Vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

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The rulers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem around 1187

The Kingdom of Jerusalem of the Crusaders , which was created in 1099 , was divided into a number of smaller rulers in accordance with Western European feudalism . This did not include the three other Crusader states , the Principality of Antioch , the County of Edessa and the County of Tripoli , which were not part of the kingdom and had no feudal services to provide (military support was granted as often as it was denied).

Following John of Ibelin , the four highest barons of the empire were the Count of Jaffa and Ascalon , the Prince of Galilee , the Lord of Sidon and the Count of Tripoli . In the case of Tripoli, however, Johann was unsure, and he writes that others claimed that Lord of Oultrejordain was the fourth baron. Johann probably twisted the truth here, since at this point he was in conflict with the nominal lord of Oultrejordain (the area had been lost around 70 years before Johann wrote to the Muslims), while he was friends with the Count of Tripoli. However, Tripoli was never part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, but was independent at all times, so that Oultrejordain was probably the fourth barony. It is also controversial in research whether the status of the baronies actually existed, or whether it was just a kind of wishful thinking by Johann, who himself owned the counties of Jaffa and Ascalon. In addition, he lists 16 other independent dominions, the Seigneurien. According to Johann, baronies and seigneuries had the right of cour et coins et justice , the right to a feudal court, their own lead seal to confirm documents and the jurisdiction over the other inhabitants of the rule. A distinction must be made between Johann's listing of the Seigneuria and his listing which areas owed the kingdom how many knights. According to Peter Edbury, the dependencies of the smaller lordships on the larger baronies indicated here can be traced back to combat organizations rather than to feudal legal requirements. The rest of the country was held directly by the crown, the four centers of this crown domain being in Jerusalem itself, Acre , Nablus and Tire . Although the dominions in the kingdom were not hereditary in the early years, most families were able to maintain their territories from the 1130s.

Many of these rulers ceased to exist after the loss of Jerusalem in 1187 , especially after the loss of Acon in 1291 , but pretenders continued to appear in Europe decades and centuries later .

Jaffa County and Ascalon

The county of Jaffa (from 1153 including Ascalon ) was usually owned by the royal family - either directly owned by the king or at least one of his relatives. Jaffa was conquered by the First Crusade at the end of May 1099 , fortified by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1100 and unsuccessfully claimed for himself by Daimbert of Pisa , the first Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem . When Hugo II of Le Puiset rebelled against King Fulk in 1134 , the county was divided into a number of smaller units, and Jaffa itself became a crown property. In 1187, Askalon was lost to Saladin , which was recaptured in 1239 but not reunited with Jaffa County. Instead, Askalon was sold in 1243 by Emperor Friedrich II to the Hospitaller Order, who finally lost the castle to the Muslims in 1247. Regardless of this, Count Johann von Jaffa , who has been in office since 1247, continued to call himself Count of Jaffa and Askalon , probably to underpin his claim to ownership of Askalon, which however could never be exercised. On March 3, 1268, Jaffa was finally conquered by the Mamluks under Baibars I. The title of count was carried on long after the fall of the county as a mere title.

  • Guido von Ibelin (titular count 1276–1304)
  • Philip of Ibelin (titular count 1304-1316)
  • Hugo von Ibelin (titular count 1316–1349)
  • Balian von Ibelin (titular count 1350 - around 1351)
  • Marie von Ibelin (titular countess around 1351-1367)
  • Florin (titular count around 1450)
  • Johann Perez Fabrice (titular count)
  • Louis Perez Fabrice (titular count)
  • Giorgio Contarini (titular count)
  • N. Contarini (titular count)
  • Giorgio Contarini. (Titular count around 1579)

A number of lordships were vassals of the Count of Jaffa, or directly subordinate to the crown if the county of Jaffa was part of the crown property:

Reign of ramla

Ramla was also conquered by the First Crusade in 1099. Ramla was ruled briefly, until 1101, by the bishop of Ramla and Lydda . It is not known when Ramla became a rule of its own, although there was a Baldwin of Ramla, a large landowner in the early years of the kingdom. 1126 Ramla became part of the county of Jaffa, 1134, after the revolt of Hugo II of Le Puiset , independently with Baldwin II of Ramla as lord (although Baldwin I was not a lord in his own right). Helvis, Baldwin II's heir, married Barisan von Ibelin around 1130 and after his death Manasses von Hierges. Her son Hugo from her first marriage followed her in 1152. His brother Balduin III. took over Ramla after Hugo's death around 1170 and went into exile in 1187 in a dispute with King Guido von Lusignan in Antioch . His underage son Thomas took over the rule only briefly. In the same year, Ramla was conquered by Saladin . Through the peace treaty with the Muslims effected by the crusade from 1239 to 1241 , the Christians regained the rule of Ramla in 1241, and Johann von Ibelin was enfeoffed with the rule. Around 1268 Ramla was finally conquered by the Mamluks .

