Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem
|Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem|
|Diocesan bishop||Sedis vacancy|
|Apostolic Administrator||Pierbattista Pizzaballa OFM|
William Hanna Shomali
|Emeritus diocesan bishop||
Patriarch Michel Sabbah
Patriarch Fouad Twal
|Auxiliary Bishop Emeritus||
|Vicar General||Giacinto-Boulos Marcuzzo|
|Parishes||65 ( 12/31/2007 / AP2008 )|
|Catholics||78,215 ( 12/31/2007 / AP2008 )|
|Diocesan priest||89 ( 12/31/2007 / AP2008 )|
|Religious priest||160 ( 12/31/2007 / AP2008 )|
|Catholics per priest||314|
|Friars||441 ( 12/31/2007 / AP2008 )|
|Religious sisters||1,113 ( 12/31/2007 / AP2008 )|
|Co-cathedral||Co-cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus|
|address||Patriarcat Latin, PO Box 14152, 91141 Jerusalem [Old City]|
The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem ( Latin Archidioecesis Hierosolymitanus Latinorum ) is a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church . Its head is the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem . The Jerusalem Patriarch is now the only one of several Latin Patriarchs of the East in the past .
In addition to the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, the Patriarch of Antioch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church ( Byzantine Rite ) has held the additional title of Patriarch of Jerusalem (and Alexandria) since 1838 . He is represented in Jerusalem by a patriarchal vicar.
In 1054 the Great West-East Schism separated the Christian churches. The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem and the three other Orthodox Patriarchs of the East formed the Orthodox Church , and the Western Church under the Patriarch of the West the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1099 Jerusalem was conquered by the Crusaders and the Kingdom of Jerusalem was established. Here the Latin patriarch succeeded the Orthodox patriarch, who died shortly before the conquest of Jerusalem. In doing so, he not only acquired the possession of his predecessor, so that he had full sovereignty over the Christian quarter of Jerusalem , but was also able to acquire further possessions, especially in the early days of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. While he was now a metropolitan on the church level and tried to get as many suffragans as possible , the fight for supremacy in the kingdom was on the political level. His attempt to make the Kingdom of Jerusalem a fiefdom of the patriarchate failed. With the destruction of the kingdom in 1291, the Latin Patriarchate was no longer needed, but a corresponding honorary title was awarded, to which the Basilica of San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura in Rome has been a titular church since 1374 .
In 1847 the Ottoman Empire allowed the Catholic Church to re-establish its hierarchy in Palestine . The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is now the head of the Roman Catholics in Israel and the Palestinian Territories . Most of the Roman Catholics in this region are Palestinian Christians . The patriarch's residence and cathedral are in Jerusalem's Old City , while the seminary was relocated to Beit Jala , 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem, in 1936 .
The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is Head of the Latin Church in Jerusalem and President of the Assembly of Catholic Ordinaries of the Holy Land. The seat of the patriarchate is in Jerusalem.
Pope Francis appointed after the age-related resignation of Archbishop Fouad Twal on 24 June 2016 Franciscan Custos Pierbattista Pizzaballa OFM for Titular Archbishop pro hac vice of verbs and Apostolic Administrator of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
The patriarch is supported by three bishops in the Holy Land (Israel, Palestinian Territories, Jordan) and two non-episcopal patriarchal vicars in Cyprus and Jerusalem:
- Giacinto-Boulos Marcuzzo , auxiliary bishop and vicar general in the Latin Patriarchate
- William Shomali , Auxiliary Bishop (Titular Archbishop of Medaba ) and Patriarchal Vicar for Jordan based in Amman
- Hanna Kildani , Patriarchal Vicar for Israel based in Nazareth
- Jerzy Kraj OFM Patriarchal Vicar for Cyprus based in Nicosia
- Rafic Nahra, Patriarchal Vicar for the Hebrew-speaking Catholics based in Jerusalem
Ibrahim Shomali has been Chancellor of the Latin Patriarchate since 2017; The rector of the seminary is Yakoub Rafidi.
The Assembly of Catholic Ordinaries of the Holy Land (ACOHL) (L'Assemblée des Ordinaires Catholiques de Terre Sainte (AOCTS)) is a group of bishops from various Catholic communities in the Holy Land. The statute was approved by Pope John Paul II in 1992. The purpose of the institution is to coordinate Christian witness and to ensure the exchange of information and experiences, especially for pastoral care.
The parishes under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate are documented in the List of Parishes of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem .
The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem is responsible for the University of Bethlehem , the American University of Madaba and the seminary in Bait Jala as well as 44 schools with 22,000 students. In the area of the Patriarchate there are other educational institutions of various providers, such as:
- École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem of the Dominican Order
- Studium Biblicum Franciscanum , Faculty of Biblical Sciences and Archeology of the Pontifical University Antonianum , the religious college of the Franciscans
- Pontifical Biblical Institute , an affiliate of the Gregorian and the Pontifical Oriental Institute
- Institut Saint-Pierre de Sion - Ratisbonne (Center chrétien d'études Juives CCEJ)
- Instituto Español Bíblico Arqueológico, Institute of the Pontifical University of Salamanca (UPSA)
- Studium Theologicum Jerosolimitanum, a university seminar of the Franciscans (OFM)
- Study Theologicum Salesianum, research institute of the Salesians of Don Bosco in Jerusalem
- Theological academic year Jerusalem in the Dormition Abbey and Bait Jala
Church hierarchy at the time of the Crusaders
When the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099, in addition to the political organization of the new empire, they were also faced with the task of building a new Latin church organization. They found a list of Orthodox dioceses in Jerusalem, which, however, dated from the time before the Arab conquest. It is unclear how many of them still existed in the Orthodox bishopric. Most of the episcopal seats were probably just on paper. The following were subordinate to the Patriarch of Jerusalem:
- Archdiocese of Caesarea Maritima (today the ruined city of Caesarea Maritima ) with 19 suffragans
- Archdiocese of Scythopolis (today Bet Sche'an ) with eight suffragans
- Archdiocese of Rabba Moabitis (today Rabbat-Moab ) with twelve suffragans
- Archdiocese of Bosra ( Bosra ) with 34 suffragans.
