|Administration :||Palestinian Territories|
|Height :||930 m|
|Residents :||202,172 (2014)|
|Time zone :||UTC + 2|
|Mayor :||Tayseer Abnu Sneineh|
Hebron ( Arabic الخليل al-Chalīl , DMG al-Ḫalīl , Hebrew חברון Chewron ) is a city in the West Bank or Judea and Samaria with around 202,000 inhabitants (2014). The city is located 30 kilometers south of Jerusalem at an altitude of 930 m. It is the seat of the University of Hebron and a polytechnic . Hebron is the capital of the Hebron Governorate . Hebron is one of the four holy cities in Judaism , along with Jerusalem, Tiberias and Safed . In Islam , Hebron is also one of the four holy cities, after Mecca , Medina and Jerusalem.
Both the Arabic and Hebrew names are derived from the respective word for "friend" (خليل or. חבר) from. This refers to the progenitor Abraham , who is considered a "friend of God" for religious Jews and Muslims.
Hebron is located in the West Bank and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. In the time of the Canaanites it was a royal city and was inhabited by the Enakites . The city was known at times under the name "City of Arba" ( Jos 14.15 EU ). Archaeological finds suggest that Hebron was founded in the 3rd millennium BC. Was founded. The city is mentioned in numerous places in the Bible and was handed over to the descendants of Judah ( Jos 21:11 EU ) and Caleb as an inheritance ( Jos 21:12 EU ).
The Machpelah cave ( Hebrew מערת המכפלה, Me'arat HaMachpela , "Cave of the Double Tombs ", Arabic الحرم الإبراهيمي, DMG al-ḥaram al-ibrāhīmī "the tomb of Abraham"), called the cave of the patriarchs or patriarchal tomb , today a prominent building complex in the middle of the city, is according to the biblical tradition ( Gen 23.19 EU ) as the place where Abraham , Sarah , Isaac , Rebekah , Jacob and Leah are buried. This cave is considered sacred for Islam and Judaism , so Hebron is very important for both religions. The Israelite King David is said to be 1011 BC. He was anointed king in Hebron and reigned there until he was 1004 BC. Jerusalem conquered and the capital is said to have moved there.
Middle Ages and Modern Times
In 638 Hebron fell under Islamic rule. This lasted until the crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon took Hebron in 1100. Hebron was incorporated into the Kingdom of Jerusalem as an independent rule . The Crusaders established an Augustinian monastery on the Machpelah site and around 1120 built a church of St. Abraham in the southern part of the complex, which was elevated to the status of the cathedral of the re-established diocese of Hebron . They also named the city St. Abraham after her. The Ayyubid sultan Saladin recaptured Hebron after his victory at Hattin in 1187. Since the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, Hebron has again had a strong Jewish community with hundreds of members. The Mamluks ruled the city until it fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire in 1516 . On Sukkot in 1517, Murat Bey, the deputy of the Ottoman sultan and ruler of Jerusalem, carried out a massacre of the Jews of Hebron and plundered them. Only a few managed to escape to Beirut .
In 1929 there was a massacre in Hebron in which 67 Jews were killed by Arabs and many injured. However, the majority of the Jewish community, around 435 people, survived thanks to the help of Arab neighbors. These hid dozens of Jewish families in their homes, saving them from certain death. Part of the Jewish community then fled to Jerusalem, but some returned to the city in 1931. After unrest during the Arab uprising , the Jewish population of Hebron was evacuated by the British on April 23, 1936.
Jews first returned to the city in 1968 when Moshe Levinger , a later co-founder of the Gush Emunim organization , and 79 other Jewish Israelis settled in a hotel in Hebron without the permission of the Israeli government. After negotiations with the Israeli government, they were allowed to settle in the newly established Israeli settlement Kirjat Arba outside of Hebron. In Hebron itself, around 800 Jews (plus around 250 Yeshiva students) live in the old town, which is secured by the Israeli army .
The Jewish cemetery in Hebron, which was built in 1290 and where numerous famous rabbis are buried, was destroyed between 1948 and 1967. When entering the city in 1967, the Israeli Defense Forces found the following condition, which they documented: The entrance to the patriarchal graves was mined . The tombstones had been completely removed from the Jewish cemetery. A resident had converted the area into a vegetable patch. A wall was found in the city made of the material used for Jewish tombstones. According to the report, it became apparent that pieces of human bone had also been mixed in with the cement. Around 4,000 tombstones were removed and used for building purposes. The cemetery was destroyed on the orders of the Jordanian government.