Reign Ibelin

Ibelin was founded around 1141. It was located around the newly built Ibelin Castle near Ramla and was given to Barisan von Ibelin , the former constable of Jaffa County. The Ibelins became the most powerful family in the country and soon ruled large parts of the kingdom. In 1187 Ibelin was occupied by Saladin and no longer recaptured by the Christians.

Reign of Mirabel

Mirabel was actually a sub-unit of the rulership of Ramla and was probably only independent for a short time in the 1160s, when Hugo von Ibelin gave it to his brother Baldwin. After Hugo's death, both lords were reunited under Baldwin. Mirabel was conquered by Saladin in 1187.

Principality of Galilee

The Principality of Galilee , which is also the rule of Tiberia after its center , was established - at least in name - in 1099 when Tankred conquered Tiberias, Haifa and Bethsan from Taranto and received it as a fief from Godfrey of Bouillon. In 1101 Baldwin I limited Tankred's power by giving Haifa to Waldemar Carpenel; Tankred was also forced to give up the principality when he became regent of Antioch. The principality was conquered by Saladin in 1187 , returned in 1240, but finally smashed by the Ayyubids in 1247 . However, the title was carried on by the heirs of the kings of Jerusalem in Acre.

  • Philip of Ibelin, titular prince
  • Balian of Ibelin, titular prince
  • Bohemond of Lusignan (around 1280), titular prince
  • Guido von Lusignan (around 1320) titular prince
  • Hugo von Lusignan (until 1386) titular prince
  • Johann von Brie, titular prince
  • Heinrich von Lusignan, titular prince

The principality had its own vassals, the dominions of Beirut , Nazareth and Haifa , who in turn often had sub-vassals.

Reign of Beirut

Beirut was conquered in 1110 and given to Fulk by Guines. It was one of the longest-lived rulers, as it existed until the final collapse of the kingdom in 1291, although or precisely because it only consisted of a narrow strip of Mediterranean coast around Beirut. Beirut was important for European trade and had its own vassals within the Principality of Galilee. Beirut was occupied by Saladin from 1187 to 1197 and fell to the Mamluks in 1291.

The sub-vassals of Beirut were:

Reign of Banias

Banias was given by the assassins to Baldwin II in 1128 , who passed it on to Rainer Brus, who in turn also held the rule of Assebebe, which was merged with Banias. Rainer's daughter married Humfried II of Toron , who became lord of Banias around 1148. In 1157 he sold parts of Banias and Chastel Neuf to the Johanniter . Banias was united with Toron until it fell to Nur ad-Din in 1164 . When it was recaptured in 1176, it became part of the reign of Joscelin III. by Edessa (see below). After the defeat of the Crusaders at Hattin in 1187, the rule fell to Saladin.

Reign of Toron

Toron Castle was built by Hugo de Saint-Omer, Prince of Galilee, to aid in the conquest of Tire . After Hugo's death it was made an independent rule that Humfried I received in 1107. The Lords of Toron became very influential in Jerusalem, Humfried II was constable of Jerusalem, Humfried IV married Isabella I , the daughter of Amalrich I (Toron was under royal rule during their marriage). Toron was one of the few rulers with hereditary status, at least for a few decades. The lords of Toron were associated with the lords of Oultrejourdain. Later, Toron was merged with the royal domain of Tire. From 1187 to 1229 and from 1239 to 1240 Toron was occupied by the Ayyubids. In 1266 Toron was finally conquered by the Mamelukes.

Toron had two vassals, the lords of Chastel Neuf and the lords of Toron Ahmud. Chastel Neuf was built by Hugo von Saint-Omer around 1105 and later belonged to the Johanniter until it fell to Nur ad-Din in 1167. Toron Ahmud stayed with the rule of Beirut until Johann von Ibelin sold it to the Teutonic Order in 1261.

Reign of Nazareth

Nazareth was owned by the Latin patriarchs . It was established in 1115 as a rulership within Galilee and was the seat of an archbishopric.

Reign of Haifa

Haifa , called Cayphas by the Crusaders, was conquered by the Crusaders on July 25, 1100. It was partly an ecclesiastical domain of the Archbishop of Nazareth, partly it consisted of land of the Principality of Galilee. It was given as a fief to Waldemar Carpenel in 1099. Haifa was occupied by Saladin from 1187 to 1189. In 1265 Haifa was finally conquered by the Mamluks.

