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Miniature of Avicenna

Abū Alī al-Husain ibn Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā ( Persian ابن سينا, Arabic أبو علي الحسين بن عبد الله ابن سينا, DMG Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusain bin ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā ; born shortly before 980 in Afshana near Bukhara in Khorasan ; died in June 1037 in Hamadan ), Ibn Sina for short and presumably Latinized via a Hebrew intermediate level such as Aven Zina Avicenna , was a Persian doctor , natural scientist , Aristotelian-Neoplatonic philosopher , poet , Sunni - Hanafi trained lawyer or Faqīh , mathematician , astronomer , Alchemist and music theorist and politician . He wrote works in Arabic and Persian.

Avicenna is one of the most famous personalities of his time, exchanged philosophical ideas with the famous scholar al-Biruni , was considered a medical-philosophical authority well into the 16th century and, in particular, had a decisive influence on the history and development of medicine. Some of his philosophical elaborations were received by later mystics of Sufism . His most important works include the Book of Recovery ( Kitāb aš-šifā ' ) and the five-volume canon of medicine ( Qānūn fī aṭ-ṭibb ), which, in particular, summarizing Greco-Roman medicine, was one of the leading medical textbooks for five centuries .


Youth and education

Above all, we learn something about Avicenna's life from the information in his biography written by his student Abu Ubaid Abd al-Wahid al-Juzdschani , the first part of which comes from Avicenna himself, although it is unclear when he was with him for 25 years Student could have dictated the account of his teenage years. Avicenna's father was an Ismailite from the city of Balkh in Khorasan (today in northern Afghanistan) who read the epistles of the " Lauteren Brothers " (a secret society of scholars close to the Ismailis, which also dealt with alchemy), tax collector, who worked in Afshana in the village Bukhara settled in the Persian Samanid Empire , held a high administrative position in the civil service and married Abū Alī's mother Setāra. Abū Alī and then his brother Alī were born in Afshāna, then the family moved (probably around 986) to the capital Bukhara.

Since his mother tongue was Persian, Avicenna first learned Arabic, the lingua franca of the day . Then he was assigned two teachers who should bring him closer to the Koran and literature. At the age of ten he had already mastered the Koran and had studied many works of fine literature, thereby gaining the admiration of those around him. He learned Indian arithmetic from a learned greengrocer (he later invented an improved method of finger arithmetic ). Avicenna was introduced to law by the Hanafi jurist Ismail, known as "the ascetic" . He then received lessons from the traveling philosopher Abū 'Abdallāh an-Nātilī, who, among other things, had published an adaptation of the drug collection De Materia medica by Pedanios Dioscurides . At an-Nātilī Avicenna dealt with the works Eisagoge (an introduction to the writings of Aristotle on logic) by Porphyrios, elements by Euclid and Almagest by the astronomer Ptolemy . After an-Natili after Gurgandsch (now Kunja-Urgench), which, northwest of Bukhara capital of Khorezm , had departed, Avicenna deepened the following year autodidact his studies in law (Sharia), philosophy and logic, and continued his study of the works of Euclid and the Almagest away. He was also engaged in medicine, turning more intensively to medicine at the age of 17, studying both its theory and practice. He also received lessons from al-Qumri (Abū Mansūr al-Hasan ibn Nūh al-Qamarī), the personal physician of the Samanid al-Mansur ibn Nuh (al-Malik al-Muzaffar al-Amir as-Sadid Abu Salih Mansur (I.) b. Nuh, reg. 961-976). At the age of about 18 he is said to have successfully cured a Samanid governor from a serious illness. He described the healing art as "not difficult". Avicenna also continued to delve into metaphysical problems, especially in the works of Aristotle , noting first writings by Abu Nasr al-Farabi ( About the intentions of the Book of Metaphysics , probably acquired cheaply by Avicenna, and / or The Book of Letters , a more detailed writing) helped to understand metaphysics . In the case of ambiguities in the field of logic (e.g. when searching for the middle term in the syllogism ), he is said to have prayed in the mosque and asked for inspiration; if he was tired or weak during his studies, he was allegedly helped (according to the rules of the Hanafi school) Cup of wine.

The wandering years


Since he had already earned a reputation as a scholar and healer, the Samanid Emir Nuh ibn Mansur (Nūḥ ibn Manṣūr) (976-997), the father of Abd al-Malik II , who ruled in Bukhara , took him as one of his treating Doctors at his service. This then also transferred administrative tasks to him. He was also allowed to use the royal library with its rare and unique books, of which he had read those of the most important (Greek) authorities up to the age of 18. Emir of Bukhara was now Ibn Nuh (Abu l-Harith Mansur (II.) B. Nuh), who ruled from 997 to 999. At the age of 21 Avicenna wrote his first book called The Collection or Book About the Soul in the form of a compendium , which he wrote at the suggestion or on behalf of Abu l-Hasan al-'Arudi, who lives in his neighborhood, and all of that Should contain sciences other than mathematics. Also at the request of a neighbor who taught Avicenna in Hanafi law, Abū Bakr al-Baraqī († 986), the nearly 20-volume Book of Income and Profits and the Book of Righteousness and Sin are said to have been written . Avicenna copied poems from al-Baraqī.

Avicenna's father died in 1002. At this time Avicenna was also involved in government affairs in Bukhara. He had probably already left Bukhara when the city fell to the Turkish Karakhanids (led by Abu'l-Hasan Nasr b. Ali Arslan Ilek) in 999 and his newly appointed employer (the Emir Abd al-Malik II) was taken prisoner was.


It is believed that Avicenna had for some time joined the last Samanid, Ismail Muntasir ( Ismāʿīl ibn Nūḥ al-Muntaṣir ), who ruled from 1000 to 1005. He went in 1005, after the assassination Muntasirs by nationals of Arab tribe, so to extinction of the Samanid dynasty, and after he had lost his job, about Nishapur and Merv in Khorasan Gurgandsch (also Gurgentsch) and from there into the friendly with the Samanids Khorezm at the Aral Sea , where, as in Gurganj , he wore the costume of a legal scholar, which identified him as a candidate for a theological and legal career as a legal scholar faqī . At that time (from 997 to 1009) the emir ʿAlī ibn Maʾmūn ruled the rich oasis area south of the Aral Sea as Shah (see also Khorezm Shahs ). In his biography Avicenna emphasizes that the educated vizier Abu l-Husain as-Suhaili was a lover of the sciences at the court there. An audience with the ruler did not result in Avicenna's employment at court. Avicenna, who had the benevolence of as-Suhaili ( deposed in 1013 by ʿAlī ibn Maʾmūn's successor ʿMaʾmūn ibn Maʾmūn ), wrote three smaller treatises for him in Gurganj on logic (in poetry), dietetics and, the standstill of the earth in the middle of the cosmos concerning astronomy. Avicenna then served ʿAlī ibn Maʾmūn in Kath until he fled from Choresm around 1012, perhaps in order not to enter the service of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna , the son of Sebüktigin , who was now active there , and who allegedly had Avicenna searched for with the help of a portrait must (Mahmud conquered Khorezm in 1017).

According to the storyteller Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī, when he escaped through the Karakum desert , Avicenna was accompanied by the Christian doctor Abū Sahl ʿĪsā ibn Yahyā al-Masihi al-Jurdschānī. After another wandering through different cities of Khorasan ( Nisā , Abiward , Tūs and Samanqān) he came via Ğāğarm (Jajarm, in northern Khorasan ) in 1012 or 1013 to Gorgan (also Jurdschān ; Arabic Ǧurǧān ) on the southern edge of the Caspian Sea , where he wrote many of his most important works.


He was attracted by the fame of the local ruler Qabus ibn Voschmgir (or Qābūs ibn Wušmagīr, also Wuschmagir for short) (ruled 977 / 978–981 and 997 / 998–1012 / 1013), who was considered a promoter of literature and science and by whom also al-Biruni had stopped, the from about 998 in Aristotle ( on the heavens and physics class ) treated correspondence with Avicenna (and its letter this seconding end students Ma'ṣūmī or al-Ma'ṣūmī murdered by the troops of Mahmud in filling Reys 1029) was standing. However, shortly before Avicenna's arrival, the prince from the Ziyarid dynasty was detained in a fortress by insurgents in the winter of 1012/1013, where he was killed. In Gorgan Avicenna gave lectures in logic and astronomy , wrote part of the Qānūn and, after a stay in Dihistan, met in Gorgan, now ruled by Falak al-Maali until 1029, Manutschehr b. Qaboos, to his friend and student al-Juzdschani . In Gorgan he lived in a house bought by a private benefactor. To this he dedicated the philosophical book of the exit and the homecoming and the book of all astronomical observations . In 1014 (or 1013) he applied for a position at the court of Rey with a letter of recommendation issued in Gorgan .


From 1014 to 1015 Avicenna stayed as a doctor in Rey and was in the service of the underage ruler of the Shiite Buyid dynasty, Maj ad-Daula (997-1029), and his ruling widowed mother. There he treated the little prince who was suffering from "melancholy". Avicenna founded as - as he called himself - mutaṭabbib (in the 11th century as much as "practicing doctor") a medical practice and wrote 30 short works. When Rey was besieged by ad-Daula's brother, Shams ad-Daula (ruled 997-1021), in 1015, Avicenna was forced to leave Rey and went to Hamadan via Qazwin .

Hamadan, imprisonment in Fardajan

Avicenna became in 1015 personal physician and medical advisor to the now ruling emir of Hamadan Shams ad-Daula, whose colic he treated for forty days, after which he was appointed nadīm (an office translatable as " drinking companion ") in thanks . Avicenna rose after he had accompanied the ruler on an unsatisfactory war campaign and the government was restructured as a result, eventually even to his vizier . A mutiny of soldiers led to his dismissal and arrest, with Shams ad-Daula refusing to demand the execution of Avicenna. But when the emir once again suffered from colic , Avicenna is said to have been called in for treatment and, after successful healing, released and reinstated in his old office.