On the evening of May 2, 1980, extremist Arabs attacked a group of Jews who had just returned from Friday prayers. The men were attacked with grenades from the roofs, killing six and injuring 16 others. One of the attackers, Tayseer Anu Sneineh, was elected mayor of the city in 2017.
On February 25, 1994, the extremist settler Baruch Goldstein , who lived in the Kirjat Arba settlement, murdered 29 praying Muslims with an assault rifle in the Abraham Mosque, injuring hundreds. The Israeli government and the majority of Israelis condemned his act, while a minority revered him for it. The TIPH observation group, founded after the massacre, also existed until January 2019 .
In the Hebron Agreement of 1997, Israel and the Palestinian Authority agreed on an administrative division of the city into Zone H1 (Palestinian-controlled) and Zone H2 (Israeli-controlled). Two years after the outbreak of the Second Intifada , violent clashes broke out between Palestinians and Israeli security forces in Hebron in 2002. In 2005, permanent surveillance towers were built in H1, as well as walls, fences and more than 100 road blocks.
According to a report by the two Israeli human rights organizations ACRI (Association for Civil Rights in Israel) and B'Tselem , the presence of Israeli civilians, soldiers and police officers forced Palestinians to vacate 1,014 homes and to give up at least 1,829 businesses and businesses in the city center; at least 440 of them were closed on orders from the army.
On March 25, 2002, two TIPH members , Major Cengiz Soytunc from Turkey and civilian employee Katrine Brooks from Switzerland, were murdered by Palestinian snipers and a third injured.
When it became apparent in November 2008 that, following a ruling by the Israeli Supreme Court, a house in the center of Hebron, which had been occupied by Israeli settlers in March 2007, would be evacuated by the Israeli security forces, right-wing extremist settlers such as Baruch Marzel and Daniella Weiss warned that that this means war. The settlers had attacked Palestinian residents in the city, desecrated Muslim graves in a nearby cemetery and wrote "Mohammed is a pig" on a nearby mosque. On December 4, Israeli security forces evacuated the house.
During the eviction, Israeli settlers resisted, shot at Palestinians, set fire to at least three Palestinian houses and nine cars and olive trees. The riots by the Israeli settlers were described by politicians such as Israeli Justice Minister Daniel Friedmann and (two days later) Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert as a “ pogrom ” and by the liberal Israeli daily Haaretz as “pogrom or terror ”. Olmert had already called similar riots by settlers a few months earlier as a “pogrom”.
The first Christians settled in Hebron early on . So in ancient times the city became the seat of a bishop . It is not known when the diocese died out, but it was revived for a short time during the time of the Crusaders . At the latest with the withdrawal of these, the diocese should then have finally expired, so that today it is a purely titular diocese . The few Latin Christians in the area belong to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem . There are also congregations of Orthodox Christians in the city.
Approximately 140,000 Palestinian Arabs and no Jews inhabit Zone H1 of Hebron, which is under the administration of the Palestinian Authority .
As in all areas under the administration of the Palestinian Authority under the Oslo II Agreement, Israelis are prohibited from entering the so-called H1 zone ( no-go area ). The border to the neighboring zone H2 is secured with fences and revolving doors. Those alleys in the zone that border directly on the rear of Jewish houses are spanned with wire grids.
Approximately 30,000 Palestinian Arabs and 800 Jews settle in Zone H2 of Hebron. For the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, these people belong to the population of Kirjat Arba , an Israeli settlement bordering Hebron to the east.
The Jewish residents of Hebron live in the land and in buildings that belonged to the original Hebrew Jewish community. After the massacre of 1929 and the Palestine War of 1948, the Jewish population was expelled and the area fell into Arab hands. Only after the Six Day War could the former Jewish owners demand their property back.
Unlike in other cities in the West Bank, Jews also live in the city center. As a result, there are always violent clashes between the city's Jewish and Arab residents.
- In 1976 the Avraham Avinu Synagogue, built in 1540 and destroyed in 1948, was rebuilt.
- Beit Hadasa (since 1979); House for ten families
- Beit Romano (since 1983); Talmud College with 250 students
- Tel Rumeida (since 1984); House for 15 families
- Beit Hasson; House for six families
- Beit Castel; House for a family
- Beit Schneerson; House for six families and a kindergarten with 30 children
- Beit Fink
- Beit Hashishah (since 2000); House for six families
- Radschabi house since 2014, a house with living space for 120 people. The property was bought by the Jewish owners.