Sidon County

Sidon was conquered by Norway in 1110 during Sigurd's crusade and given to Eustach I Garnier , lord of Caesarea. In 1187 the county of Saladin was occupied and in 1197 it was recaptured by the German crusade . From 1202 to 1210, the county was under the reign of Guido von Montfort , the stepfather of the underage Balian Garnier . In 1260 Julian Garnier sold Sidon to the Templars . The city was sacked by the Mongols in 1260 and finally conquered by the Mamluks .

  • Phoebus of Lusignan (titular count around 1460)
  • Philip of Lusignan (titular lord around 1460)

Rule created

The rule of Schuf was removed as a vassal from the rule of Sidon around 1170. It was around the fortified caves of Tire . Count Julian Garnier von Sidon sold them to the Teutonic Order in 1256.

  • Andreas von Schuf (13th century; after 1240)
  • Johann von Schuf (13th century)
  • Julian Garnier (-1256)

Lordship of Oultrejordain

The rule Oultrejordain ("beyond the Jordan") consisted of land with the Jordan as the western border and undefined borders in the east and was one of the largest and most important rulers. Baldwin I attacked the area in 1100, 1107 and 1112, built Montreal in 1115 to control the Muslim caravan routes , which brought immense revenue to the kingdom. Baldwin II gave the rule to Roman von Le Puy in 1118, after he rebelled against the new King Fulko, but it was withdrawn from him in 1134 and Pagan the cupbearer made master. In the 1140s, Pagan had the stronger Kerak Castle built, which Montreal later replaced as the center of Oultrejordain rule. After Pagan's death in 1147 he was followed by his nephew Moritz. In 1161 Philip of Milly, Lord of Nablus, exchanged with King Baldwin III. the rule of Nablus against the rule of Oultrejourdain. After his death, his daughter Stephanie von Milly inherited the rule, which was exercised by their three spouses. The last of them, Rainald de Chatillon, was partly responsible for Saladin's invasion through his hostility towards the Muslims . Saladin beheaded Rainald himself after the battle of Hattin in 1187. He conquered the area in 1187. The mighty castles Kerak and Montreal fell after a long siege in 1189. The rule of Oultrejordain was finally lost for the crusaders.

Other gentlemen

Reign of Adelon

The rule of Adelon does not appear to have been established until after the center of the kingdom was moved to Acre. The center of the rule was a now no longer preserved castle on the Mediterranean Sea between Tire and Sidon . Adelon was of some influence at the time of Emperor Frederick II .

Reign of Arsuf

Arsuf (called Arsur by the Crusaders) was conquered in 1101, but remained a crown domain until 1163, when John of Arsur became master here . When Johann died childless, Melisende, his brother Guido's daughter, took over the rule. In her second marriage, Melisende brought the rule to the Ibelin family . In 1260 or 1261 Balian von Ibelin sold the rule to the Order of St. John . In 1265 Arsuf was finally conquered by the Mamluks.

Reign of Bethsan

Bethsan was occupied by Tankred in 1099, was never part of the Galilee, despite its location, but became a royal domain in 1101, probably until around 1120. The rule was conquered by Saladin in 1183.

Reign of Blanchegarde

Blanchegarde Castle was built by King Fulko in 1142 as part of the royal possessions and was ruled by castellans. It was raised to rule in 1166 when it was passed to Walter III. Brisebarre who had been forced to give up Beirut went.

Reign of Caesarea

Caesarea was conquered in 1101 and given to the Archbishop of Caesarea. Arpin von Bourges could have been the first lord, but only Eustach I Garnier , who ruled from 1110 to 1123 , can be proven . The rule was occupied by Saladin in 1187 and recaptured in 1191. In 1218 the rule was conquered again by the Ayyubids and returned in 1229. In 1275 Caesarea was conquered by the Mamluks.

Reign of Caymont

Caymont , about 15 km east of Cafarlet , was built shortly after the Third Crusade and handed over to Balian by Ibelin , who had lost his previous dominions of Ibelin, Ramla and Nablus to Saladin. With the death of Bali in 1193, the rule finally passed into the royal domain.

Reign of Dera

Little is known about the Dera rule , except that it was built in 1118. This rule, located far east of the Jordan, was presumably soon re-conquered by the Muslims.

Reign of Hebron

Hebron (also called St. Abraham ) was one of the first rulers in the country. Hebron was under royal rule several times. Hebron had its own vassal, namely the reign of Beth Gibelin , which King Fulk had established around 1134. In 1136 Beth Gibelin was given to the Johanniter . Around 1187, Hebron was also conquered by Saladin.