His life at that time was strenuous: during the day he was busy with services for the emir, while most of the nights he spent reading lectures and dictating notes for his books. Students gathered in his house to hear excerpts from al-Juzdschani from Avicenna's major works, the Kitāb al-Shifā and the Qanun , and the master's explanations that followed. This was followed by a symposium , a wine location at which singers also appeared.

After the death of Shams ad-Daula (1021) after an aborted due to illness of the emir campaign Avicenna lived in the house of a grocer , from where he the founder of the dynasty, nemesis Hamadan and since about 1008 ruling kakuyids -Emir 'ala ad-Daula Muhammad of Isfahan his Offered services in a letter, while he had refused a renewed appointment as a vizier or nadīm at the Hamadan court, now under one of Shams' sons (Avicenna's successor as vizier was the philosophy enemy Tādsch al-Mulk). After al-Mulk learned of Avicenna's secret correspondence with the Emir of Isfahan, Avicenna's hiding place was denounced, suspected of high treason and imprisoned by the new ruler Hamadan in the nearby fortress of Fardajan . While in custody, Avicenna wrote several writings, including the allegorical- mystical story of Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān ( commented and explained by Avicenna's pupil Abu Mansur ibn Zaila) (see also The Philosopher as Autodidact ) with parallels to Dante's Divine Comedy (The story took place, especially in the adaptation of Abraham ibn Esra as Chaj ben Mekitz , "The living, the son of the watchful", also entry into Hebrew literature and has been available as a European print since 1889). When ʿAlā ad-Daula marched against Hamadan four months later (1023), Avicenna was set free; after ad-Daula had vacated the city again, Avicenna left the fortress with the vizier al-Mulk, who had now weighed in with him, continued his work on the book of recovery in private quarters and wrote his treatise on heart medication.

Avicenna in Isfahan, death in Hamadan

Avicenna figure in Tehran ( Borj-e Milad )

Avicenna, his friend and biographer al-Juzdschani , his brother and two slaves accompanying them left Hamadan disguised as wandering dervishes and moved to Isfahan. During the trip, Avicenna wrote a treatise On Destiny and Predestination . In Isfahan, ʿAlā ad-Daula Muhammad welcomed Avicenna to the Kakuyidenhof in 1024. Avicenna became a personal physician and here again nadīm in the service of the Kakuyid , who was considered a free spirit and defied religious laws, and whom he also advised on scientific and literary issues. To him he dedicated a summary of philosophy (instead of the Arabic language of science) in the Persian vernacular . He called this abridged encyclopedia Dāneschnāme-ye 'Alā'ī (“The Book of Knowledge for ʿAlā ad-Daula”), or Dāniš-nāmeh for short . He also accompanied the man who had become his friend on grueling military campaigns. In addition, his powers were probably also influenced by his sex life. In Isfahan he completed his canon and the book of recovery . Friends advised him to take it easy and lead a moderate, less unsteady life, but that did not suit Avicenna's character: "I would rather have a short life in abundance than a meager long life," he replied. While participating in a campaign against Masud I of Ghazni, Avicenna fell ill in 1034 (three years before his death) from a protracted intestinal disease that was associated with painful colic. In June 1037, a few days after another campaign with ʿAlā ad-Daula (against Hamadan), the unmarried and childless Avicenna died exhausted from the consequences of his bowel ailment at the age of 57, probably from dysentery or colon cancer . Allegedly, his demise was hastened by the over-administration of a drug (a mithridatic drug with an overdose of opium) by one of his students.

Avicenna was buried on the wall of Hamadan in a small tomb that was first renovated in 1877. The Canadian physician and medical historian William Osler went to great lengths to restore the monument . From 1951 to 1953 a new mausoleum with a 64 meter high tower was completed in the center of the city, where Avicenna's bones were transferred. Uzbek anthropologists used two photographs of Avicenna's skull to reconstruct his head in the form of a bust.


The focus of Avicenna's literary work is on texts on philosophy and medicine. Of 456 titles, 258 (as of 1999) have been preserved. It is claimed that Avicenna completed 21 major and 24 minor works in philosophy, medicine, theology, geometry, astronomy, and other fields. Other authors attribute 99 books to Avicenna: 16 on medicine, 68 on theology and metaphysics , 11 on astronomy, and 4 on drama . Most of them were written in Arabic; but also in his native Persian he wrote a large selection of philosophical teachings, called Dāneschnāme-ye 'Alā'ī , and a short, ʿAlā ad-Daula Muḥammad of Isfahan dedicated, treatise on the pulse .

The different information on this is related to the transmission of texts under his name, which began shortly after Avicenna's death, which contain his work in the core, but come from authors of different origins. The original list of works in his biography contained around 40 titles, the number of which increased to over 200 with the development of the text corpus handed down under his name.

A treatise on the grammar of Arabic entitled The Language of the Arabs remained a draft.

Two different stories have come down to us under the title Salaman and Absal and Avicenna's Name. One of them was supposedly translated from Greek by Hunain ibn Ishāq and the famous title was later used for his epic poem of Jami . Avicenna also wrote an allegorical tale called The Birds . Various poems are also attributed to Avicenna.

About 100 years after Avicenna's death, his writings on Latin translations found their way into Western reception. It has been proven that Avicenna was used for medical education in Europe from the 14th century after Pope Clement V instructed the University of Montpellier to use writings by Galen and Avicenna , among others . The first printed translations were made around the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries.


Canon of Medicine

The first page of a copy of the 1597/98 canon

The Canon of Medicine , Arabic القانون في الطب, DMG al-qānūn fī 'ṭ-ṭibb , is one of the most famous works by Avicennas, from which his nickname al-Qānūni is derived. The work, referred to by Schipperges as a "Summa medicinae" and presenting a summary and systematization of the medical knowledge of the time, is divided into five books:

  1. General principles (theory of medicine)
  2. Alphabetically arranged drug theory (drugs and their mode of action)
  3. Diseases that only affect special organs (pathology and therapy)
  4. Diseases that spread throughout the body (surgery and general diseases)
  5. Preparation of remedies (antidotarium)

Every book ( Arabic كتاب, DMG kitāb ) is in funūn (Arabic plural ofفنّ, DMG fann 'art') is further subdivided, and each fann consists of instructions ( Arabic تعليم, DMG ta'līm  'teaching', Latin doctrinae ). Each of these doctrines is divided into sums ( Arabic جُمَل, DMG ğumal , singular ofجملة, DMG ǧumla , Latin summae ) and these consist of chapters ( Arabic فصول, DMG fuṣūl , singular ofفصل, DMG faṣl )

In the book on the general principles of medicine, Avicenna, whose morphology and physiology are mainly based on Galen , states that these are subject to the humoral conditions of humoral pathology and the potential of the organism, which is understood as the physiological basis for the development and symptoms of diseases is. Both in the canon and in other of his medical works, Avicenna also shows approaches to psychosomatics .

The medical canon, which systematically summarizes medicine , describes, for example, that tuberculosis is contagious and that diseases can be transmitted from water and earth. He gives a scientific diagnosis of ankylostomiasis ( hookworm infestation ) and describes the conditions of the appearance of intestinal worms. He also treated dracunculosis , a parasitosis that also occurs in the Bukhara area and is infested by the medina worm . The canon deals with the importance of dietary measures, the influence of the climate and the environment to health and the surgical use of orally delivered anesthetics . Avicenna advises surgeons , cancer to be treated in its earliest stages and to ensure that all diseased tissue has been removed. For the first time he describes the urinary fistula , as it can occur when the urinary bladder is injured during childbirth. It also accurately describes the anatomy of the eye and describes various eye diseases (such as cataracts). Symptoms of contagious and sexually transmitted diseases are also mentioned, as well as those of diabetes mellitus . Avicenna recommends cutting the trachea in the event of a life-threatening obstruction of the airways . The heart is seen as a pump, but Avicenna's ideas about cardiac anatomy and physiology were based more on Aristotle than on the more progressive Galen and were based on ancient ideas of "irrigation" of the body and not yet on blood circulation or (as postulated by Galen ) directed movements of the blood outside the heart. Avicenna also describes the surgical treatment of rectal fistulas, the reduction of dislocated joints and obstetric child development in abnormal birth positions.

The Qānūn's Materia Medica ("Medical Material") contains 760 medicines with information on their use and effectiveness. Avicenna was the first to establish rules for how a new drug should be tested before it is given to patients.

Avicenna noticed the close relationship between feelings and the physical state, dealt in the sense of the Greek humoral pathology with the positive physical and psychological effect of music on patients and also established relationships between human temperaments (their nature on the proportion of the body fluids as well as on their transformation based) on the different modal tone systems and traditional melodies that can still be found today in the Dastgahha of Persian and maqamat of Arabic music. Among the many psychological disorders that he in Qanun describes also includes the love disease . As in the popular anecdotal Four treatises of Nizami'Arūḍī is (to 1100/1160), Avicenna was the illness of a young relative diagnosed the ruler of Gorgan, who was bedridden and whose suffering confused the local physicians. Avicenna noticed a flutter in the young man's pulse as he mentioned the address and name of his lover. The great doctor had a simple remedy: the sick man should be united with his beloved. However, the ruler Qaboos, who arranged the wedding with Avicenna, who had called the doctor who had come from Choresm, was no longer alive when Avicenna had arrived in Gorgan. The core of this story is an older wandering anecdote about the doctor Erasistratos , who treats Prince Antiochus .