- A residential complex planned in 2017 with 31 apartments in the district of Hezekiah
- In November 2019, plans were presented to partially demolish and rebuild the old wholesale market on Shuhada Street, near the Avraham Avinu Synagogue. The project would double the number of Israeli settlers in the city to around 1,600. The Israeli peace organization Shalom Achshav warned that a new Jewish quarter in Hebron would cause Israel "serious moral, security and legal damage". The Israeli authorities closed the wholesale market in 1994 after the Goldstein massacre of praying Muslims. Until the massacre of Jews in 1929, the market was owned by Jews.
Restriction of Palestinian freedom of movement
In Zone H2 , Palestinians are prohibited from using Al-Shuhada Street, the main thoroughfare of Hebron. The United States has provided millions of dollars in funding to renovate this street . Because of this restriction, nearly half of all stores in H2 have been closed since 1994 , despite efforts by the UN to pay shopkeepers monthly to keep business going.
Palestinians need special permission from the Israeli military for some areas near Israeli settlements, unless they live there. Furthermore, zone H2 has become a haven for criminal Palestinians fleeing the Palestinian police.
|1538||749 H.||7 H.||20 H.||776 H.||(H = households)|
|1817||500||Israeli Foreign Ministry|
|1832||400 H.||100 H.||500 H.||(H = households)|
|1839||1295 F||1 F.||241 F.||1537 F.||(F = families)|
|1922||16.074||73||430||16,577||British Mandate Census 1922|
|1929||700||Israeli Foreign Ministry|
|1931||17,277||109||134||17,532||British Mandate Census 1931|
|1944||24,400||150||0||24,560||British Mandate estimate|
|1997||n / A||n / A||530||119.093||Palestinian census|
|2007||n / A||n / A||500||163.146||Palestinian census|
The most important attraction in Hebron is the Machpelah cave , also the cave of the patriarchs or the tomb of the patriarchs , in which, according to tradition, the last resting places of the three patriarchs Abraham , Isaac , Jacob and their wives Sarah , Rebekah and Leah are. The tomb of the patriarchs is a sacred place for religious Jews as well as Muslims and Christians .
The Abraham oak, also called the oak of Mamre , stands at the place where, according to tradition, Abraham pitched his tent ( Gen 18.1 EU ). Their age is estimated to be 5000 years. Today the area on which the oak stands belongs to a Russian Orthodox monastery, which is inaccessible to the public.
The Abraham Mosque harbors a cultural peculiarity: the prayer chair, a gift from Saladin in the 12th century, is the last one left to be carved from a single wooden peg. A second prayer chair of its kind fell victim to an arson attack in the Al-Aqsa Mosque ( Jerusalem ) in 1969.
On July 7, 2017, the declared World Heritage Committee of UNESCO , the old city of Hebron for the third Palestinian World Heritage site and put them at the same time to its list of World Heritage in Danger . In particular, the buildings that were built in the Mamluk period between 1250 and 1517 should be protected. Israel and the United States had tried to thwart the decision, taken on an urgency request by the Palestinians.
- Georg Beer : Hebron . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume VII, 2, Stuttgart 1912, Col. 2584-2588.
- Peter Welten: Article Hebron. In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie 14 (1985), pp. 521-524 (archeology, history, bible)
- Fabio Maniscalco (ed.): Protection, conservation and valorization of Palestinian cultural property. monographic series Mediterraneum. Protection and exploitation of cultural and environmental property , vol. 5, Naples 2005
- Ibrahim Iqtait: An Architectural Survey of Raboud (South of Hebron). In Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony , vol. January-June, 2006
- Detlef Jericke: Hebron. In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (Eds.): The Scientific Biblical Lexicon on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff.
- Eric Hazan : Journey to Palestine. Edition Nautilus, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8940157-0-1 , especially p. 59ff.
