Pope Francis ( Latin Franciscus PP .; Civil Jorge Mario Bergoglio SJ [ ˈxo̞ɾxe ˈmaɾjo β̞e̞ɾˈɣ̞oɣ̞ljo̞ ] (Spanish), [ berˈgɔʎːo ] (Italian); born December 17, 1936 in Buenos Aires , Argentina ) has been the 266th since March 13, 2013 . Bishop of Rome and thus Pope , head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican State. As an Argentine, Francis is the first non-European born in the papacy since Gregory III, who was in office in the 8th century . He is also the first pope of the Order of the Jesuits heard.
Origin and education
Bergoglio's father, José Mario Francisco Bergoglio (1908-1959), came from the Piedmontese town of Portacomaro near Asti in Italy . However, his family moved to Turin , where Bergoglio's grandparents ran a pastry shop, while his father found a job as an accountant in a bank. Because his mother was an opponent of fascism , the family emigrated to Argentina, where an uncle ran a paving stone factory and had achieved considerable prosperity. During the economic crisis of 1932 the business went bankrupt and Bergoglio's grandparents and father moved to Buenos Aires, where they opened a grocery store. There, on December 12, 1935, the father married Regina Maria Sivori (1911–1981), who was born in Buenos Aires and whose parents were also from Italy. Later the father worked as an accountant in a corsetry factory. Jorge Mario Bergoglio has four younger siblings: Óscar Adrián (* 1938), Marta Regina (* 1940), Alberto Horacio (* 1942) and María Elena (* 1949), of whom only the latter is still alive.
Bergoglio obtained a professional qualification as a chemical technician . He entered the Jesuit order in 1958 and initially studied humanities in Chile , after his return to Buenos Aires at the theological faculty of the Colegio Máximo San José in San Miguel, philosophy (graduation 1960) and Catholic theology (graduation 1970). He was theologically influenced by, among others, Lucio Gera , the founder of the “Theology of the People”, an Argentine variant of liberation theology . From him, Bergoglio took over the conviction that the church clearly has to stand by the side of the poor and demand their rights and participation in church and society in solidarity. In 2012 he had Gera buried in the crypt of the cathedral in Buenos Aires . In his own words, Bergoglio is spiritually close to the mystical currents of the Jesuits Louis Lallemant , Jean-Joseph Surin and Peter Faber .
Bergoglio speaks fluent Italian and is said to be proficient in the Italian dialect of the area around Portacomaro and the songs of the emigrants. He also speaks Spanish (the official language of Argentina), German , some English , French and Portuguese . During his university studies he also learned Latin and ancient Greek . Bergoglio has Argentine and Italian citizenship.
At the age of 21, Jorge Mario Bergoglio had to have his right lung partially removed after suffering from severe pneumonia.
Priest and provincial
On 13 December 1969 Bergoglio received by the Archbishop of Córdoba , Ramón José Castellano , the ordination . For his tertiary he went to Spain for a year . From 1973 to 1979 he was Provincial (Head) of the Argentine Province of the Jesuit Order. He was also responsible for the allocation of offices at the Universidad del Salvador of San Miguel , where he worked as a novice master and theology lecturer . Towards the end of his tenure as provincial superior, the now 42-year-old regularly visited a psychoanalyst for six months.
According to various Argentine sources, Bergoglio belonged from 1972 to 1974 to the nationalist- Peronist organization Guardia de Hierro ("Iron Guard"), which fought at gunpoint against the authoritarian military government and for the return of Juan Domingo Perón to the presidency until 1973 . He appointed several members of this organization to leadership positions at the Jesuit College, including Francisco José Piñón. This awarded the junta member Admiral Emilio Massera an honorary doctorate in 1977 . Bergoglio stated in 2010 that he had asked the Guardia members to give up their university posts. He was not associated with this group.
