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Abū Hāmid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazālī ( Arabic أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغَزَّالي, DMG Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad bin Muḥammad al-Ġazzālī ; Persian ابو حامد محمد غزالی, DMG Abū Ḥāmed Moḥammad-e Ġaz (z) ālī ), Al-Ghaz (z) āli for short , also Algazeli , Latinized Algazelus and Algazel (born 1055 or 1056 in Tūs near Mashhad ; died on December 19, 1111 ibid), with the honorable surname Imam and Hodschatoleslam , was a Persian Islamic theologian , philosopher and mystic .

Al-Ghazālī is one of the most important religious thinkers of Islam. It is thanks to him that Aristotelian logic and syllogistics were introduced into Islamic jurisprudence and theology . In his philosophy he nevertheless represented a religiously motivated skepticism , which defends the truths of belief and revelation with the means of philosophical doubt against the truth claims of philosophy. While on the one hand it is held responsible for the downfall of philosophy in the Islamic East (in contrast to Islamic Spain , where it flourished), on the other hand it brought about a revival of theology, especially Sunni orthodoxy. Due to the reception of al-Ghazālī by Averroes and Jewish scholars, the latter had a significant influence on the Latin tradition of the Middle Ages.


Later Islamic historians of the Middle Ages write that al-Ghazālī was born in 1058 or 1059. However, ages given in his letters and autobiography give reason to assume that he was born in 1055 or 1056. Al-Ghazālī received his early education together with his younger brother Ahmad al-Ghazālī in their native city of Tūs . Later learned at Muhammad Al-Juwayni at the Nizamiyya - Madrasa in the near Nishapur . In 1091 Nizām al-Mulk appointed him to the Nizamiyya Madrasa in Baghdad , where he appeared as a law teacher. In addition to being one of the confidants of the Seljuk Sultan , he developed close ties to the court of the caliph in Baghdad. Under the influence of Sufi literature, al-Ghazālī came to the conceptual result that service for the military and political elite was not compatible with a life of virtue from a religious point of view. So he left Baghdad in 1095. At that time he was already the most influential intellectual of his time. Afterwards he went to Damascus and Jerusalem and swore at the tomb of Abraham in Hebron that he would never again serve the political authority or a state school. However, he taught in private schools. In 1096 he completed the Hajj and returned to his hometown of Tūs via Damascus and Baghdad. There he founded a small private school and a Sufi monastery. In 1106 al-Ghazālī broke his oath and taught at the Nizamiyya Madrasa in Nishapur. On this occasion he wrote between 1106 and 1109 the apologetic autobiography al-Munqiḏ min aḍ-ḍalāl ("The Savior from error").


Attitude to philosophy

Ghazali's stance on philosophy was ambivalent: on the one hand, his works testify to a thorough knowledge of Greek and Islamic philosophy ; on the other hand, he rejected philosophy as a separate path to truth and threw out predecessors such as the philosophizing Muslims Avicenna and al-Fārābī , through their uncritical adaptation of the pagan Aristotelian and Platonic philosophy (especially metaphysics there) corrupt the Islamic faith. Especially against emanationism , which taught the necessary emergence of the world out of God on the way via the intellect and in connection with this also the eternity of the world, he defended the divine creation and temporality of the world guaranteed by the Koranic revelation by giving the philosophers that Right agreed to apply their principle of causality to the otherworldly God.

In his book The Incoherence of the Philosophers , written shortly before 1095, Ghazālī found that many of the teachings of the Aristotelians did not stand up to argumentative criticism. At the end of his writing he condemns them, similar to The Savior from Error (Arabic al-Munqiḏ min aḍ-ḍalāl ) Socrates, Plato and Aristotle “together with their party, as there are the philosophizing Muslims like Avicenna, al-Fārābī and their like "As unbelievers :

“We say: They must be condemned as unbelievers on the basis of three doctrines: First, on the basis of the teaching of the eternity of the world, and that substances are all eternal. Second, because of the teaching that God - exalted is he - has no knowledge of the particularia created by individuals in time. And third, because of their denial of the resurrection and assembly of bodies (in the hereafter).