- Web presence of the Hebrew City Council (Arabic, English)
- Temporary International Presence in the City of Hebron (English)
- Leonie Schultens, Settler Conflict Hebron: In the Cage (Spiegel Online, February 17, 2006)
- Audio documents from Hebron
- B'Tselem: Hebron, Area H-2: Settlements Cause Mass Departure of Palestinians ; Standing Idly By - Non-enforcement of the Law on Settlers: Hebron, July 26-28, 2002 ; Impossible Coexistance: Human Rights in Hebron Since the Massacre at the Cave of the Patriarchs (Word file; 382 kB); 10 Dec '08: Hebron: Willful abandonment by security forces . Eyewitness accounts: Settler kids in Hebron throw stones at Bahija Sharbati, striking her in the head and shattering her windows, April 2, 2005 ; Hebron: Settlers stab Iyad Salhab, age 25, January 2003 ; Hebron: Settlers' gunfire kills 14 year-old Nivin Jamjum, July 2002 ; Hebron: Settlers enter Palestinian house, stab and beat two children, July 2002 ; Settler's attack Palestinian home in Hebron, July 2002 ; Settlers attack home in Hebron and shoot Anwar Maswadeh, July 2002
- Arnon Regular: Hebron's H-2 area is being cleansed of Palestinians ( Haaretz , February 16, 2004)
- Hooligans in Hebron ( Ha'aretz , February 17, 2004)
- Amira Hass : The shuttered houses on Holy Days ( Ha'aretz , February 21, 2004); The Hebron tactic - Hebron Jews routinely harass and bully Palestinians ( Ha'aretz , August 8, 2007)
- Meron Rapoport: Ghost town ( Ha'aretz , November 17, 2005 2004)
- Chris McGreal: Life under siege in a divided city Palestinian families driven from homes by settlers in 'cleansing' of Hebron in the West Bank ( The Guardian , Dec. 9, 2005); Israel accused of Hebron land grab Palestinian homes to be demolished on link road ( The Guardian , December 3, 2002)
- Conal Urquhart: Army fury at Hebron soldiers' brutality exhibition Echoes of Abu Ghraib in photos showing 'banal evil' of occupation in Hebron ( The Guardian , June 24, 2004)
- Palestinian Central Statistical Office
- Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
- PALESTINE, Holiness OF: . Jewish Encyclopedia . Retrieved November 18, 2018.
- Hebron . Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved November 18, 2018.
- Ben-Eliezer's statements about "settlements" annoy Yesha residents In: Israelnetz.de , January 9, 2002, accessed on August 13, 2018.
- https://www.israelnetz.com/gesellschaft-kultur/gesellschaft/2017/11/03/die-umstrittene-stadt , accessed on November 11, 2017
- Sami Adwan; Dan Bar-On, Eyal Naveh; PRIME (Ed.): Side by side. Parallel histories of Israel-Palestine . The New Press, New York 2012, pp. 60 and 62 .
- Michael Avi-Yonah et al .: Hebron . In: Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik (eds.): Encyclopaedia Judaica . 2nd Edition. tape 8 . Macmillan Reference USA, Detroit 2007, pp. 744-749 ( Gale Virtual Reference Library [accessed May 15, 2013]).
- Ehud Sprinzak: The Ascendance of Israel's Radical Right . Oxford University Press, New York, NY [etc.] 1991, ISBN 0-19-505086-X , pp. 47 .
- Israel. Sherute ha-hasbarah: Jordanian Belligerency: A Review of Jordan's Policies Towards the State of Israel . Israel Information Services, 1967, p. 30.
- Morris Mandel, Leo Gartenberg: Israel: The Story of a Miracle . J. David, 1969. , p. 117.
- Israel Charges 10 Palestinians in Hebron Ambush , Washington Post. September 17, 1980. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- TIPH: TIPH. (PDF; 685 kB) (No longer available online.) TIPH , p. 10 , archived from the original on July 31, 2009 ; accessed on November 18, 2009 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Amos Harel: Palestinians abandon 1,000 Hebron homes under IDF, settler pressure ( Haaretz , May 14, 2007).
- Zinni Mission: One step forward, five steps back. In: Spiegel Online . March 27, 2002, accessed June 9, 2018 .
- Aviad Glickman: High Court orders disputed house in Hebron vacated YNet 16 November, 2008.
- Efrat Weiss: We'll go to war over Hebron house, warn settlers YNet , November 17, 2008; Michel Bôle-Richard: La "Maison de la paix" oppose les colons à la justice israélienne Le Monde , November 19, 2008.