From 1980 to 1986 Bergoglio was rector of the Theological Faculty of San Miguel. According to one of his students at the time, the former Jesuit Miguel Ignacio Mom Debussy, he rejected liberation theology at the time and did not deal with the books of its main proponents. Although he criticized priests who leaned in this direction, he shared their criticism of social inequality in many Latin American societies.
In 1986 he went to the Philosophical-Theological University of Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt am Main , supported by the Jesuit order , to do his doctorate . His dissertation on Romano Guardini's main philosophical work The Contrast remained unfinished. As a visitor to a German course at the Goethe Institute , he lived in Rothenburg ob der Tauber from August to October 1986 . A religious sister he had met in Germany sent him a greeting card with the miraculous image of Mary the Knot Loosener , thus justifying her veneration in Buenos Aires. After his return he worked as a spiritual guide in Cordoba .
Relationship to the Argentine military dictatorship
During the Argentine military dictatorship from 1976 to 1983 in "were dirty war " up to 30,000 suspected opposition Argentines of death squads kidnapped, tortured and murdered and robbed the mothers of the victims up to 500 born in detention children. As the head of the Jesuit order at the time, Bergoglio was not responsible for church statements, but was obliged to protect the members of the order. His behavior is still discussed today.
The Jalics and Yorio case
In 1974 Bergoglio allowed the Jesuit priests Franz Jalics and Orlando Yorio , a member of the "Movement of Priests for the Third World ", to work in Bajo Flores , the largest slum in Buenos Aires . National conservative friars rejected this work. In February 1976 the Superior General of the Jesuits, Pedro Arrupe , asked the two priests to stop working in the slum. Thereupon, after consulting Bergoglio, they unsuccessfully applied for their transfer to another diocese.
On May 23, 1976, marines Yorio and Jalics kidnapped other Jesuits in the Escuela de Mecánica de la Armada (ESMA), which Admiral Massera had converted into a torture center. There they were interrogated and tortured for five days because they were considered members or contacts of the Montoneros . They were then held in chains and blindfolded for five months. They were released in October 1976. They then left Argentina and tried to find out the causes of their torture.
Since November 1977 they have accused Bergoglio of guilty of their imprisonment by depriving them of the protection of the Church or even reporting them to the military himself. He had expelled Yorio from the Jesuit order on May 20, 1976, but did not inform them of this at the time; They did not find out until June 1977 from the Jesuit Vice General Superior, Father Moura. Furthermore, he had not suppressed rumors in the Jesuit order that threatened their lives that they belonged to the guerrilla and then did not testify to the military of their innocence, although he had promised Jalics this in December 1975. Instead, he explained the rumors to the Bishop of Moron , Miguel Raspanti , to whom they had applied for admission. According to the catechist Marina Rubino (2010), Raspanti is said to have justified the non-acceptance of Jalics and Yorio with Bergoglio's bad references.
In 1978, Jalics and Yorio Arrupe presented documents to prove that Bergoglio had denounced them to the military as terrorists in 1976. In 1994, Jalics wrote that he had burned these documents in 1980 because he had failed to enlighten the Jesuit order and wanted to forgive the past. Four years later he spoke to the superior general in Rome and then finally forgave what had happened. A "man" he knew was responsible for the slander. According to his family, he meant Bergoglio, whom he had privately accused several times.
The Argentine human rights lawyer Emilio Mignone publicized the priests' allegations against Bergoglio in 1986. His decision to no longer support the Jalics and Yorio slum project encouraged the military to take action. He was "one of the shepherds" "who delivered their sheep to the enemy without defending or saving them."
In 1999 the Argentine journalist Horacio Verbitsky published accusatory and exculpatory testimony on Bergoglio's behavior in 1976. According to human rights activist Alicia Oliveira , Bergoglio obtained the release of Jalics and Yorio by threatening Admiral Massera in a conversation that he would otherwise make the case public. According to the Jesuit Juan Luis Moyano, who was tortured in 1975, Bergoglio did not disclose any kidnappings of Jesuits because of his contacts with Massera, ordered two other priests to leave the slums and advised the military that they had been kidnapped.