Avicenna, who assumed that in order to have a child, an orgasm is also necessary in a woman, also speaks in the canon of medicine on the associated methods. His own reflections on the theory of procreation and embryology, some of which were polemical against Galen, can also be found in his work.

Before 1180, a Purgiertaktat called Liber mitis was written by Guido von Arezzo the Younger and introduced the medical reception of Avicenna. Also in the 12th century (before 1187) the canon was translated into Latin by Gerhard of Cremona in Toledo . The work, of which 15-30 Latin editions existed throughout the West in 1470 , was considered an important textbook in medicine until the 17th century. A Hebrew version was printed in Naples in 1491, and in 1593 it was one of the first Persian works to be printed in Arabic in Rome . In the second half of the 16th century - probably also as a result of the confrontation with the Turks - in favor of Galen's teachings, the (“Arabic”) medicine of Avicenna declined in the curricula, smaller universities like the one in Frankfurt an der Oder, where Avicenna is still 1588 was given preference except. In 1650 the canon was used for the last time at the Universities of Leuven and Montpellier .

At the University of Vienna , Pius Nikolaus von Garelli (Dr. med. Et phil. From the University of Bologna) had to attend a solemn "repetition" on a section of the Canon des Avicenna on February 18, 1696 with subsequent argumentation of the reasons that speak for or against the theses contained therein.

Liber Primus Naturalium: Natural Causes of Diseases and Malformations

Avicenna dealt in his work Liber Primus Naturalium with the question of whether events such as diseases or deformities are random events and whether they have natural causes. He analyzed this using the example of polydactyly . His insight was: If an event is rare, it has a natural cause regardless of it, even if one seems unnatural. Avicenna uses the example of polydactyly to see diseases or deformities under a new guise: They are neither supernatural nor accidental phenomena. The realization that such phenomena are natural is a fundamental step towards a consistently naturalistic view of medical phenomena.

Other medical works

In addition to the Canon and the Liber Primus Naturalium , there are 14 other medical works by Avicenna, eight of which are written in verse. They contain, among other things, the 25 signs of the detection of diseases , hygienic rules, proven medicines and anatomical notes. Among his prose works was the treatise on heart medication from around 1023 De medicinis cordialibus ( medicines for the heart ), which together with the doctor Andrea Alpago von Belluno (1450–1521 / 1522) who worked at the Venetian embassy in Damascus, translated and supplemented canon in 1521 and published in a complete edition by his nephew Paolo Alpago in 1527, special attention. Also Arnald of Villanova worked the medication for the heart .

In a didactic poem he recommends moderation: “Beware of being drunk all the time. And if that happens, then once a month ”. The didactic poem on medicine ( Urğūza fi'ṭ-ṭibb ), designed for students of medicine to facilitate learning of theory and practice, consists of 1326 verses and deals with medical practice to be carried out with a knife, medication and dietary measures. With these simple verses, he briefly summarized all of medicine. Each verse (رجز, raǧaz) consists of a double line. The distribution of Avicenna's didactic poem can be seen on the one hand in the commentary by Averroes in Andalusia and on the other hand in the publication as an appendix entitled Cantica Avicennae to Latin editions of the Canon of Medicine .

Avicenna also worked on the letter from the grave (the so-called pseudohippocratic ivory capsule from the alleged tomb of Hippocrates) poetically - also as a raǧaz poem . There are 25 symptom combinations, formulated similar to the Hippocratic aphorisms , predicting imminent death.

In the 1030s, Avicenna dedicated a still preserved, but (1999) unedited treatise on sexual potency to Sultan Masud of Ghazna ( al-Masʿūd ), who plundered Isfahan in 1034 .

natural Science

Avicenna was also engaged in science. Following the inclinations or instructions of ʿAlā ad-Daula Muhammad (his patron in Isfahan from 1024), he wrote about the results of his observation of the stars and added ancient astronomical tables to them. In astronomy , he worked on Ptolemy 's star model , according to his student al-Juzdschani , and assumed that Venus was closer to the earth than the sun. He criticized the astrology of his time, among other things because its usefulness cannot be proven empirically or by calculations and it is incompatible with Islamic theology. Avicenna quoted a few passages from the Koran to give religious support to this judgment.

He is said to have developed a new method of determining longitude for the daughter of Qabus (see above) . He also developed a sighting device similar to the later Jacob's staff.

He described steam distillation for the production of oils and oily extracts. On the other hand, he was relatively skeptical of alchemy . So he did not believe in a philosopher's stone. Alchemically produced gold is, as he wrote in his Kitab asch-Schifa , only an imitation and he denies the equality of natural and artificial substances. It was often included in the early translations of Aristotle's Meteorologica , since the editors considered it Aristotelian, and exerted a considerable influence on alchemical literature as an antithesis to which one justified oneself. Some of the alchemical writings that were later attributed to him are later deletions (like De anima in arte alkemia ), but influenced e.g. B. Roger Bacon .

In geology , he gave two reasons for the formation of mountains: “Either they arise from the uplifting of layers of earth, as happens in severe earthquakes, or they are the result of water that has sought new paths and has washed out valleys where softer ones Strata of rock can be found [...] However, this must take a long time in which the mountains themselves could become smaller. "

Avicenna was also very active in physics; so he used thermometers to measure temperature in his experiments and proposed a theory about motion. In it he dealt with the force and the inclination of a projectile and showed that a projectile moves forever in a vacuum. In optics he argued that the speed of light is finite and gave a description of the rainbow (following Avicenna, Dietrich von Freiberg developed his theory of the double rainbow).

A font with the title Richt Maß der Vernunft , which deals with the five basic Heronic forms, is attributed to Avicenna.


Avicenna dealt extensively with philosophical questions, both metaphysics and logic and ethics. In Bukhara he wrote his first philosophical writings as a result of his preoccupation with Aristotle. His comments on Aristotle's works contained constructive criticism of his views and created the basis for a new Aristotle discussion. Avicenna's philosophical teachings are considered to be still current by both Western and Muslim researchers.


Avicenna, manuscript from 1271

Avicenna wrote his earliest works in Bukhara under the influence of al-Farabi . The first, a compendium on the soul ( Arabic مقالة فى النفس, DMG Maqāla fī'n-nafs ), is a short treatise which he dedicated to the Samanid rulers and in which he dealt with Neoplatonic ideas. The second is philosophy for the prosodist ( Arabic الحكمة العروضية, DMG al-Ḥikma al-'arūḍiyya ), in which he deals with the metaphysics of Aristotle.

After leaving Bukhara, Avicenna wrote other philosophical works, including the Book of Healing ( Arabic ), which depicts his main philosophical work and which he wrote during his years of traveling (beginning as a vizier under Schams ad-Daula and continuing the work in his hiding place at a spice shop in Hamadan) كتاب الشفاء, DMG Kitāb aš-šifā ' ), an eighteen -volume scientific encyclopedia. It is mainly about "healing the soul from error" and also shows ways to recovery from the "diseases of doubt and despair" (the work finalized by Avicenna's disciple al-Juzdschani and provided with a foreword was also made as a book of recovery , but does not yet contain medical articles). The Kitāb aš-šifā also deals with arithmetic, astronomy, geometry, logic, music, natural sciences or natural history (physics, botany and zoology, geology, mineralogy, geography and geodesy), philosophy and psychology. The third part of the book contains a summary of the elements of Euclid with the involvement of later Greek mathematicians, an abbreviated Almagest treatment and a treatise on arithmetic and music. His music-theoretical explanations deal, among other things, with the mathematical recording of the intervals, but also the effect of the different modes (see above) on people. Like his predecessor al-Farabi, Avicenna also used the lute for this purpose. One of Avicenna's students in the field of music theory is Abu Mansur al-Ḥusain ibn Zaila († 1067), the author of the book The Sufficient in Music ( Kitāb al-kāfī fi ʼl-mūsīqī ), which represented the musical practice of that time .

Avicenna's work was influenced by Hellenistic thinkers such as Aristotle and Claudius Ptolemy as well as by Arabic-speaking Muslim humanities and natural scientists such as al-Farabi and al-Biruni . The work, especially Avicenna's metaphysics, did not meet with unanimous approval everywhere in the Islamic world and, as the philosopher Ernst Bloch writes, it was repeatedly persecuted as heretical: “Avicenna's philosophical encyclopedia was burned in 1150 on the orders of the Caliph of Baghdad ; even later every accessible copy was destroyed, there are only fragments of the original text ”. In the 12th century, a Latin (partial) translation of the work, namely the natural history ( Assepha or Sufficientia or Liber sufficientiae , German: Das Sufficientiae ) by Abraham ibn Daud and Dominicus Gundisalvi, was also produced at the translation school in Toledo . The parts of the book left by Gundisalvi were translated by Adelard of Bath . In 1215, reading of the metaphysical part of the book was banned by a decree of Robert von Courson in Paris.

The Book of Healing consists of four larger treatises, the first of which deals with logic (divided into eight parts with an introduction to logical, dialectical, rhetorical and poetological explanations), the second deals primarily with physics and other natural sciences, the third with mathematics (geometry, astronomy, arithmetic and music) and the fourth treatise on metaphysics.

Avicenna's second work was the Book of Knowledge he wrote in Persian for 'Alā' ad-Daula ( Persian دانشنامهٔ علائى, DMG Dānešnāme-ye 'Alā'ī , with full name also Ala ad-Daula Abu Dschafar Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar ), in which he offers his Kakuyid patron in Isfahan a summary of his philosophy on the basis of the Book of Healing . Part of this work appeared in Pavia in 1490 .

A smaller Arabic encyclopedia than the Book of Recovery is his book Kitāb an-Nadschāt ("Book of Salvation"), which is divided into the subjects of logic, physics and metaphysics. Avicenna's pupil, biographer and editor al-Juzdschani, who dealt with astronomy and mathematics himself, contributed parts corresponding to his interest based on the book of recovery to the book of salvation .

