  • Heinrich Schipperges, Richard J. Durling: Galen in the Middle Ages. In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages . Volume 4. Artemis, Munich / Zurich 1989, Sp. 1082-1084.
  • Heinrich snake-Schöningen : The Roman society at Galen. Biography and social history (= studies on ancient literature and history. Volume 65). De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003, ISBN 3-11-017850-8 .
  • Rudolph E. Siegel: Galen's system of physiology and medicine: An analysis of his observations on bloodflow, respiration, humors and internal diseases. Basel and New York 1968.
  • Rudolph E. Siegel: Galen on Sense Perception. His Doctrines, Observations and Experiments on Vision, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Touch and Pain, and Their Historical Sources . S. Karger, Basel 1970.
  • Rudolph E. Siegel: Galen on Psychology, Psychopathology and Function and Diseases of the Nervous System. S. Karger, Basel 1973.
  • Raymond Villey: Medicine in Rome: Galen. In: Illustrated History of Medicine. German arrangement by Richard Toellner a . a., special edition in six volumes, 1986, volume 2, pp. 394-423.

Web links

Commons : Galenus of Pergamum  - Collection of Images


  1. Also Galien in the English Canterbury valley of the 14th century .
  2. See for example Johannes Ilberg : When was Galenos born? In: Sudhoff's archive for the history of medicine. Volume 23, 1930, pp. 289-292 (there explicitly 129 AD); Sometimes in older literature, especially in non-subject literature, the year 131 is also given as the year of birth; Joseph Walsh: The Date of Galen's Birth. In: Annals of Medical History. Neue Serie 1, 1929, pp. 378-382 and Refutation of Ilberg as to the Date of Galen's Birth. In: Annals of Medical History. Neue Serie 4, 1932, pp. 126–146, emphatically represented 130 as the year of birth.
  3. ^ Diethard Nickel : Galen of Pergamon. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil, Wolfgang Wegner: Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 448–452, here p. 448, gives the year 199 without excluding a later year; for example Vivian Nutton represents approx. 216 : Galen from Pergamon. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, Metzler, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01474-6 , column 748.
  4. This was first stated: Elimar Klebs : Prosopographia Imperii Romani . Volume 1, Georg Reimer, Berlin 1897, p. 374.
  5. This assumption was made for the first time by Karl Kalbfleisch: 'Claudius' Galenos. In: Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Volume 22, 1902, number 13, column 413 ( digitized ). Also on this question: Walter von Brunn : Can you call Galenos “Claudius”? In: Ciba magazine. Volume 4, number 43, March 1937, p. 1505.
  6. ↑ In detail on this equation Heinrich Schlange-Schöningen : The Roman Society at Galen. Biography and social history , De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003, ISBN 3-11-017850-8 , pp. 45–54.
  7. ^ Heinrich Schlange-Schöningen: The Roman society at Galen. Biography and social history De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003, ISBN 3-11-017850-8 , pp. 54–60.
  8. Kai Brodersen (ed.): Galenos, The burned library. Peri Alypias / On the indefatigability (bilingual edition). Marix, Wiesbaden 2015, ISBN 978-3-7374-0962-9 .
  9. Galenus, On the indefatigability 10; see also Galenos, De compositione medicamentorum per genera 1,1; Heinrich snake-Schöningen: The Roman society at Galen. Biography and social history. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003, p. 27 with note 37.
  10. See for example Wolfgang U. Eckart : History of Medicine. Springer, Berlin 1990, p. 57, with the year of death 199; or the same: history, theory and ethics of medicine. Springer, Berlin 2013, p. 25.