Yorio reiterated his allegations in a 1999 interview with Verbitsky. Bergoglio advised them in February 1976 to apply for their transfer, but secretly prevented several Argentine bishops, including Juan Carlos Aramburu , from accepting them. When Aramburus tried to suspend them indefinitely, he allowed them to celebrate private masses in the slum. While they were in custody, he reported to their relatives about their alleged shooting; funeral masses have already been held for them. Bergoglio must have given the military the reason for arrest given to the order, “that at least one of us is a guerrilla”. This allegation made by Admiral Massera then again served as an excuse not to campaign for her release. He did not wait to see if they would be released alive. Yorio maintained the allegations until his death in 2000. Her sister confirmed her as a witness in court on April 20, 2013.
In 2005 Verbitsky wrote in his book El Silencio : Bergoglio wrote to Arrupe in 1976 while the two priests were in custody that they had been expelled from the order and thus handed them over to the military. In April 2005, the Argentine human rights lawyer Marcelo Parrilli filed a complaint against Bergoglio in Buenos Aires: he was involved in the disappearance of the Jesuits and possibly reported them to the junta. Parrilli added in 2013: Bergoglio did not stand up for the friars who were already imprisoned. The interrogators would have known details that they could only have learned from the Jesuit order.
As early as September 1976, Bergoglio wrote to members of Jalics that he had unsuccessfully campaigned for the release of the two priests. The day after their release he wrote to them: He never believed that Jalics had been murdered "because I had information about both fathers". In 1999 he gave Verbitsky his version of the events: he had visited dictator Jorge Rafael Videla and Admiral Massera twice each because of Jalics and Yorio; when they first met, they both claimed they knew nothing about the case but would investigate. At the second meeting with Massera he insisted on the release of the priests; he knows where they are. According to a 2010 interview, he never suspected Yorio and Jalics as members of the guerrillas. Because they wrote their own guidelines for their project in 1975, Pedro Arrupe asked them to choose between the Jesuit order. They then asked to be released from the order. Because Jalics had already taken his last religious vows, his request was rejected, but Yorio's one accepted in March 1976. In 1976, a few days before the coup, Bergoglio offered the two Jesuits to seek protection from the impending danger in the Jesuit house. But they would have rejected the offer. After she was arrested, he immediately and continuously campaigned for her to be released. Because of this and because nothing could be proven to them, they were finally released. "I did what I could to stand up for the abductees, with the age I had and the few connections I could count on." In 2010, as a witness in a trial against Argentine torturers, he said: He has opposes the efforts of church opponents to dissolve the congregation in the poor district and to relocate Jalics and Yorio. Contrary to other claims, he encouraged her to continue celebrating masses there, even without official permission. Immediately after her imprisonment, he tried to find out the location of her detention and met with Massera. He testified that they were not involved in any "unusual" activities and asked to see them. Through general rumors (he did not give names of informants) he learned that they were trapped in ESMA. After her release, he immediately campaigned for her safety and her departure. He admitted that he had not filed any criminal charges or publicly talked about the case. Jalics and Yorio have personally accused him of no wrongdoing. Yorio's allegations from 1999 can be explained by his suffering in detention. The former chauffeur Bergoglios testified to Massera in the same process of his commitment to the Jesuit order. The investigating judge German Castelli concluded that Bergoglio had not made himself legally criminal. Historians point to the lack of access to files at the time of the military dictatorship.
A request from Jalics to leave the Jesuit order considers his family to be untrustworthy. According to the Jesuit Order (March 15, 2013), the two Jesuits were never expelled; Yorio resigned voluntarily after his release. Jalics stated on March 15, 2013: He could not say what role Bergoglio had in bringing about the five-month imprisonment. After 1998 he spoke to him and reconciled at a mass. He considers the incident closed. On March 20, he added: Bergoglio did not report her at the time. They were not arrested at the time because of a denunciation, but because of false information in "church circles" that they belonged to the guerrilla and because of their contacts with a catechist who had joined the guerrilla.