Another work, a detailed commentary on Aristotle written in Isfahan, is The Judgment or Book of Balanced Judgment ( Arabic کتاب الانصاف, DMG Kitāb al-inṣāf ), which differs from the other works by its radicalism and its mixture of Aristotelian ideas and Neoplatonism. Thus Avicenna broke away from the ancient authorities and contrasted the views of Aristotle with his own considerations. The book, captured in 1034 by the troops of the Sultan Masud of Ghazna during the sacking of Isfahan (and the Avicenna quarter) and in 1151 in the palace library of Ghazna , probably with other writings, is only a fragment of a book that has survived in a parallel tradition. The surviving parts are a section on Book Lambda of Aristotelian Metaphysics as well as a commentary on the Theologia Aristotelis Plotinus, which is also commented on in the Book of Balanced Judgment . In the Book of Balanced Judgment Avicenna examined the different treatment of philosophical questions by the "Western" and "Eastern".

His last major work is his work The Eastern Philosophy , also called The Eastern ( Arabic الحكمة المشرقية, DMG al-Ḥikma al-mašriqiyya ) which he wrote in the late 1020s. The structure of the text is based on the Book of Healing , but went beyond the views of the ordinary Aristotelian school of the Peripatetics ; like the Book of Balanced Judgment , it differed in approach from Aristotle and the Greek and Arabic commentators. It contained an overview of logic, a treatise on metaphysics, and discussion of physics and ethics. The work has largely been lost, its introduction and, fragmentarily, the section on logic.

Avicenna also wrote the short book of Advice and Reminders or Instructions and Admonitions ( Arabic كتاب الاشارات و التنبيهات, DMG Kitāb al-išārāt wa't-tanbīhāt ), an important work that introduces his thinking on a variety of logical and metaphysical subjects.

His political and economic writings include the treatise on management (of the private household), which, among other things, deals with the upbringing of boys and explains the subordination of wives and the necessity of keeping slaves.


Early Islamic philosophy , which was still closely based on the Koran, differentiated more clearly than Aristotle between essence and existence. Avicenna developed a comprehensive metaphysical description of the world by combining Neoplatonic ideas with Aristotelian teachings. He understood the relationship between material and form to mean that the material (materia ) already contained the possibilities of the forms (essentiae). God is necessary in himself, all other being necessary through something else. "God is the only being in which essence (being) and existence (Dasein) cannot be separated and which is therefore necessary in itself." All other being is conditionally necessary and can be divided into the eternal and the ephemeral. God created the world through his spiritual activity. The task of the human intellect is to enlighten the human being.

Avicenna on Aristotle:

"As you should know, by the way, Aristotle's assertion that the world has no beginning did not mean that it had no creator, rather he wanted to absolve its creator of ever having been inactive."

On the question of ideas or general terms, Avicenna supported the thesis based on Plato that these ante rem (i.e. before the creation of the world ) can already be found in the mind of God, in re effective in nature and post rem also in human knowledge. With this distinction between ante rem , in re and post rem Avicenna became of great importance for the occidental universal dispute . Avicenna denied God's interest in individual events and a creation of the world in time. Referring to the Koran, he also rejected the idea of ​​a prenatal existence of the human soul, but introduced the immortality of the human soul with philosophical arguments. This interpretation was already criticized by his orthodox opponents during his lifetime, because according to this view an infinite number of human souls would have to accumulate.

The Azerbaijani Zoroastrian Bahmanyār ibn Marzubān (died 1066) was particularly interested in Avicenna's metaphysics and the doctrine of the soul . Avendauth , who translated one of Avicenna's works on the soul, also bases his philosophy on Avicenna.

Three Latin versions of the metaphysics were printed in Venice in 1493, 1495 and 1546 .


Al-Juzdschani noted in Avicenna's autobiography a small compendium of logic that was included in the first volume of Avicenna's Book of Healing . In his main philosophical work, the Book of Recovery , logic takes up more than a third of the volume (the astronomer Nağmaddīn ʿAlī ʿUmar al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī, who died in the last quarter of the 13th century, edited this part of the work).

Avicenna devoted herself to logic in both Islamic philosophy and medicine and even developed her own logical system, which is also known as "Avicennian logic". Avicenna was probably one of the first who dared to criticize Aristotle and to write independent treatises that approached stoic doctrines. The Baghdad School received particular criticism from him because it was based too much on Aristotle. The philosophical work of Galen's On Proof may have played a fundamental role in Avicenna's logic .

Avicenna examined the theories of definition and classification, as well as the quantification of predicates and categorical logical statements . The syllogisms , especially the logical inferences, consisting of two premises and a conclusion (example: All people are mortal. Socrates is a person. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.), He gave forms of change such as "always", "mostly" or "sometimes" at. On the question of induction and deduction , Avicenna was to a certain extent divided. While he relied on deduction in philosophy; H. concluded from a generally valid sentence to special forms (e.g. all people are mortal - therefore Socrates is also mortal), he was one of the first to use the method of induction in medicine.


Avicenna had devoted much of his training to the Koran and the Islamic religion in Bukhara . It is said that he had already mastered the Koran at the age of 10. He was a devout faqī until his death and also took Islamic five-day prayer seriously. He wrote five treatises on different suras , which are generally full of respect. Only his philosophical activities sometimes brought him into conflict with Islamic orthodoxy : Based on Aristotle's theory of the soul, he further differentiated the three soul faculties and subordinated them to the world soul . In doing so, he contradicted central beliefs, which earned him the hostility of Sunni theologians . Like the Christian scholastics after him, Avicenna tried to combine Greek philosophy with his religion, reason with faith. So he used philosophical teachings to scientifically underpin the Islamic beliefs. In his work on the confirmation of prophethood , he does not go into all questions of Islamic prophetic teaching. Although he saw both religion and philosophy as two necessary parts of the whole truth, he argued that the Islamic prophets should have more importance than the ancient philosophers. A central problem of his theology is theodicy , the question of the existence of evil in the world originally created by a benevolent and all-powerful God. Since God is eternal, but man has only a limited lifetime available, man's moral responsibility is a great responsibility in which his dignity lies.

The Latin tradition

Avicenna as Princeps Abinsceni with crown and scepter, woodcut from an edition of the Canon from Venice, 1520
Avicenna as the crowned medical prince between Galen and Hippocrates, title page of a Latin canon edition, Pavia around 1512

The canon was translated into Latin by Gerhard von Cremona in Toledo around the middle of the 12th century . By giving Gerhard the addition to his name and the honorary title originally corresponding to his government function, aš-šaiḫ ar-raʾīs (also rajīs and al-raïs ), ("supreme sheikh", "his eminence, the minister", "the venerable", "the sublime", " the prince ”) with princeps (“ prince ”) and in the explicit canon with rex (“ king ”) translated, he contributed to the legend, especially in Italy since the 14th century, that Avicenna was a“ prince of Córdoba ”or from Seville . Therefore, Avicenna often appears in pictorial representations with a crown and scepter and was also often depicted in the Islamic world as a "princely master" (Turkish Sheiku'r rice ). In the West he was also referred to in Latin as princeps medicorum .

At the beginning of the 14th century, in Montpellier, Armengaud Blasius translated Avicenna's medical verse manual into Latin prose. Blasius' uncle, Arnald von Villanova (lecturer at the University of Montpellier and papal personal physician) translated the psychiatric treatise De viribus cordis written by Avicenna in 1306 .

Somewhat earlier than Gerhard's canon translation, a translation of the Kitāb al-Shifā was created in the translation school of Toledo, dedicated to Archbishop Johannes von Toledo (1151–1166) , which was initially written by the Jewish philosopher Abraham ibn Daud or Avendauth (Avendarith israelita philosophus) from Arabic to Spanish and then from Spanish to Latin by Dominicus Gundisalvi . From this translation, the sixth book on the soul, entitled Liber sextus naturalium, has had a lasting impact on the philosophical debates of scholasticism since the second half of the 13th century. An independent translation especially of the eighth book on animals was made by Michael Scotus in Italy in the period after 1220 and dedicated to Frederick II : an imperially authorized copy made in Melfi is dated August 9, 1232 in the colophon .

Avicenna's compendium Dāneschnāme-ye ʿAlā'ī was not translated directly into Latin, but it became indirectly influential for the Latin tradition, thanks to its use by al-Ghazālī as a template for his writing Maqāṣid al-falāsifa (The intentions of the philosophers, 1094) , in which this his attack on the teachings of Avicenna, al-Farābīs and other "philosophers" ( Tahāfut al-falāsifa , The incoherence of the philosophers, 1095, lat. Destructio philosophorum) first a presentation of basic concepts of logic , metaphysics , theology and physics from the teachings of these philosophers. Maqāṣid al-falāsifa was translated into Latin in Toledo in the first half of the 12th century, probably by Dominicus Gundisalvi, and then circulated in one of the manuscripts under the title Liber Algazelis de summa theoricae philosophiae . The Latin readers were not aware of the dependence on Avicenna's Dāneschnāme-ye ʿAlā'ī , but instead considered the book to be an exposition of the genuine doctrine of al-Ghazālī, which then led to the latter being particularly valued by authors who dealt with his fought line of tradition sympathized.

Avicenna was attributed to incorrect one under the title Liber Avicennae in primis et secundis substantiis et de fluxu entis or De intelligentiis spread, Platonic font of the 12th century, including those from pseudo-Dionysius , Augustine Christian and Avicenna draws and in any case by a Latin author, probably from Dominicus Gundisalvi . Avicenna was also assigned a Liber de causis primis et secundis , which is the successor to the pseudo-Aristotelian Liber de causis and was also created in Toledo in the 12th century.