These are the three teachings that in no way fit Islam. Those who profess them believe that the prophets - God bless them - are lying. (He says) they would put their message across appropriately, using parables for the uneducated crowd to help them understand. This is clear unbelief, to which no one who belongs to the faith groups of Islam professes. "

- Apostasy and tolerance in Islam - The development of al-Ġazālī's judgment against philosophy and the reactions of the philosophers. From Frank Griffel. Brill-Leiden-Boston-Cologne 2000, p. 4.

Al-Ghazālī attempted a synthesis of divine determinism with human free will in his view of the world :

  • On the highest level is the always self-sustaining God .
  • At the lowest level is the material world, which is predetermined by God.
  • In between lies the world of people, whose soul and self is shaped by free will. God gives ideas and inclinations to man, but the following actions are incumbent on man only. (In the Stanford Encyclopedia al-Ghazālī is described more as a determinist. See the discussion here.)

Although he represented Ashʿarite positions in dogmatics , he was not satisfied with mere reason as a source of knowledge and taught the way to a God-consciousness that springs from the heart, in order to "detach oneself from the un-Islamic influences of the mind". With this attitude he paved the way for anti-rational tendencies in the intellectual disputes of his epoch.

In the context of the criticism of Arab philosophy by clergymen in France and Spain in the 13th and 14th centuries, which reached as far as censorship, there was some confusion between Al-Ghazālī and Avicenna.

Statements about Sufism

In his intellectual autobiography al-Munqiḏ min aḍ-ḍalāl ("The Savior from Error"), which he wrote between 1106 and 1109, al-Ghazālī made it clear that after decades of dealing with the various religious sciences, he saw Sufism as that religious system that promises the greatest salvation benefits. So he wrote here:

“I knew with certainty that the Ṣūfī are those who progress in the way of the exalted God, especially because their way of life is the best of all ways, their way is the most correct of all ways, and their mind is the purest of all minds. Yes, even if the reason of all reasonable people, the wisdom of all wise men and the knowledge of the scholars, to whom the secrets of Revelation have been opened, are combined in order to change even something of the way of life and the attitude of the Ṣūfī and through something They would not succeed in replacing anything better. Because all their movements and postures, in their outer as well as in the inner, are taken from the light niche of prophecy. Behind this light of prophecy there is no other light on earth from which enlightenment can be attained. "

- al-Ghazālī: The Savior from error . Transl. ʿA. ʿA. Elshazlī. P. 46.

Through statements like these, Ghazali contributed significantly to the general recognition of Sufism in Islam. Ghazali also gave jihad a new, additional meaning by reinterpreting a verse from the Koran (4, 95): Not only the fight on the battlefield is jihad, but also the fight against one's own lower self ( an-nafs al-ammara ).

Differentiation between things here and there

According to al-Ghazālī, everything that is not for God belongs to this world. Conversely, that which is for God belongs to the hereafter. To answer the question of which things are "for God" and which are "not for God", he explains that all things can be divided into three groups:

  1. The first group is inconceivable that they are for God. To it belong the things that are called sins, the forbidden and the various permitted enjoyments. They are the pure reprehensible this world in form and essence.
  2. The things of the second group are in form for God, but can also be used for anything other than God. This includes thinking (fikr) , commemorating ( dhikr ) and abstaining from sensual pleasures . If you do these three things in secret and have no other aim than obeying God's commandment and preparing for the Last Day, then they will be for God. But if one intends with thinking to seek knowledge in order to excel in it and to strive for acceptance in the people, or if one strives with abstinence to save one's money, to protect one's health or to gain the reputation of one If ascetics come, then it is essentially part of this world, although its shape gives the impression that it is for God.
  3. The things of the third group are in form for the pleasure of the Nafs , but they can be in essence for God. This includes eating, conjugal intercourse (nikāḥ) and everything related to your own existence and that of your children.

Statements on the position of women

In his book The Book of Marriage, Al-Ghazālī worked out the most important (moral) theological foundations for the systematics of the Sharia gender relationship. Accordingly, "marriage is a kind of slavery" and "the woman is the man's slave (...) Therefore she has to obey him unconditionally and under all circumstances (...)". In this context, he quotes various traditions according to which the prophet is said to have said, among other things, that if her husband was satisfied with his wife at the death, her salvation in the hereafter would be assured. Mohammed is also said to have stated that "[if] I would order someone to prostrate themselves before another, I would order the woman to prostrate themselves before the man (...)".