By the death of Baldwin I, the Kingdom of Jerusalem had reached the limits that essentially existed until 1187 with only a few changes. It then covered only part of the area of the former patriarchate, since the ecclesiastical province of Bosra and the ecclesiastical province of Rabba Moabitis was only partially conquered. The conquerors were faced with the task of re-establishing these episcopal seats and filling them with Latin bishops. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem was established as early as 1099. A man named Arnulf was appointed as the first patriarch, but he was deposed in the course of 1099 and replaced by Daimbert, who came from Pisa. The occupation of the episcopal seats was slow. At the first imperial assembly in Nablus in 1120, the patriarch only had four suffragans. These were the Archbishop of Caesarea Maritima (1101), the Bishop of Lydda-Ramlah (1099), the Bishop of Bethlehem (1108?, Probably 1109/10) and the Bishop of Nazareth (1109). King Baldwin I had appointed an Anzhetinus as bishop of Ascalon in 1108, but since the city was still in Muslim hands, no confirmation was given by the papal envoy Gibelin; Anchetinus instead became the first bishop of Bethlehem. The reasons for the very slow development of the Latin church organization can also be seen in the fact that the beginnings of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem were chaotic. In the first 21 years, six patriarchs were elected and z. T. discontinued again. Strictly speaking, one would have to add three terms in office, because Daimberg was deposed twice and reinstated by the Pope. However, he died on the return journey from Rome, so that he could not take the patriarchal post again. The Patriarch Arnulf was also deposed once and reinstated by the Pope.
With the foundation of the last dioceses in 1168 ( Archdiocese of Petra and Diocese of Hebron ), the Patriarchate of Jerusalem was divided into four church provinces (with the dates of the presumed foundation for an overview):
- Archdiocese of Tire (1122 or 1127)
Archdiocese of Caesarea Maritima (1099)
- Diocese of Sebaste (1128)
Archdiocese of Nazareth (Diocese 1109, elevation to Archdiocese 1129)
- Diocese of Tiberias (1144)
Archdiocese of Petra (1168)
- Catherine Monastery on Mount Sinai
The Patriarch himself ruled a quarter of the city of Jerusalem (the Holy Sepulcher and its surroundings) and had the following direct suffragans:
- Diocese of Lydda (1099)
- Diocese of Bethlehem (1108 or 109/10)
- Diocese of Hebron (1168)
- Canons of the Holy Sepulcher
- Canons' monastery Templum Domini
- Canon monastery on Mount Sion
- Canon monastery on the Mount of Olives
- S. Maria Monastery in the Josaphat Valley
- S. Maria Latina Monastery
- Monastery on Mount Thabor
- List of Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem
- List of parishes of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem with their church buildings
- Order of Knights of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
- Deir Rafat
- Mayer, Hans Eberhard : Dioceses, monasteries and monasteries in the Kingdom of Jerusalem (writings of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica 26). Stuttgart: Hiersemann 1977. ISBN 3-7772-7719-3
- Pringle, Denys: The churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a corpus. Cambridge University Press. Vol. I (A – K) 1993 ISBN 0-521-39036-2 / Vol. II (L-Z) 1998 ISBN 0-521-39037-0
- Kirstein, Klaus-Peter: The Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem. From the conquest of the Holy City by the Crusaders in 1099 to the end of the Crusader States in 1291 . Berlin: Duncker u. Humblot 2002. ISBN 3-428-09964-8
- Pieraccini, Paolo: Il ristabilimento del Patriarcato Latino di Gerusalemme e la Custodia di Terra Santa. La dialettica istituzionale al tempo del primo Patriarca, Giuseppe Valerga (1847-1972) . Cairo-Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press 2006. 678 pp.
- Patriarchate website (multilingual)
- Entry on Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem on catholic-hierarchy.org
- Entry on Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem on gcatholic.org (English)
- Rinuncia del Patriarca di Gerusalemme dei Latini e nomina dell'Amministratore Apostolico sede vacante. In: Daily Bulletin. Holy See Press Office , June 24, 2016, accessed June 24, 2016 (Italian).
- New Patriarchal Vicar for Cyprus , Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, accessed September 19, 2013
- Bernard Hamilton: The Latin Church in the Crusader States. The Secular Church. Variorum Publications Ltd., London 1980 ISBN 0-86078-072-4
- Thomas: A Tract on the Holy Land and the Third Crusade. Meeting reports of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences, 1865 (II): 141-171, Munich 1865 Online at Google Books