In Latin scholasticism, Avicenna became - after Averroes  - the most respected representative of Islamic philosophy and mediator of Aristotelian philosophy and natural history. His works were not only used in the artistic faculties and by theologians such as Thomas Aquinas (for example in De ente et essentia , German: About Being and Being ) and Johannes Duns Scotus , but since the late 13th century also and especially in the medical field Faculties, and then received both medical and philosophical issues, with Montpellier in France and Bologna in Italy playing a key role. In Montpellier, the canon was a compulsory medical program from 1309 (and until 1557). In Bologna, the reception was largely initiated by Taddeo Alderotti († 1295), professor since 1260, whose pupil Dino del Garbo continued the approaches in Bologna, Siena , Padua and Florence . Dino's pupil Gentile da Foligno, on the other hand, who worked primarily in Siena and Perugia , wrote the first almost complete Latin commentary on the canon, a teaching work that then had a great impact until the 16th century.

Andrea Alpago († 1521 or 1522) from Belluno produced new Latin translations of the canon and other, up to then partially untranslated writings of Avicenna . Alpago worked as a doctor at the Venetian legation in Damascus for around thirty years, studying Arabic manuscripts of the works of Avicenna and Averroes and their Arabic commentators. His adaptation of the canon, which first appeared in print in 1527, was the result of a critical revision and glossing of the established translation by Gerhard von Cremona. It has been printed in more than 30 new editions and new editions since the first edition. The canon remained one of the major works of medical science until the 17th century.

Other reception


Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), who already let Avicenna speak in the banquet, added Avicenna in his Divine Comedy ( Inferno 4,143) ( not independent of Avicenna's above-mentioned work Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān or the Hebrew version Chaj ben Mekitz ) his two Muslim fellow believers Averroes and Saladin in the "noble castle" (nobile castello) in the limbus of hell, where otherwise only people from pre-Christian pagan antiquity, especially philosophers and poets from the Greek and Roman world, are settled: he shares that with them Fate of having escaped eternal damnation through a virtuous lifestyle, since otherwise he would have to be punished in one of the deeper circles of actual hell, but at the same time, for lack of participation in the sacrament of baptism , to be excluded from salvation in Paradiso and therefore a state without To have to suffer punishment, but in eternal distance from God. That he and his two fellow believers, in contrast to their pagan fellow sufferers of pre-Christian times, already knew Christian doctrine and could have made a decision about baptism, their insistence on a different faith was consequently based on their own choice and that they were nevertheless not punished with their other fellow believers condemned to a deeper circle of hell, expresses the special appreciation that Dante showed them.

Busts, statues and portraits

Portrait of Avicenna on the 20 somoni banknote

Imaginative portraits of Avicenna are among others in the hall of the medical faculty of the Sorbonne , on the Tajik 20- Somoni -Geldschein and Milan Cathedral in a church window, donated in 1479 by the pharmacist profession Milan.

There are also statues of Avicenna in the Tajik town of Dushanbe and at his birthplace in Afschana near Bukhara in what is now Uzbekistan .

Uzbek anthropologists had reconstructed his head in the form of a bust based on two photographs of Avicenna's skull (see above).


Already Niẓāmī ʿArūḍī, a Persian poet from Samarkand , glorified Avicenna's medical skills in anecdotal stories in the 12th century. Legendary tales entwine in folk literature about the famous doctor, to whom magical powers were also ascribed, and contents of Avicenna's canon are even found in the fairy tales from the Arabian Nights (for example in the 134th and 449th Nights, which contain the story of slave girl Tawaddud) mentioned. In a Turkish folk novel, wondrous adventures that Avicenna experienced with an alleged twin brother Abu l-Ḥāriṯ are described. In the English Canterbury Tales from the 14th century, "Avicen" is just as much a part of the standard literature for doctors as " Galien ". The Tatar educator and writer Kajum Nasyri (1824–1904) handed down a Russian translation of a popular Turkish story about Avicenna. Avicenna is also used in fiction in modern times. In Noah Gordon's bestseller The Medicus, the protagonist of the novel studies medicine with Avicenna. In the historical novel The Road to Isfahan by Gilbert Sinoué , Avicenna is the main character; His entire life is described.

Avicenna Studienwerk

Since the beginning of the 2014/15 winter semester, the Avicenna Studienwerk has supported Muslim students with a state scholarship. It is thus the 13th organization for the promotion of talented students in Germany and among these, alongside the Catholic Cusanuswerk , the Evangelical Studienwerk Villigst and the Jewish Ernst Ludwig Ehrlich Studienwerk , the fourth denominational.

Avicenna Prize

In 2005, the Avicenna Prize Association was founded in Germany by people from science, politics and society on the initiative of Yaşar Bilgin , chairman of the Turkish-German Health Foundation. The prize should honor initiatives by people or institutions for intercultural understanding. For the first time, the award was given in 2009 to the UN initiative Alliance of Civilizations . Alliance of Civilizations (AoC), awarded. In 2012 it went to the Iranian lawyer, human rights activist and 2003 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Shirin Ebadi and was awarded in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt .

Dedication names

Carl von Linné named the genus Avicennia from the acanthus family (Acanthaceae) in his honor . The Avicenna Bay in Antarctica bears his name.

The lunar crater Avicenna and the asteroid of the main outer belt (2755) Avicenna are also named after Avicenna.

Editions and translations

Latin (Renaissance)

  • Liber canonis Avicenne revisus et ab omni errore mendaque purgatus summaque cum diligentia impressus. (based on the translation by Gerhard von Cremona) Venice (Paganinus de Paganinis) 1507; Reprint: Olms, Hildesheim 1964.
  • [Avicennae medicorum Arabum principis] Liber canonis. De medicinis cordialibus et cantica. Basel (printed by Johannes Herwag) 1556; Reprint: Teheran 1976 (the second edition, first printed in Venice in 1544, of the version of the medieval translation by Gerhard von Cremona, revised in 1527 by Andreas Alpagus Belluniensis (Andrea Alpago from Belluno) and explained by Benedict Rinius ).
  • Avicennae Liber Canonis. Translatus a Gerardo Cremonensi in Toledo from arabice in latinum. Venice 1597.

Latin (modern)

  • Avicenna Latinus. Louvain / Leiden 1968 ff. (Critical complete edition):
    • Simone Van Riet (Ed.): Liber de anima seu sextus de naturalibus. 2 volumes, 1968–1972.
    • Simone Van Riet (Ed.): Liber de philosophia prima sive scientia divina. 3 volumes, 1977–1983, ISBN 2-8017-0084-3 , ISBN 2-8017-0156-4 , ISBN 2-8017-0211-0 .
    • Liber primus naturalium, tractatus primus: De causis et principiis naturalium. Ed. Simone Van Riet, 1992, ISBN 90-6831-453-X .
    • Simone Van Riet (eds.), Jules Janssens, André Allard: Liber primus naturalium, tractatus secundus: De motu et de consimilibus. 2006, ISBN 2-8031-0231-5 .
    • Simone Van Riet (Ed.): Liber tertius naturalium: De generatione et corruptione. 1987, ISBN 90-6831-096-8 .
    • Simone Van Riet (Ed.): Liber quartus naturalium: De actionibus et passionibus qualitatum primarum. 1989, ISBN 90-6831-246-4 .
    • Marie-Thérèse d'Alverny (Ed.): Codices. 1994, ISBN 2-8031-0124-6 (description of the Latin manuscripts).


  • Samuel Landauer : Contribution to the psychology of Ibn Sinâ. Introduction, text and translation with commentary (Sections I – III). Dissertation Munich 1872
    • The psychology of Ibn Sînâ. In: Journal of the German Oriental Society. Volume 29, 1876, pp. 335-418; Reprinted in: Fuat Sezgin (Ed.): Studies on Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037) and his medical works. 4 volumes. Frankfurt am Main 1996 (= Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science. Ed. Von Fuat Sezgin, Volume 10-13: Islamic Medicine. ) Volume 1, pp. 65-148. - Edition and translation of Avicenna's pamphlet dedicated to his emir.
  • The book of the recovery of the soul. An Avicenna's Philosophical Encyclopedia. Translated and explained by Max Horten, Bonn 1906, reprinted by Minerva, Frankfurt am Main 1960.
  • A. Fidora, A. Niederberger: From Baghdad to Toledo - The book of causes and its reception in the Middle Ages / Latin-German text, commentary and history of the effects of the Liber de causis. With a foreword by Matthias Lutz-Bachmann. Dieterich'sche Verlagbuchhandlung, Mainz 2001.
  • Avicenna: Fundamentals of Metaphysics. A selection from Books IV of Metaphysics. Arabic - Latin - German (= Herder's Library of Medieval Philosophy. Volume 32) Translated by Jens Ole Schmitt, 1st edition, Herder, Freiburg u. a. 2016, ISBN 978-3-451-34045-1 .
  • Paul Kraus : An Arabic biography of Avicennas. In: Clinical weekly. Volume 11, 1932, pp. 1880-1884 (German translation of Avicenna's autobiography and its continuation by al-Juzdschani). Also in: Fuat Sezgin (Ed.) Studies on Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037) and his medical works. 4 volumes. Frankfurt am Main 1996 (= Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science. Vol. 10-13 ). Volume 3, pp. 185-197.
  • Konrad Goehl: The vita Avicennae of Soranus or Al-Jusadschani, Latin and German. In: Konrad Goehl, Johannes G. Meyer (Hrsg.): Editions and studies on Latin and German specialist prose of the Middle Ages. Gundolf Keil's 65th birthday celebration. Würzburg 2000, pp. 317-338.
  • Julius Hirschberg, Julius Lippert (transl.): The ophthalmology of Ibn Sina. Leipzig 1902; Reprinted in: Fuat Sezgin (Ed.): Studies on Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037) and his medical works. 4 volumes. Frankfurt am Main 1996 (= Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science. Ed. Von Fuat Sezgin, Volume 10-13: Islamic Medicine. ) Volume 2, pp. 161-354.
  • K. Opitz (transl.): The didactic poem about medicine. In: Sources and studies on the history of science and medicine. Volume 7, 1940, pp. 304-374; Reprinted in: Fuat Sezgin (Ed.): Studies on Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037) and his medical works. 4 volumes. Frankfurt am Main 1996 (= Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science. Ed. Von Fuat Sezgin, Volume 10-13: Islamic Medicine. ) Volume 4, pp. 196-266.
  • Rüdiger Arnzen (transl.): Letter to the scholars of Baghdad. In: Rüdiger Arnzen: Platonic Ideas in Arabic Philosophy: Texts and materials on the conceptual history of suwar aflatuniyya and muthul aflatuniyya. De Gruyter, Berlin 2011.
  • Renate Würsch: Avicenna's adaptations of the Aristotelian rhetoric: a contribution to the survival of ancient education in the Islamic world. Klaus Schwarz Verlag, Berlin 1991.
  • Leo Jules van de Wiele: De 'Liber magistri Avicenne' en de 'Herbarijs'. Middelnederlandse manuscripts uit de XIVe eeuw (Ms. 15264–15641 Kon. Bi. Brussel). 2 volumes. Brussels 1965 (= Negotiating van de Koninklijke Vlaamse academie voor wetenschappen, letteren en schone kunsten van België. Class of wetenschappen. XXVII, 83).