For al-Ghazālī, the obedient Muslim woman should “stay inside the house and sit at her spinning wheel (...) She shouldn't talk much with the neighbors and only visit them in urgent matters. She should always have her husband in mind, whether he is present or absent (...) She should not leave the house, except with his permission, and when she goes out, wrap herself in worn clothes and choose paths that are rarely used, the main streets and markets on the other hand avoid. (...) It should also pay attention to embarrassing cleanliness and always be made in such a way that the man can enjoy it when he wants. (...) ".


Latin tradition

Al-Ghazali wrote in 1094 maqasid al-Falasifa represents (The intentions of the philosophers), the basic concepts of logic, metaphysics, theology and physics and a preparation of Ibn Sina Dānishnāma-e Ala'i represents, was in the early school of Toledo in the first half of the 12th century probably translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundisalvi and circulated a. a. under the title Liber Algazelis de summa theoreticae philosophiae . The Latin readers initially did not know about this work status and mistakenly considered the book to be an exposition of al-Ghazālī's teachings - the reason for the high esteem for the latter among theorists who sympathize with methods and teachings in the tradition of al-Farabi and Ibn Sina. The wrong attribution of this writing has made the understanding of al-Ghazālī's thinking difficult until modern times.

Ghazālīs Tahafut al-falasifa (incoherence of the philosophers), literally reproduced by Averroes in his refutation ( Tahafut al-tahafut ), became known in the West under the title Destructio philosophorum after the Jewish translator Kalonymus ben Kalonymus ben Meïr wrote the Tahafut at-tah in 1328 translated from Arabic into Latin. This translation was first printed in Venice in 1497 with a commentary by Agostino Nifo (reprints in Lyon 1517, 1529, 1542). Another translator, Calonymos ben David ben Todros, also made a more complete translation of the Tahafut at-tahafut from Arabic to Hebrew ( Happalat ha-Happalah ) between 1318 and 1328 , and this Hebrew translation was later translated into Latin by Calo Calonymos in 1527 printed in Venice (reprints 1550, 1560, 1573).

The harsh judgment of philosophy by Ghazālī - at the end of the refutation of the philosophers he even judges them to be unbelievers - was not so present in the Latin West for centuries, u. a. because of the predominant reception of Ghazālī's presentation of the philosophical teachings, but not of the work or part of the work that evaluates them. An important turning point came in 1842 with Schmölders' study, which was groundbreaking for research on Ghazālī.