In 1979 an official from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Argentina ruled that Bergoglio's application for Jalics to issue a new passport was rejected. As reasons, he cited information from Bergoglio, according to which the community in the poor district was dissolved in February 1976 and Jalics had been imprisoned in the ESMA prison because of contacts with the guerrillas. Bergoglio recommended not to renew Jalics' expired pass. Verbitsky published the document in 2010 as evidence of a "double game" Bergoglio. He said at the trial that he had told the officer that Jalics had been arrested innocently. According to Vatican historian Matteo Luigi Napolitano (March 20, 2013), the 1979 official note does not show that Bergoglio denounced Jalics to the government as “subversive”, but that Jalics and Yorio wanted to resign from the Jesuit order.
In his 2005 book El Silencio , Verbitsky accused Bergoglio of having known about the systematic robbery of newborns, but not doing anything about it. In 2010, Bergoglio received a court order to give evidence of what he knew about the robbery of 500 children of those who had disappeared from the regime. He replied in writing: He only dealt with this topic in more detail at the end of the 1980s and until then had known nothing of the massive kidnapping.
In May 2011, there was a trial in Argentina of military personnel charged with kidnapping pregnant women, child robbery and murder. The prosecution witness Estela de la Cuadra presented a letter from Bergoglio from 1977: The sender had been commissioned by Arrupe to track down Cuadras' kidnapped sister and her child, who was born in custody. He then asked another bishop for help. Cuadra accused him of having known about mass child robbery as early as 1977, but remained inactive and later denied what he knew at the time. Cuadra upheld these allegations after the 2013 papal election.
In 2011, a French court applied to the Argentine judicial authorities to summon Bergoglio as a witness in the case of the murdered priests Gabriel Longueville and Carlos Murias. Both were abducted, tortured, and shot the following day on July 17, 1976. Bergoglio was supposed to uncover knowledge of any archival documents of the Church on the case. He did not comment on it. The request has so far remained unanswered. Also in 2011 it became known that Bergoglio pushed for the beatification of these murdered priests and other murder victims of the junta of 1976 also against conservative bishops.
In 2005 Verbitsky cited as an example of church cooperation with the junta that the Argentine Navy hid 60 ESMA prisoners in a villa near Buenos Aires before a visit by an inter-American human rights commission. A British media report from 2011 claimed that the villa was Bergoglio's holiday home; he arranged the hiding place. Thereupon Bergoglio Verbitsky gave precise reference to trial files from which it emerged that the villa had belonged to the then Archbishop Aramburu and was used by him. Verbitsky announced this on March 14, 2013 and emphasized: Bergoglio had helped him decisively in clearing up the process.
Positive statements from persecuted people
- In 2006, Juan Luis Moyano said that Bergoglio fought in the military for jailed Jesuits.
- In the 2013 papal election, the allegations against him were again publicly discussed. The Argentine civil rights activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel , who was persecuted by the military junta, said on March 14 that many Argentine bishops had campaigned in vain for priests in prison. Some church representatives were accomplices of the dictatorship, "but not Bergoglio."
- Liberation theologian Leonardo Boff also emphasized: "He saved and hid many who were persecuted by the military dictatorship."
- Human rights activist Graciela Fernández Meijide told the daily Clarín on March 15, 2013 that she had received hundreds of testimony while working for an Argentine human rights organization, but no one had mentioned Bergoglio.
- The Briton Robert Cox was the first journalist in Argentina to uncover crimes of the junta in 1976. He was therefore imprisoned in 1977 and followed the conflicts over Bergoglio's behavior in Argentina. He summed up on March 17, 2013: Bergoglio was neither a hero nor an accomplice in the 1970s. During the dictatorship he never spoke out against them and only later found out that he had saved the lives of some priests. As Pope, he will certainly remain aware of this failure.