  • Kitab al-Qanun fi'ṭ-ṭibb. Rome 1593 (the "Canon of Medicine", in the appendix the "Book of Salvation" Kitāb an-Nadschât ).
  • Avicenna: Fundamentals of Metaphysics. A selection from Books IV of Metaphysics. Arabic - Latin - German (= Herder's Library of Medieval Philosophy. Volume 32) Translated by Jens Ole Schmitt, 1st edition, Herder, Freiburg u. a. 2016, ISBN 978-3-451-34045-1 .
  • Livre des definitions. trans. by Amélie-Marie Goichon, Cairo 1963 (critical edition of the Arabic text and translation).
  • Lettre au vizir Abû Sa'd. trans. by Yahya Michot, Beirut 2000, ISBN 2-84161-150-7 (Arabic text and translation).
  • Réfutation de l'astrologie. trans. by Yahya Michot, Beirut 2006, ISBN 2-84161-304-6 (critical edition of the Arabic text and translation).
  • Henri Jahier, Abdelkader Noureddine (ed. And transl.): Avicenne, Poème de la médecine. Cantica Avicennae. / Urguza fi 't-tibb. (trad. lat. du 13. siècle avec introd.) Les Belles Lettres, Paris 1956 (Arabic and French).
  • Avicenna: The Physics of "The Healing". A Parallel English-Arabic Text in Two Volumes . Brigham Young University Islamic Translation Series, ed. and transl. by Jon McGinnis, 2 volumes. Brigham Young University Press, Provo UT 2010.
  • R. Kuhne Brabant: La "Urŷūza laṭīfa fi qaḍāyā Ibuqrāt al-jams wa-l-ʿišrīn" de Avicena. In: Homenaje al Prof. Darío Cabanelas Rodríges, OFM, con motivo de su LXX aniversario. Granada 1987, Volume 2, pp. 343-366 (The poetic treatment of the pseudohippocratic ivory capsule ).


  • Livre des definitions. trans. by Amélie-Marie Goichon, Cairo 1963 (critical edition of the Arabic text and translation).
  • Livre des directives et remarques. trans. by Amélie-Marie Goichon, Beirut / Paris 1951.
  • La métaphysique du Shifā '. trans. by Georges C. Anawati , 2 volumes, Vrin, Paris 1978–1985, ISBN 2-7116-0041-6 .
  • Lettre au vizir Abû Sa'd. trans. by Yahya Michot, Beirut 2000, ISBN 2-84161-150-7 (Arabic text and translation).
  • Réfutation de l'astrologie. trans. by Yahya Michot, Beirut 2006, ISBN 2-84161-304-6 (critical edition of the Arabic text and translation).
  • Le livre de science. trans. by Muhammad Achena, Henri Massé, Paris 1955.
  • Henri Jahier, Abdelkader Noureddine (ed. And transl.): Avicenne, Poème de la médecine. Cantica Avicennae. Urguza fi 't-tibb. Les Belles Lettres, Paris 1956 (Arabic and French).


  • Libro della Guarigione, Le Cose Divine di Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā). A cura di Amos Bertolacci (an annotated Italian translation of Ilāhiyyāt of Avicenna's Kitāb al-Šifāʾ, with introduction, corrections to the Arabic text and indices). Hard-cover edition: Collezione “Classici della Filosofia”, UTET (Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese), Turin 2007. Paperback edition, Collezione “Classici del Pensiero” 53, UTET Libreria, Turin 2008. Amos Bertolacci is currently creating a new edition of the Arabic Texts: http://www.avicennaproject.eu/
  • Metafisica. La "scienza delle cose divine" (Al-ilāhiyyāt) dal "Libro della Guarigione". Translated by Olga Lizzini. Foreword by Pasquale Porro, Milano: Bompiani 2002. (2nd edition: 2006).


  • O. Cameron Gruner: A Treatise of Canon of Medicine of Avicenna. London 1930.
  • Remarks and Admonitions. Part One: Logic. Translated by Shams Constantine Inati, Toronto 1984, ISBN 0-88844-277-7 .
  • Avicenna's Treatise on Logic. Part one of 'Danesh-Name Alai' (A Concise Philosophical Encyclopaedia) and autobiography. Ed. And transl. from the Persian original by Farhang Zabeeh, 's-Gravenhage 1971.
  • Avicenna's Commentary on the Poetics of Aristotle. Translated by Ismail M. Dahiyat , Leiden 1974, ISBN 90-04-03962-7 (translation and commentary).
  • The Life of Ibn Sina. A critical edition and annotated translation. Translated by William E. Gohlman, Albany NY 1974, ISBN 0-87395-226-X (autobiography, supplemented by a student after Avicenna's death).
  • Avicenna: The Physics of "The Healing". A Parallel English-Arabic Text in Two Volumes . Brigham Young University Islamic Translation Series, ed. and transl. by Jon McGinnis, 2 volumes. Brigham Young University Press, Provo UT 2010.
  • Avicenna: The Metaphysics of the Healing. Translated by Michael E. Marmura. Brigham Young University Press, Provo 2006 (= Islamic Translation Series).