  • al-Iqtiṣād fī al-iʿtiqād ("The right measure in the doctrine of the faith"). Hourani dates the work to the first half of 1095. It was edited by İbrahim Agâh Çubukçu and Hüseyin Atay in Ankara in 1962 ( [1] PDF).
  • 1097 - ar-Risāla al-Qudsiyya (The Letter from Jerusalem)
  • Kitāb al-arbaʿīn fī uṣūl ad-dīn (Forty Chapters on the Principles of Religion)
  • ad-Durra al-fāḫira fī kašf ʿulūm al-āḫira - German The precious pearl in the knowledge of the hereafter , translated from Arabic by Mohamed Brugsch, Lafaire, Hanover 1924 ( digitized ), reprint GMSG, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-937297-06 -5 ; Revised version Spohr Verlag, Kandern 2003, ISBN 3-927606-47-2
  • Aiyuhā al-walad - German O child! , Arabic text with translation by Muhammad Harun Riedinger, Edition Minarett, Braunschweig 2002, ISBN 3-9808396-0-5
  • Faiṣal at-tafriqa bayn al-Islām wa-az-Zandaqa - German The criterion of the distinction between Islam and godlessness , introduced, translated and provided with explanations by Frank Griffel, Spur Verlag, Zurich 1998, ISBN 3-9520127-8-5
  • Faḍāʾiḥ al-Bāṭiniyya - German pamphlet against the Batinijja sect , commented by Ignaz Goldziher, reprint Brill, Leiden 1956 (= publications of the De Goeje Foundation, 3)
  • Doubtful: ar-Radd al-ğamīl ʿalā an-niṣārā al-Inğīl - from it German against the deity of Jesus , translated by Franz Elmar Wilms, Brill, Leiden 1966
  • 1095 - Mīzān al-ʿamal - German The criterion of action , translated from Arabic, with an introduction, notes and indices ed. by ʿAbd-Elṣamad ʿAbd-Elḥamīd Elschazlī, Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 978-3-534-19039-3
  • 1096-97 - Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm ad-dīn ("The revival of the sciences of the (Islamic) religion"). Dār Ibn Ḥazm, Beirut, 2005 ( - German partial translations from it), Book 12: The Book of Marriage , translated and commented by Hans Bauer, newly edited in a revised form. by Salim Spohr, Spohr Verlag, Kandern 2005, ISBN 3-927606-48-0 ; Books 31–36: Doctrine of the Levels of Love for God , introduced, translated and commented by Richard Gramlich, Steiner, Wiesbaden / Stuttgart 1984 (= Freiburger Islamstudien , 10), ISBN 3-515-03765-9 ( digitized by MENAdoc, UB Halle ) - Islamic ethics , translated from the original sources and explained by Hans Bauer, Niemeyer, Halle 1916, 2nd edition. Olms, Hildesheim 2000, ISBN 3-487-05956-8
  • al-'Imlâ '`alâ mushkil al-'Iḥyâ' , critical edition Abdelmoula Hagil, Beyrouth, Dâr al-ktub al-`ilmiyya, 1441/2020, ISBN 978-2-7451-9198-4 .
  • Kīmiyāʾ as-saʿada - German The Elixir of Bliss , translated from Persian and Arabic by Hellmut Ritter, with a foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, Diederichs, Munich 1998 (= Diederichs Yellow Row . 23). ISBN 3-424-01456-7 ; Licensed edition Hugendubel-Verlag, Kreuzlingen / Munich 2004, ISBN 3-9808396-1-3
  • Miškāt al-anwār - German The Niche of Lights , translated from Arabic, with an introduction, with notes and indices ed. by Abd-Elsamad Abd-Elhamid Elschazli, Meiner, Hamburg 1987 (= Philosophical Library . Volume 390), ISBN 3-7873-0683-8 .
  • Minhāğ al-ʿābidīn - German The Path of the Worshipers , translated and explained by Ernst Bannerth, Verlag O. Müller, Salzburg 1964 (= word and answer. Volume 33).
Philosophy and logic
  • 1094 - Maqāṣid al-falāsifa (The intentions of the philosophers), representation or translation from the Persian of the philosophy of Avicenna ( Dāneschnāme-ye 'Alā'ī , German: Book of Knowledge )
  • 1095 - Tahāfut al-falāsifa (The incoherence of the philosophers)
  • 1095 - Miʿyār al-ʿilm (The Standard Measure of Knowledge)
  • 1096-96 - al-Qisṭās al-mustaqīm (The Just Balance)
  • 1095 Miḥakk al-naẓar fī l-manṭiq (The Touchstone of Proof in Logic)
  • al-Manḫūl min taʿlīqāt al-uṣūl ("That sifted from the commentaries on the Usūl al-fiqh "). The work was edited by M. Hītū in Damascus in 1980 ( ). According to Tādsch ad-Dīn as-Subkī , al-Ghazālī wrote this work while his teacher al-Juwainī was still alive , i.e. before 1085. The last chapter is a summary of al- Juwainī's writing Muġīṯ al-ḫalq .
  • Al-Waǧīz fī fiqh al-imām aš-Šāfiʿī , short treatise on Shafiite fiqh , which was intended for teaching and is dated in a manuscript to the year 495 dH (= 1101 AD). ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn Muhammad ar-Rāfiʿī (d. 1226) wrote several comments on this work. The large commentary entitled Fatḥ al-ʿazīz bi-šarḥ al-Waǧīz takes up a total of 13 volumes in the modern print edition (Dār al-Kutub al-ʿilmīya, Beirut 1997).
  • al-Mustaṣfā fī ʿilm uṣūl al-fiqh ("The selected in the science of the fundamentals of understanding"), systematic treatise on the Usūl al-fiqh , drawn up in 1109 in Nishapur .