- On March 17, 2013, the lawyer Alicia Oliveira emphasized: “When the junta was after me, he took my side. I am convinced of Jorge's steadfastness. "
- On March 19, 2013, the priest Miguel La Civita said: Bergoglio had placed him and other employees of Bishop Enrique Angelelli under his protection after his murder by junta supporters in 1976 and hid them in a Jesuit school he ran.
- On March 22, 2013, the Spanish priest Jose Luis Caravias declared: He had worked in the slums of Buenos Aires since 1972. Bergoglio warned him in 1976 that the Alianza Anticomunista Argentina were planning to commit murder so that he could leave the city in good time. That's how he saved his life. To the best of his knowledge, Bergoglio also saved Jalics and Yorio through his tireless efforts.
- On March 24, 2013 Gonzalo Mosca, a former opponent of the dictatorship, testified: Bergoglio had helped him escape via Argentina to Brazil in 1977 by planning the border crossing and providing driver services.
Bishop and Cardinal
On May 20, 1992 Pope John Paul II appointed Bergoglio auxiliary bishop in Buenos Aires and titular bishop of Auca . On June 27, the archbishop of Buenos Aires he gave Antonio Quarracino the episcopal ordination . Co- consecrators were Emilio Ogñénovich , Bishop of Mercedes-Luján , and Ubaldo Calabresi , Apostolic Nuncio in Argentina.
On June 3, 1997 Bergoglio was appointed coadjutor archbishop of Buenos Aires. After the death of Cardinal Quarracino on February 28, 1998, he succeeded him as Archbishop of Buenos Aires. At the same time he was appointed full professor for the faithful of the Eastern Catholic Churches in Argentina. According to Bergoglio's spokesman at the time, Federico Wals, the archdiocese was involved in a financial scandal and in debt. Bergoglio sold their shares in an insolvent credit bank and transferred them to ordinary accounts at two international banks.
In 1999 Bergoglio had the body of the priest Carlos Mugica , who stood up for the poor and was murdered in 1974 at a mass by the Alianza Anticomunista Argentina , solemnly transferred to his slum. Since 2000 he has appeared at annual meetings of the anti-Marxist, spiritual volunteer movement Comunione e Liberazione and promoted a programmatic book by its founder Luigi Giussani . Therefore he was considered close to this movement.
According to Clelia Luro-Podesta (2013), Bergoglio was the only Catholic minister in Argentina to visit her husband, the former bishop Jerónimo José Podestá , when he was dying. Podesta had been suspended from all ecclesiastical offices because of his support for priestly marriage and the ordination of women as well as his attitude critical of the regime. After his death, Bergoglio was again the only Argentine bishop who publicly paid tribute to Podesta's services to the Church.
As archbishop, Bergoglio successfully recruited priests to work in the slums of Buenos Aires, had them work in pairs and thus doubled the number of Catholic parishes there since around 1960 to 20. He often appeared unannounced in the slums, initiated aid projects for drug addicts and tried to protect her from death threats from drug dealers. In doing so, he won enormous sympathy among Argentine slum dwellers. In the economic crisis in Argentina of 2001, in which around 40 percent of the population became impoverished, Bergoglio questioned the free market economy and increasing globalization and called on politicians to put differences aside in favor of a social reconstruction of the economy. He was known for living a humble lifestyle and caring for the poor.