Digital copies


  • Soheil Muhsin Afnan: Avicenna - his life and works. London 1958; Reprinted Westport 1980.
  • Marie-Thérèse d'Alverny , Danielle Jacquart: Avicenne en Occident. Recueil d'articles en hommage à Marie-Thérèse d'Alverny. (= Études de philosophie médiévale. Volume 17). Librairie philosophique J. Vrin, Paris 1993.
  • GC Anawati : Essai de bibliographie avicennienne. Le Caire, 1950.
  • Ernst Bloch : Avicenna and the Aristotelian Left. Leipzig 1949; Rütten & Loening, Berlin 1952.
  • Burchard Brentjes , Sonja Brentjes: Ibn Sina (Avicenna) the princely master from Bukhara. (= Biographies of outstanding natural scientists, technicians and medical professionals. Volume 40). Leipzig 1979.
  • Gerhard Endress u. a .: Avicenna. In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages . Volume 1, Munich / Zurich 1980, Col. 1298-1300.
  • Konrad Goehl : Avicenna and his presentation of the medicinal effects. With an introduction by Jorit Wintjes . Deutscher Wissenschafts-Verlag, Baden-Baden 2014, ISBN 978-3-86888-078-6 .
  • Amélie-Marie Goichon: Ibn Sīnā. In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam . Volume 3, Leiden / London 1971, pp. 941-947.
  • Amélie-Marie Goichon: La philosopie d'Avicenne et son influence en Europe médiévale. 2nd Edition. Paris 1984.
  • Lenn E. Goodman : Avicenna. Routledge, London / New York 1992, ISBN 0-415-01929-X .
  • Dimitri Gutas : Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition. Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works. (= Islamic Philosophy and Theology. Text and Study. Volume 4). Brill, Leiden / Boston 1988, ISBN 90-04-08500-9 . See critically: Michael E. Marmura: Plotting the course of Avicenna's thought. In: Journal of the American Oriental Society. Volume 111, 1991, pp. 333-342.
    • 2nd, revised and expanded edition with an inventory of Avicenna's Authentic Works. ibid 2014.
  • Dimitri Gutas: Avicenna ii. Biography. In: Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume III / 1, pp. 67-70 ( digitized December 30, 2012).
  • Dimitri Gutas: Ibn Sina . In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . 2016.
  • Ghanem Georges Hana: Ibn Sina (Avicenna) . In: Kurt Fassmann et al. (Ed.): The greats of world history . tape 3 . Kindler Verlag, Zurich 1973, p. 222-233 . - New edition: Ghanem Georges Hana: Ibn Sina (Avicenna). In: Marion Schmid: Exempla historica. Epochs of world history in biographies; in 70 volumes. Volume 16: Middle Ages - Philosophers (= Fischer pocket books. Volume 17016). Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1984, ISBN 3-596-17016-8 , pp. 29-43.
  • Mahmoud El Hefny : Ibn Sina's music theory. Hellwig, Berlin 1931.
  • Jules L. Janssens: An Annotated Bibliography on Ibn Sînâ (1970–1989). Including Arabic and Persian Publications and Turkish and Russian References. Brill, Leiden 1991.
    • Jules L. Janssens: An Annotated Bibliography on Ibn Sînâ, First Supplement (1990–1994). Louvain-la-Neuve 1999.
  • Gundolf Keil : Avicenna. In: Burghart Wachinger u. a. (Ed.): The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author Lexicon . 2nd, completely revised edition. Volume 1: 'A solis ortus cardine' - Colmar Dominican chronicler. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1978, ISBN 3-11-007264-5 , Sp. 572 f.
  • Tiana Koutzarova: The transcendental in Ibn Sīnā. On metaphysics as a science of first conceptual and judgment principles. Brill, Leiden / Boston 2009. (The best German-language book regarding Avicenna's metaphysics)
  • Paul Kraus : An Arabic biography of Avicennas. In: Clinical weekly. Volume 11, 1932, pp. 1880-1884.
  • Andreas Lammer: The Elements of Avicenna's Physics. Greek Sources and Arabic Innovations (= Scientia graeco-arabica. Volume 20). De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2018. ISBN 978-3-11-054358-2 .
  • Olga Lizzini: Ibn Sina's Metaphysics . In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2015.
  • Ibrahim Madkour (Ibrāhīm Madkūr): Avicenne en Orient et en Occident. ( Extract from MIDEO. (Also: Midéo = Mélanges de l'Institut dominicain d'études orientales. ) Volume XV. Librairie du Liban, Beyrouth 1982, pp. 223-230. )
  • Muhsin Mahdi et al. a .: Avicenna. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica. Volume III / 1, London / New York 1989, pp. 66–110 ( digitized , December 30, 2012).
  • Hermann Ley : Avicenna (= science and technology presented in an understandable way. Volume 13). Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 1953.
  • Hermann Ley: Ibn Sina. In: Erhard Lange, Dietrich Alexander: Philosophenlexikon. Dietz, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-88436-133-3 , pp. 426-433 with bibliography.
  • Johannes Gottfried Mayer, Konrad Goehl: herbal book of monastery medicine. The "Macer floridus". Medieval medicine. Reprint-Verlag-Leipzig, Holzminden 2003, ISBN 3-8262-1130-8 , pp. 42–124 (The basics of Avicenna's medicine and partial translation of Liber I.)
  • Jon McGinnis: Ibn Sina's Natural Philosophy . In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2016.
  • Michael Muthreich: Theoretical foundations in the concept of God in Avicenna. Dissertation. University of Giessen, Giessen 1999.
  • Shlomo Pines , B. Suler: Avicenna. In: Encyclopaedia Judaica . Volume 3. Jerusalem 1971, col. 955-959.
  • Constantin Sauter: Avicenna's treatment of Aristotelian metaphysics. Dissertation, University of Munich, 1904. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1912.
  • Heinrich Schipperges : A "Summa medicinae" at Avicenna. On the disease doctrine and medicine of Ibn Sīnā (980-1037). (= Meeting reports of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences: mathematical-scientific class. 1987/88, 1st paper). Heidelberg / New York 1987.
  • Heinrich Schipperges: Ibn Sīnā (= abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusain ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā al-Qānūnī = Avicenna). In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 1334-1336.
  • Fuat Sezgin (Ed.): Studies on Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037) and his medical works. (= Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science. Vol. 10-13). 4 volumes. Frankfurt am Main 1996.
  • Fuat Sezgin et al. (Ed.): Abū ʿAlī Ibn Sīnā (d. 428/1037). Texts and Studies. Collected and Reprinted. (= Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science. Vol. 30-34). 5 volumes. Frankfurt am Main 1999.
  • Mazhar H. Shah, Avicenna: The general principles of Avicenna's Canon of medicine. Naveed Clinic, Karachi 1966.
  • Nancy G. Siraisi : Avicenna in Renaissance Italy. The "Canon" and medical teaching in Italian universities after 1500. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1987.
  • Gotthard Strohmaier : Avicenna. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-41946-1 . (2nd edition, 2006)
  • Arslan Terzioglu: Ibn Sinā ve tabātet. Istanbul 1982.
  • Arslan Terzioğlu: İbn Sina (Avicenna) in the light of recent research. (Translation: Ali Vicdani Doyum) In: Würzburger medical history reports. Volume 18, 1999, pp. 111-131.
  • Manfred Ullmann : Die Medizin im Islam (= Handbook of Oriental Studies. 1. Department: The Near and Middle East. Supplementary Volume VI, 1). Leiden / Cologne 1970, pp. 152–156.
  • Ursula Weisser : Ibn Sina and the medicine of the Arab-Islamic Middle Ages - old and new judgments and prejudices. In: Medical History Journal. Volume 18, 1983, pp. 283-305.
  • GJ Wickens (Ed.): Avicenna, Scientist and Philosopher. A Millenary Symposium. London 1952.
  • Robert Wisnovsky: Avicenna's Metaphysics in Context. Duckworth, London 2003, ISBN 0-7156-3221-3 .