  11. The Suda states that Galen died at the age of 70, i.e. around 199. The treatise De antidotis assigned to Galen provides a reference to events in the year 204. Ishāq ibn Hunain gives his death age at 87 years, after 17 years from the Born until the end of his medical studies and after 70 years of professional activity, around the year 217. Vivian Nutton: Ancient Medicine. Routledge, London / New York 2004, pp. 226–227.) Assumes that De antidotis is genuine, that the Arabic tradition received from Abu Sulayman Sijistani is correct and that the Suda erroneously covers the 70 years that the Arabic source for Galens Career stated to be held for its entire life span. Véronique Boudon-Millot ( Galien: Introduction générale; Sur l'ordre de ses propres livres; Sur ses propres livres; Que l'excellent médecin est aussi philosophe , Les Belles Lettres, Paris 2007, pp. LXXVII – LXXX) agrees more or less less and favors the year 216 as the year of his death. According to Heinrich Schlange-Schöningen ( The Roman Society at Galen. Biography and Social History. De Gruyter, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-11-017850-8 , p. 147 f.) The end of life should be dated around the year 215.
  12. Georg Harig : Relationship between primary and secondary qualities in Galen's theoretical pharmacology. In: NTM 9, 1973, No. 1, pp. 64-81.
  13. Werner Friedrich Kümmel: The pulse and the problem of time measurement in the history of medicine. In: Medical History Journal. Volume 9, 1974, pp. 1–22, here: p. 3.
  14. ^ Cajus Fabricius: Galen's excerpts from older pharmacologies. De Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1972, pp. 36-38.
  15. ^ Galen, De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 2.1. 12,501,13-15; Translation: Cajus Fabricius: Galen's excerpts from older pharmacologies. De Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1972, p. 36.
  16. ^ Cajus Fabricius: Galen's excerpts from older pharmacologies. De Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1972, pp. 41-45.
  17. Georg Harig: Determination of the intensity in Galen's medical system. A contribution to theoretical pharmacology, nosology and therapy in galenic medicine. Academy, Berlin 1974 (= German Academy of Sciences in Berlin: Central Institute for Ancient History and Archeology. Writings on the history and culture of antiquity. Volume 11).
  18. ^ Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke : Galenic remedies. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 446 f.
  19. ^ Gotthard Strohmaier : Avicenna. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-41946-1 , p. 65.
  20. ^ Paul Moraux : Aristotelianism among the Greeks from Andronikos to Alexander of Aphrodisias. Volume 2: Aristotelianism in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD , De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1984 (= Peripatoi. Philological-historical studies on Aristotelianism. Volume 6). ISBN 3-11-009919-5 , p. 730 f.
  21. See Richard Toellner : "Renata dissectionis ars". Vesal's position on Galen in its scientific-historical requirements and consequences. In: August Buck (ed.): Reception of antiquity. On the problem of continuity between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Hamburg 1981, pp. 85-95.
  22. Karl Groß: Galen's teleological consideration of the human hand in “de usu partium”. In: Sudhoffs Archiv 58, 1974, pp. 13-24.
  23. To this he also counted physical exercises as a kind of movement therapy. Cf. Arnd Krüger : History of movement therapy. In: Preventive Medicine. Springer Loseblatt Collection, Heidelberg 1999, 07.06, pp. 1–22.
  24. ^ Jul. Wiberg: The anatomy of the brain in the works of Galen and ʿAli ʿAbbās: a comparative historical-anatomical study. In: Janus , Volume 9, 1914, pp. 17-32 and 84-104.
  25. Wolfram Schmitt: Medical art of living: Health theory and health regimes in the Middle Ages. LIT Verlag, Münster 2013, ISBN 3-643-11932-1 , p. 42 f.
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  35. Heinrich Schipperges †: Galenism. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 447 f.
  36. ^ Carl von Linné: Critica Botanica , Leiden 1737, p. 92; Carl von Linné: Genera Plantarum , Leiden 1742, p. 168.
  37. Gerhard Fichtner: Corpus Galenicum. Directory of galenic and pseudogalenic scripts. Institute for the History of Medicine, Tübingen 1985 and 1997 ( PDF with the processing status 2012).
  38. Magnus of Ephesus (Pseudogalen): The urine booklet Pseudogalens 'De urinis [...]'. Translated from the Greek by Renate Thieme. Dissertation Munich 1937.