Pope John Paul II appointed Bergoglio cardinal on February 21, 2001 and accepted him as a cardinal priest in the college of cardinals ( titular church of San Roberto Bellarmino ). According to reports from 2002, Bergoglio banned fundraising in Buenos Aires for travel expenses for his inauguration in Rome and urged the Argentines to stay at home and distribute the donations made so far among the poor. Since then, he has been considered a possible candidate for papacy. He always rejected questions about it. In the Roman Curia he was a member of the Congregation for the Clergy , the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Order of the Sacraments, and the Pontifical Commission for Latin America . In the 2005 conclave , Bergoglio is said to have received 40 votes in the third ballot, according to an anonymous cardinal's diary. After that, he is said to have renounced the candidacy and thus made possible the election of Joseph Ratzinger as Pope.
Since 2001, Bergoglio has had several public conflicts with the governments of Argentina. In 2001 he criticized a violent police operation against the grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo . In 2004 he accused Néstor Kirchner of “exhibitionism” in a sermon. In 2007 he refused to stop state aid for the farmers. He castigated corruption and increasing impoverishment and met with prominent members of the opposition.
On November 8, 2005 Bergoglio was elected chairman of the Argentine Bishops' Conference for three years and was confirmed in office on November 11, 2008 for a further three years. At the 5th General Assembly of CELAM , the Council of all Bishops of Latin America and the Caribbean, in Aparecida in 2007, he chaired the drafting committee for the drafting of the final document. He referred to this magisterial document as “ Evangelii nuntiandi Latin America” and stated: “We live in the part of the world with the greatest inequality, which has grown the most and has reduced the misery the least. The unequal distribution of wealth continues and has a situation of social sin can arise that cries out to heaven and the possibilities of a more fulfilling life for so many of our brothers limited. "Since 2008, Bergoglio worked with Fundacion Alameida together, an aid organization for human trafficking and Women threatened with forced prostitution. He publicly accused the police and judiciary of Buenos Aires of corruption on several occasions.
At commemorations for the Falklands War of 1982, Bergoglio took the view of his state in 2009 and 2012 that the Falkland Islands , which were under British sovereignty, were legally part of Argentina. To relatives of fallen soldiers, he called them “our country” and “homeland”, which had been “usurped”.
In 2010 Bergoglio criticized the relocation of corporate profits abroad as a sin. Both capitalism and communism resulted in the rule of money, nepotism and hedonism . Help for the poor should not be institutionalized, but rather given through personal contacts. Charity is often used as an instrument. The best is help from the poor for the poor.
In 2010, the Argentine government, under President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, decided to legally permit same-sex marriage . Bergoglio saw it as a "real and bitter anthropological relapse" and told church circles that it was "a destructive presumption against God's plan" and "an intrigue by the father of lies that tries to confuse or deceive the children of God". Kirchner felt reminded of the " Middle Ages and the Inquisition ". Instead, Bergoglio affirmed a same-sex civil partnership and surprisingly suggested that the Argentine bishops make this compromise offer to the government shortly before the equality law was passed. However, the majority of the bishops rejected it. That was Bergoglio's only defeat in the vote as head of the Bishops' Conference.
In the same year, Bergoglio, as spokesman for the bishops of Argentina, for the first time admitted "mistakes" during the military dictatorship and criticized the mutual violence of the junta and their political opponents. Also in 2012, he criticized priests who refused to baptize their children when they were single mothers . Sacraments should not be used to marginalize vulnerable people for allegedly failing to meet dogmatic or moral conditions. This contradicts the incarnation and way of life of Jesus Christ. The church is not a non-governmental organization or a division of a multinational company; this “neoclericalism” should be ended.
In 2006, Guillermo Marco, Bergoglio's spokesman at the time , is said to have criticized the Pope's quote from Regensburg in an interview : “As soon as one insists on doctrinal differences, there is inevitably a confrontation. When Pope Benedict entered the field of a discussion about the truth, his declaration was unhappy, regardless of whether it was right or wrong. ”This criticism is said to have sparked outrage in the Vatican and calls for Bergoglio to be deposed as cardinal. Bergoglio is said to have canceled a planned trip to the Vatican at short notice. After Bergoglio's election as Pope, a British newspaper claimed that he had criticized his spokesman: Benedict's statement was capable of destroying in 20 seconds the relationship with Islam that Pope John Paul II had carefully built up over 20 years. With the retirement of another Argentine archbishop, the Vatican threatened Bergoglio's removal.