Web links

Commons : Avicenna  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : The Canon of Medicine  - collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Jorit Wintjes: Introduction. In: Konrad Goehl: Avicenna and its presentation of the medicinal effects. 2014, pp. 5–27.
  2. Persian افشانه, DMG Afšāna , Uzbek Afshona .
  3. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br Gotthard Strohmaier : Avicenna. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-41946-1 .
  4. Vera A. Smirnowa-Rakitina: Mirror of Wisdom. An Avicenna novel. Translated from Russian and edited by Hans-Christian Lothe. Prisma-Verlag, Leipzig 1963, p. 297 ( time table ).
  5. See also Gotthard Strohmaier: Avicenna. 1999, p. 97 f.
  6. Cf. for example Ahmad Dallal: Reviewed Works: Kitab al-Tanwir fi al-Istilahat al-Tibbiyya by Abu Mansur al-Hasan Nuh al-Qamari and Ghada Hasan al-Karmi. In: International Journal of Middle East Studies. Cambridge University Press. Volume 26, No. 4, November 1994, pp. 701 f.
  7. Cf. also Dimitri Gutas: Avicenna's maḏhab . With an appendix on the question of his date of birth. In: Quaderni di Studi Arabi. Volume 5/6, 1987/1988, pp. 323-336.
  8. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica ( Qābūs ibn Voshmgīr ) .
  9. Avicenna's owner's note of 1016/1017 in a treatise Galen's On Medical Schools for beginners in Arabic manuscript in Paris.
  10. Amélie-Marie Goichon: LE récit de Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān, commenté par des textes d'Avicenne. Paris 1959.
  11. ^ Hermann Greive : Studies on Jewish Neo-Platonism. The philosophy of religion of Abraham ibn Ezra. (= Studia Judaica. Research on the science of Judaism. Volume 7). De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1973, ISBN 3-11-004116-2 , with translation of Chaj ben Mekitz into German (pp. 149–175).
  12. ^ History of the Arab physicians and naturalists. Edited from the sources by Ferdinand Wüstenfeld . Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 1840, p. 71.
  13. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica .
  14. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
  15. Yu. A. Atabekov, Sh. Kh.Khamidullin: A Bust of Abu Ali Ibn Sina. A Scientific Reconstruction of the Great Scholar's Image. Tashkent 1980 (English, Uzbek and Russian).
  16. eastroute.com (photograph of the reconstructed bust) .
  17. Hermann Ethe: Avicenna as a Persian poet. In: News from the Royal Society of Sciences and the Georg August University. Göttingen 1875, pp. 555-567.
  18. ^ I. Ormos: An Unknown Poem by Avicenna. In: The Arabist. Budapest Studies in Arabic. Volume 1, 1988, pp. 134-141.
  19. See also Heinrich Schipperges: Ibn Sīnā. 2005, p. 1335.
  20. ^ Heinrich Schipperges: Ibn Sīnā. 2005, p. 1335 f.
  21. Under dietetics here is a "science of the stylization of the private and public budget as a therapy all founded and accompanying life" to understand. quoted from Heinrich Schipperges: Ibn Sīnā. 2005, p. 1336.
  22. Naguib Pacha Mahfouz (= Naguib Mikhail Mahfouz): Urinary and faecal fistulae. In: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Empire. Volume 45, No. 3, June 1938, pp. 405-424, doi: 10.1111 / j.1471-0528.1938.tb11137.x
  23. See also Julius Hirschberg , Julius Lippert (trans.): The eye medicine of Ibn Sina. Leipzig 1902; Reprinted in: Fuat Sezgin (Ed.): Studies on Ibn Sīnā (d. 1037) and his medical works. 4 volumes. Frankfurt am Main 1996 (= Publications of the Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science. Ed. Von Fuat Sezgin, Volume 10-13: Islamic Medicine. ) Volume 2, pp. 161-354.
  24. Khatschi Khatschi: The Dastgâh. Studies on new Persian music (= Cologne contributions to music research. Volume 19). Bosse-Verlag, Regensburg 1962, p. 41 (also: phil. Dissertation Cologne 1960).
  25. ^ Nasser Kanani: Traditional Persian Art Music: History, Musical Instruments, Structure, Execution, Characteristics. 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Gardoon Verlag, Berlin 2012, pp. 99-105.
  26. Konrad Goehl : Guido d'Arezzo the Younger and his 'Liber mitis'. (= Würzburg medical historical research. Volume 32). 2 volumes. Wellm, Pattensen (Han.) 1984, ISBN 3-921456-61-4 ; also: Dissertation, University of Würzburg.
  27. Wolfgang Wegner: Guido von Arezzo the Elder. J. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 516.
  28. ^ Konrad Goehl: Guido d'Arezzo as an Avicenna reader. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 1, 1983, pp. 23-35.
  29. ^ Gustav Freiherr von Suttner : The Garelli. A contribution to the cultural history of the XVIII. Century. 2nd, greatly increased edition. Gerold, Vienna 1888, p. 24.
  30. ^ Avicenna Latinus: Liber Primus Naturalium: Tractatus Primus, De Causis et Principiis Naturalium. EJ Brill, Leiden 1992.
  31. cf. also: Rüdiger Krist: Berthold Blumentrosts 'Quaestiones disputatae circa tractatum Avicennae de generatione embryonis et librum meteorum Aristotelis'. A contribution to the scientific history of medieval Würzburg. Part I: Text. (= Würzburg medical historical research. Volume 43). Wellm, Pattensen near Hanover 1987. At the same time medical dissertation in Würzburg.
  32. ^ Axel Lange, Gerd B. Müller : Polydactyly in Development, Inheritance, and Evolution. In: The Quarterly Review of Biology. Volume 1, No. 1, (March) 2017, pp. 1–38. doi: 10.1086 / 690841
  33. H. Jahier, A. Noureddine (ed. And transl.): Avicenne, Poème de la médecine. Paris 1956.
  34. ^ Heinrich Schipperges: Ibn Sīnā. 2005, p. 1336.
  35. Cf. for example Jesaia Muschel: The pseudohippocratic death prognosis and the Capsula eburnea in Hebrew tradition. In: Sudhoff's archive for the history of medicine. Volume 25, Issue 1, 1932, pp. 43-60.
  36. PG Bulgakov: Vklad Ibn Siny v Praktičeskuju astronomiju. In: MB Baratov u. a. (Ed.): Abu Ali Ibn Sina. K 1000-letiju so dnja roždenija. Tashkent 1980, pp. 149-157.
  37. See also George Saliba : Ibn Sīnā and Abū ʿUbayd al-Jūzjānī: The Problem of the Ptolemaic Equant. In: Journal for the History of Arabic Science. Volume 4, 1980, pp. 376-403.
  38. Julius Ruska : The Alchemy of Avicenna. In: Isis. Volume 21, 1934, pp. 14-51.
  39. ^ Georges C. Anawati : Avicenne et l'alchimie. In: Oriente e Occidente nel Medioevo: Filosofia e Scienze. (= Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. Fondazione Alessandro Volta. Atti dei Convegni 13: Convegno Internazionale 9-15 April 1969 ). Rome 1971, pp. 285-341.
  40. Around 1200 this part was translated into Latin by Alfred von Sareshel as De congelatione et conglutinatione lapidum . William R. Newman: Avicenna. In: Claus Priesner , Karin Figala : Alchemie. Lexicon of a Hermetic Science. Beck, 1998, p. 67.
  41. Ottfrief Höffe: Small history of philosophy. Beck, Munich 2001; cited: 2nd edition. Munich 2008, p. 112.
  42. ^ Heinrich Schipperges: Ibn Sīnā. 2005, p. 1335.
  43. L. Manik: The Arabic tone system in the Middle Ages. Leiden 1969, pp. 47-52.
  44. WWU 'Münster: Sources .
  45. ^ Ernst Bloch: Avicenna and the Aristotelian Left. Volume 22, Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1963, p. 61.
  46. Alcuin. Scholastic Information Center
  47. Doris Schweitzer: Book physician versus surgeon. Arabic influences on medicine in the Staufer period.
  48. ^ Heinrich Schipperges: Ibn Sīnā. 2005, p. 1335.
  49. ^ Shlomo Pines : La "Philosophy Orientale" d'Avicenne et sa polémique contre les Bagdadiens. In: Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Ages. Volume 19, 1952, pp. 5-37. Also in: Sarah Stroumsa (Ed.): Shlomo Pines, Studies in the History of Arabic Philosophy. Jerusalem 1996, pp. 301-333.
  50. In particular on the geographical meaning of the term cf. Dimitri Gutas : Ibn Ṭufayl on Ibn Sīnā's Eastern Philosophy. In: Oriens. Volume 34, 1994, pp. 222-241.
  51. ^ Charles E. Butterworth : The Political Lessons of Avicenna and Averroes. In: Iring Fetscher , Herfried Münkler (Hrsg.): Piper's manual of political ideas. Volume 2: Middle Ages. From the beginnings of Islam to the Reformation. Munich / Zurich 1993, pp. 141–173.
  52. ^ HA Davidson: Alfarabi, Avicenna, and Averroes on Intellect: Their cosmologies, theories of the active intellect, and theories of human intellect. New York / Oxford 1992.
  53. quoted from: Gotthard Strohmaier: Avicenna. 1999, p. 186.
  54. Mircea Eliade: History of Religious Ideas. Volume III / 1, Herder, Freiburg 1983, p. 135.
  55. ^ Gotthard Strohmaier: Avicenna. 2nd, revised edition. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54134-8 , pp. 70-71.
  56. ^ Gotthard Strohmaier: Avicenna . Munich 2006, p. 18 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  57. See also Gotthard Strohmaier: Avicenna. 1999, pp. 77–80 ( The Inner Sense of the Koran and Muhammad's Ascension ) and pp. 79 and 130 f.
  58. SAID: The no man's land is ours. West-east considerations . Diederichs Verlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-641-04389-6 ( limited preview in Google book search).
  59. ^ Heinrich Schipperges : Avicenna. In: Wolfgang U. Eckart , Christoph Gradmann (Hrsg.): Ärztelexikon. From antiquity to the 20th century. Beck, Munich 1995, p. 30 a ; 2nd edition, Springer, Heidelberg / Berlin a. a. 2001, p. 18 b ; 3. Edition. Springer, Heidelberg / Berlin a. a. 2006, ISBN 3-540-29584-4 , p. 18 b .
  60. ^ Heinrich Schippergers (2005), p. 1336.
  61. ^ Dag Nikolaus Hasse: King Avicenna: The iconographic consequences of a mistranslation. In: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Volume 60, 1997, pp. 230-243.
  62. Arslan Terzioğlu: İbn Sina (Avicenna) in the light of recent research. (Translation: Vicdan A. Doyum) In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 18, 1999, pp. 111-131; here: pp. 112–114.
  63. ^ VIAF .
  64. Robert Podkoński: Al-Ghazali's Metaphysics as a source of anti-atomistic proofs in John Duns Scotus's Sentences Commentary. In: Andreas Speer, Lydia Wegener (ed.): Knowledge about borders: Arabic knowledge and the Latin Middle Ages (= Miscellanea mediaevalia. Volume 33). De Gruyter, Berlin 2006, pp. 612–625, here: pp. 618 f .; Henry Lagerlund: Assimilation of Aristotelian and Arabic Logic up to the Later 13th Century. In: Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods (Ed.): Mediaeval and Renaissance logic (= Handbook of the History of Logic. Volume 2). North Holland, Amsterdam / London 2008, pp. 281–345, here: pp. 284f.
  65. ^ Gundolf Keil: Fragment of a previously unknown Avicenna manuscript from the 13th century. In: Gernot Rath , Heinrich Schipperges (Hrsg.): Medical history in the spectrum. Festschrift Johannes Steudel . Wiesbaden 1966 (= Sudhoffs Archiv. Supplement 7), pp. 82–92.
  66. See also Nancy G. Siraisi: Avicenna in Renaissance Italy. The "Canon" and medical teaching in Italian universities after 1500. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1987.
  67. See also Rudolf Palgen : Dante and Avicenna. In: Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-histor. Class. Volume 88 (12), 1951, pp. 159-172.
  68. Luigi Belloni: The Guild of Milan Pharmacists and the stained glass window of St. John the Damascus in the Cathedral of Milan. In: Otto Baur, Otto Glandien (Ed.): Connection. Festschrift for Marielene Putscher. 2 volumes. Wienand, Cologne 1984, Volume 1, pp. 177-188.
  69. eastroute.com (photograph of the reconstructed bust) .
  70. Kajum Nasyri: Izbrannye proizvedenija. Kazan 1977, pp. 130-254.
  71. See for example Vera A. Smirnowa-Rakitina: Spiegel der Weisheit. An Avicenna novel. Translated from Russian and edited by Hans-Christian Lothe. Prisma-Verlag, Leipzig 1963; or Helmuth M. Böttcher : The Liberation of Abû ʿAli al-Hosein. A story about Avicenna and Fîrdûsî. Greifenverlag, Rudolstadt 1952.
  72. ^ Gilbert Sinoué: The road to Isfahan. (From the Franz. By Stefan Linster) 3rd edition, Knaur TB, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-426-63014-1 .
  73. ^ Avicenna-Studienwerk - Scholarships for Muslims. Retrieved October 25, 2016 .
  74. Avicenna Studienwerk
  75. Avicenna Prize e. V.
  76. Avicenna Prize awarded for the first time: Plea for tolerance and freedom of conscience - Frankfurt - FAZ
  77. Avicenna Prize awarded for the first time: Plea for tolerance and freedom of conscience - Frankfurt - FAZ
  78. Prize winners
  79. ^ Carl von Linné: Critica Botanica . Leiden 1737, p. 91.
  80. Carl von Linné: Genera Plantarum . Leiden 1742, p. 44.
  81. Umberto Quattrocchi: CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology . CRC Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8493-2676-1 , p. 242.
  82. ^ Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed on September 11, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1973 SJ 4 . Discovered 1973 Sept. 26 by LI Chernykh at Nauchnyj. "
  83. Avicenna: Foundations of Metaphysics. A selection from Books IV of Metaphysics. Herder, 2016, accessed December 21, 2018 .
  84. See Liber Magistri Avicenne .
  85. Avicenna: Foundations of Metaphysics. A selection from Books IV of Metaphysics. Herder, 2016, accessed December 21, 2018 .