- Michel Bôle-Richard: La "Maison de la paix" oppose les colons à la justice israélienne Le Monde , November 19, 2008; Avi Issacharoff: Next to Hebron's 'House of Contention,' Palestinian neighbors live in fear ( Memento of the original from December 5, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Haaretz , December 2, 2008; Поселенцы написали на мечети: "Мохаммед - свинья" Media International Group, November 20, 2008.
- Les forces de l'ordre israéliennes évacuent la "maison de la discorde" en Cisjordanie Le Monde , December 4, 2008.
- Abe Selig: The young men from Kiryat Arba exact their 'price' in the valley ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Jerusalem Post , December 5, 2008; Amos Harel, Avi Issacharoff: IDF declares Hebron area closed military zone after settler rampage Haaretz, December 4, 2008; Yaakov Katz, Yaakov Lapin, Tovah Lazaroff: High alert in West Bank following Beit Hashalom evacuation ( memento of the original from September 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Jerusalem Post , December 4, 2008.
sam / AFP / dpa (December 7, 2008). Olmert accuses Jewish settlers of “pogroms”. Spiegel Online (accessed December 9, 2008)
Haaretz: Avi Issacharoff (December 5, 2008). No other word than 'pogrom' for settler acts in Hebron. Haaretz ; Avi Issacharoff (December 5, 2008). Standing up to Jewish terrorism. ( Memento of the original from December 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Haaretz also a group of peace activists: Adam Keller (December 4, 2008). Evacuation of Pogrom House in Hebron - a meager half job. Gush Shalom and the Russian-Israeli website IsraelInfo.ru : (November 26, 2008). «Правая» молодежь устроила погром в Хевроне (for example: "Right" youths committed a pogrom in Hebron ) ( Memento of the original from January 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. IsraelInfo.ru
no author information (December 7, 2008). Olmert condemns settler 'pogrom'. BBC (English; accessed December 9, 2008)
Alex Burghoorn: Op strooptocht gaan ze, de bendes van Hebron Volkskrant , December 5, 2008. (ndl.)
- Janine Zacharia: Letter from the West Bank: In Hebron, renovation of holy site sets off strife The Washington Post , March 8, 2010
- Full text The Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (accessed July 4, 2017)
- Israelnetz.de of October 17, 2017: Israel approves new apartments
- Riots in Hebron. Olmert threatens settlers n-tv , December 3, 2008
- Steffen Heinzelmann: War on father's grave. Hebron is a holy place - for Muslims and Jews. Their brutal battles have turned the center into a ghost town, with watchtowers and roadblocks - a West Bank in miniature. South German , February 9, 2009
- DER SPIEGEL: Israel wants to build a new Jewish quarter on the market in Hebron - DER SPIEGEL - Politics. December 1, 2019, accessed April 13, 2020 .
- West Bank: Israel wants to build a new Jewish quarter in the old town of Hebron . In: FAZ.NET . December 1, 2019, ISSN 0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed April 13, 2020]).
- David Signer: Visit to a ghost town. After the Arab residents were driven out of the center of Hebron, almost only settlers live there . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, June 4, 2015, international edition, p. 7.
- רבי חיים יוסף דוד אזולאי , Meir Benayhu, Mosad Harav Kook, 1959, English
- Hebron . In: Jewish Virtual Library ., English
- Dictionary of the Holy Bible - page 488, English
- Robinson, p. 88
- David Roberts, 'The Holy Land - 123 Colored Facsimile Lithographs and The Journal from his visit to the Holy Land.' Terra Sancta Arts, 1982. ISBN 965-260-001-6 . Plate III - 13th Journal entry March 17, 1839.
- Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Hebron, p. 10
- Jessie Sampter: Modern Palestine - A Symposium . READ BOOKS, 2007, ISBN 9781406738346 .
- Government of Palestine (1945), A Survey of Palestine , Vol. 1, p. 151
- West Bank, Volume 1 Table 4 - Population by religion, sex, age, and type of settlement , Levy Economics Institute
- Palestinian Census 1997 ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Palestinian security forces deploy in Hebron 25/10/2008 gives about 500 as of October 2008
- 2007 Locality Population Statistics ( Memento of the original dated December 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Hebron Governorate Population, Housing and Establishment Census 2007 . Palestinian Bureau of Statistics
- UNESCO World Heritage Center: Hebron / Al-Khalil Old Town. Retrieved September 30, 2017 (English).
- Hebron becomes World Heritage Site: Dispute at the grave of Abraham or Ibrahim , faz.net, July 7, 2017