  • Abu Ridah Muhammad 'Abd-al-Hadi: Al-Ghazali and his refutation of Greek philosophy (Tahafut al-Falasifah). Madrid 1952.
  • Miguel Asín Palacios: La espiritualidad de Algazel y su sentido Cristiano . Estanislao Maestre, Madrid / Granada 1935–1940 (= Publicaciones de las escuelas de estudios árabes de Madrid y Granada. Series A, number 2), 4 volumes.
  • Osman Bakar: Classification of knowledge in Islam: a study in Islamic philosophies of science. Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge 1998, ISBN 0-946621-71-3
  • Maurice Bouyges: Essai de chronologie des oeuvres de al-Ghazālī (Algazel), édité et mis à jour par Michel Allard. Imprimerie Catholique, Beirut 1959 (= Recherches publiées sous la direction de l'Institut de Lettres Orientales de Beyrouth. 14).
  • Massimo Campanini: Al-Ghazzâlî In: Seyyed H. Nasr, Oliver Leaman: History of Islamic Philosophy. Roudledge, London 1996 (= Routledge History of Philosophies, 1), pp. 258-274 ( ).
  • Bernard Carra de Vaux: Gazali. AH 450-505 / AD 1058-1111 -Algazel-. Étude sur la vie et l'oeuvre mystique, philosophique et théologique D'Abou Hamid Mohammed Al-Gazali. Paris 1974, Repr. Philo, Amsterdam 1974, ISBN 90-6022-522-8 .
  • Enrico Cerulli: Nuove ricerche sul libro della scala e la conosczenza dell'Islam in Occidente. Vatican City 1972 (= Studi e Testi. Volume 271), p. 304 f. (to the "errores Algazelis" in the Directory Inquisitorium from the 14th century by Nicolás Aymerich).
  • Frank Griffel : Al-Ghazālī's philosophical theology. Oxford University Press 2009, ISBN 0-19-533162-1 .
  • Frank Griffel: Apostasy and tolerance in Islam: the development of al-Ġazālīs judgment against the philosophy and the reactions of the philosophers , Brill, Leiden 2000 (= Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science , 40), ISBN 90-04-11566-8 . ( Introduction and conclusion as PDF).
  • George Hourani: A Revised Chronology of Ghazali's Writings. In: Journal of the American Oriental Society. 104/2 (1984) 289-302.
  • Farid Jabre: Essai sur le lexique du Ghazali - contribution a l'étude de la terminologie de Ghazali dans ses principaux ouvrages à l'exception du Tah¯afut. Publications de L'Universite Libanaise, Beirut 1985.
  • Henri Laoust : La politique de Gazali. Geuthner, Paris 1970 (= Bibliothèque d'études islamiques, 1)
  • Hava Lazarus-Yafeh: Studies in Al-Ghazzali. Magnes Press, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 1975
  • Marie-Louise Siauve: L'amour de Dieu chez Gazali - une philosophie de l'amour à Baghdad au début du XIIe siècle. Vrin, Paris 1986, ISBN 2-7116-0901-4 .
  • AM Sinaceur (ed.): Ghazâlî: la raison et le miracle. Table ronde Unesco, 9-10 December 1985. Maisonneuve et Larose, Paris 1987 (= Islam d'hier et lastjourd'hui. 30), ISBN 2-7068-0951-5 .
  • Nicolai Sinai: Human or Divine Wisdom? - in contrast to the philosophical and religious ideal of life in al-Ghazali and Yehuda ha-Levi , Ergon-Verl., Würzburg 2003, ISBN 3-89913-312-9 .
  • Margaret Smith: Al-Ghazālī the Mystic: a Study of the Life and Personality of Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī al-Ghazālī, together with an account of his Mystical Teaching and an estimate of his place in the History of Islamic Mysticism. Luzac, London 1944.
  • William M. Watt: Muslim Intellectual. A Study of al-Ghazali. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1963.
  • Martin Wittingham: Al-Ghazali and the Qur'an: one book, many meanings . Routledge, London 2007, ISBN 0-415-37543-6 / ISBN 0-203-96465-9 .
  • Mahmoud Zakzouk : Ghazali and Descartes: A Philosophical Comparison. Traugott Bautz Verlag, Nordhausen 2005 (Intercultural Library, 104), ISBN 3-88309-283-5 .