  • Gerhard von Avesnes (possibly 1099)
  • Waldemar Carpenel (1100–1101)
  • Rohard von Haifa (1101–1102)
  • Crown Estate (1102–1104)
  • Hugo I of St. Abraham (1104)
  • Crown Estate (1104–1108)
  • Walter Mahomet (1108–1118)
  • Crown Estate (1118–1120)
  • Baldwin of St. Abraham (1120–1136)
  • Hugo II of St. Abraham (1136–1149)
  • Crown estate (1149–1177) (castellan: Humfried II of Toron )
  • Rainald of Chatillon (1177-1187)

Reign of Montgisard

Montgisard was built as a defense against Nur ad-Din ; the battle of Montgisard against Saladin took place here in 1177 .

  • Wilhelm (around 1155)
  • Johann
  • Aimard (around 1198)
  • Reginald (around 1200)
  • Wilhelm (around 1230)
  • Robert (around 1240)
  • Heinrich
  • Balian (around 1300)
  • Wilhelm
  • Baldwin
  • Robert
  • Johann
  • Jakob (around 1400)

Reign of Nablus

Nablus was actually not a rule of its own, but one of the four centers of the crown domain. In the 1140s Philip was endowed with a large fief by Queen Melisende and from then on he held the (unofficial) title of Lord of Nablus. In 1161 he exchanged the fiefdom with Melisendes son Balduin III. against the rule of Oultrejordain. In 1167, Nablus and the associated fief were given to Mary of Jerusalem as a morning gift on the occasion of her wedding to King Amalrich . After Amalrich's death, Maria married Balian von Ibelin in 1177 , who then again assumed the title of Lord of Nablus. Around 1188 the rule of Saladin was conquered.

Reign of Scandaleon

Scandaleon (now Iskandarouna ) was established as a royal domain in 1116. It was raised to rule for Robert of Scandaleon in 1148. In 1280 the Teutonic Order bought the rule, which was soon conquered by the Mamluks.

  • Crown Domain (1116–1148)
  • Robert of Scandaleon (1148 – after 1150)
  • Isaac of Scandaleon (after 1150)
  • Raimund von Scandaleon (before 1199 – after 1209)
  • Peter of Scandaleon (before 1263)
  • Agnes from Scandaleon
  • German medal

Reign of Tire

Tire was conquered in 1124 and was initially a crown domain. During the Third Crusade around 1191, Tire was raised to an independent rule for Conrad of Montferrat , who had successfully defended the city against Saladin. In 1291 the rule was conquered by the Mamelukes.

Reign of Joscelin III. from Edessa

This reign was an unusual creation. She was at Joscelin III. , given to the titular count of Edessa long after he lost his possessions. The occasion was Joscelin's marriage to Agnes von Milly in 1176 . The property consisted of royal land in the area around Acon and included the castles of Banias (from 1176), Castellum Regis (from 1182) and Toron (from 1186). Joscelin's daughter Beatrix married Otto von Botenlauben in 1208 , who sold the land to the Teutonic Order in 1220 .


  • Charles du Fresne Du Cange: Les Familles d'Outre-mer. Publié par E.-G. Rey. Imprimerie Nationale, Paris 1869, ( Collection de documents inédits sur l'histoire de France. Series 1: Histoire politique 44), online .
  • Peter W. Edbury: John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge 1997, ISBN 0-85115-703-3 .
  • John L. LaMonte: Feudal Monarchy in the Latin Kingdom from Jerusalem 1100 to 1291. The Medieval Academy of America, Cambridge MA 1932 ( Monographs of the Mediaeval Academy of America 4, ZDB -ID 1134980-3 = Mediaeval Academy of America. Academy Publications 11).
  • Louis de Mas Latrie: Les comtes de Jaffa et d'Ascalon du XIIe au XIXe siécle. In: Archivio Veneto . 18, 1879, ZDB -ID 127304-8 , pp. 370-417, esp. 401.
  • Hans Eberhard Mayer : History of the Crusades. 10th completely revised and expanded edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-17-018679-5 ( Kohlhammer-Urban-Taschenbücher 86 history, cultural history, politics ).
  • Joshua Prawer : The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. European Colonialism in the Middle Ages. Winfield and Nicholson, London 1972, ISBN 0-297-99397-6 .

Web links

supporting documents

  1. on Johann von Ibelin and his lists: Peter W. Edbury: John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem , Woodbridge 1997, esp. Pp. 110–176.
  2. Denys Pringle, The Castle and Lordship of Mirabel . In: Montjoie. Studies in Crusade History in Honor of Hans Eberhard Mayer . Aldershot 1997, pp. 94-97
  3. ^ Martin Rheinheimer : The Crusader Principality of Galilee , Frankfurt a. M. 1990, pp. 39-63; Hans Eberhard Mayer: The Crusader Principality of Galilee between Saint-Omer and Bures-sur-Yvette . In: Itinéraires d'Orient. Hommages à Claude Cahen , pp. 157–167.