Web links

Commons : Al-Ghazali  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Author: Abu Hamid al-Ghazālī  - Sources and full texts (English)

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Drag: Textbook of Logic , p. 72
  2. a b c d Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ,
  3. Griffel (2009) p. 58.
  4. Bernd Roeck: The morning of the world . 1st edition. CH Beck, 2017, ISBN 978-3-406-69876-7 , pp. 271 .
  5. ^ Syed Rizwan Zamir: Descartes and Al-Ghazālī: Doubt, Certitude and Light. In: Islamic Studies. 49, No. 2, 2010, p. 223.
  6. Ulrich Rudolph: Islamic Philosophy. P. 57 ff.
  7. ^ Gotthard Strohmaier : Avicenna. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-41946-1 , p. 131 f. ( The vote of Orthodoxy ).
  8. Hans-Peter Raddatz: From God to Allah? Part I, Section C: Islam and its inner path, Munich 2001, p. 204.
  9. ^ Gotthard Strohmaier: Avicenna. 1999, p. 145 f. ( Algazel, Avicenna's doppelganger ).
  10. See Hourani: A Revised Chronology of Ghazali's Writings. 1984, p. 301.
  11. Al-Ġazālī: Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm ad-dīn. 2005, p. 1123 f. - See the German translation by Richard Gramlich : Weltverzicht: Basics and ways of Islamic asceticism. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1997. p. 24.
  12. Quoted from Hans Bauer (Ed.): Islamic Ethics. Niemeyer, 1917. Volume II: On marriage. The 12th book of al-azālī's "Revitalization of Religious Studies". Translated and explained by Hans Bauer . P. 111 . See note 3 of the editor: "Of course, the treatment of slaves in Islam is very mild."
  13. See Hans Bauer (Ed.): Islamic Ethics . Niemeyer, 1917. Volume II: On marriage. The 12th book of al-azālī's "Revitalization of Religious Studies". Translated and explained by Hans Bauer . P. 111
  14. Quoted from Hans Bauer (Ed.): Islamic Ethics. Niemeyer, 1917. Volume II: On marriage. The 12th book of al-azālī's "Revitalization of Religious Studies". Translated and explained by Hans Bauer . P. 113
  15. Quoted from Hans Bauer (Ed.): Islamic Ethics . Niemeyer, 1917. Volume II: On marriage. The 12th book of al-azālī's "Revitalization of Religious Studies". Translated and explained by Hans Bauer . P. 116 f.
  16. Robert Podkoński: al-Ghazâlî's Metaphysics as a Source of Anti-atomistic Proofs in John Duns Scotus's Sentences Commentary , in: Andreas Speer / Lydia Wegener (eds.): Knowledge about boundaries: Arabisches Wissen und Latinisches Mittelalter , de Gruyter, Berlin 2006 (= Miscellanea mediaevalia, 33), pp. 612-25, pp. 618f .; Henry Lagerlund: Assimilation of Aristotelian and Arabic Logic up to the Later 13th Century , in: Dov M. Gabbay / John Woods (eds.): Mediaeval and Renaissance logic , North Holland, Amsterdam / London 2008 (= Handbook of the History of Logic , Volume 2), pp. 281-345, pp. 284f.
  17. ^ Cf. Franz August Schmölders : Essai sur les écoles philosophiques chez les Arabes et notamment sur la doctrine d'Algazzali , Didot, Paris 1842. Digitized in the Google book search. For the history of research z. B. the brief overview in Griffel 2000, 4 ff.
  18. ^ Hourani: A Revised Chronology of Ghazali's Writings. 1984, pp. 293b-294a.
  19. ^ Gotthard Strohmaier : Avicenna. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-41946-1 , pp. 145 f.
  20. ^ Hourani: A Revised Chronology of Ghazali's Writings. 1984, p. 291b.
  21. Éric Chaumont: En quoi le maḏhab šāfiʿite est-il šāfiʿite selon le Muġīṯ al-ḫalq de Ǧuwaynī? In: Annales islamologiques. 35, 2001, pp. 17-26. Here p. 18a.
  22. ^ Hourani: A Revised Chronology of Ghazali's Writings. 1984, p. 292a.
  23. (digitized version of the work).


  1. Tilman Nagel translates the title of the work as The animation of the types of knowledge of the order of existence. In: ders .: The crushing burden of the eternal: Sunni Islam in thirty portrait sketches. 2 volumes, volume I: first and second part, Berlin 2018, p. 387.