Election to the Pope
After Pope Benedict XVI. resigned on February 28, 2013, the conclave began on March 12 , attended by 115 cardinals. Because of his age and poor health, Bergoglio's chances of voting were considered slim. But on the second day of the conclave he received the necessary two-thirds majority in the fifth ballot and was elected as the 265th successor of Peter.
Francis became the first Pope not born in Europe since Gregory III. (officiated 731-741). In addition, with him for the first time a Jesuit and thus 167 years after the death of the Camaldolese Gregory XVI. (officiated 1831-1846) again Orden member pope. Observers rated this as significant, since in the High Middle Ages popes more often came from large Catholic male orders, but today only just under 15 percent of cardinals belong to one order.
Bergoglio was the first pope to adopt the Latin papal name Franciscus . In German usage, the transliteration "Franziskus" prevailed over the also possible form "Franz". According to the Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi, the trailing ordinal number I, unlike John Paul I , should not be used until another Pope chooses this name.
On March 16, 2013 the Pope declared that he had named himself after Francis of Assisi because Cláudio Hummes had asked him after his election in the conclave: “Do not forget the poor!” For him, Francis is the man of poverty, of peace love and preserve creation. A “poor church for the poor”, its material restraint and more help for the needy should be striven for. The relationship between people and creation is “not very good”.
Cardinal Loris Francesco Capovilla , created by Francis in February 2014 , revealed in an interview with the newspaper Eco di Bergamo on March 13, 2014 that shortly after his election, Francis also toyed with the idea of calling himself John XXIV , in memory of John XXIII , the initiator of the Second Vatican Council . The College of Cardinals had also suggested other names to the newly elected Pope. He could have called himself Hadrian VII , in memory of Hadrian VI. , also a pope of reform efforts of his time. Another option would be the Pope's name Clement XV. been. The name Clemens would have been a kind of "revenge" for the Jesuit Bergoglio, since Pope Clemens XIV banned the Jesuit order in 1773 and now a Jesuit has become Pope.
coat of arms
Francis uses the basic form of the coat of arms of Benedict XVI. back, which shows a simple episcopal miter instead of the tiara . Similar to the crown hoop of the tiara, it is adorned with three golden ribbons connected vertically in the middle. They stand for the unity of ordination, jurisdiction and teaching post of the Pope in the same person.
The shield bears the symbol of the Jesuits: a golden sun with the red monogram of Christ IHS , the H of which is surmounted by a red cross. The three black nails underneath symbolize the Jesuit religious vows of voluntary poverty , celibate chastity and obedience .
The other symbols are similar to those of the archbishop's coat of arms Bergoglio, but with a few differences: star and nard flowers are gold instead of silver; the star is eight-pointed instead of five. It symbolizes Mary (mother of Jesus) , the nard Saint Joseph , the patron saint of the church. This Vatican interpretation was occasionally doubted and declared a translation error; the supposed spikenard is a tuberose .
In contrast to Benedict, the coat of arms does not contain a pallium , but the motto of Archbishop Bergoglio: Miserando atque eligendo ("with mercy and election"). It refers to the calling of Matthew and comes from a sermon by Beda Venerabilis .
On March 15, 2013, Francis called on the College of Cardinals in the Apostolic Palace with “Dear Brothers, go!” To the fraternal, united preaching of the Gospel: “Christian truth is attractive and engaging because it answers the deep needs of human existence.”
At the inauguration service on March 19, 2013, he received the fisherman's ring and the pallium as a sign of the Petrine service. In his sermon he emphasized: “Jesus also gave power to Peter. But what power is it? [...] He has to guard the people, especially the poor, the strangers, the homeless, the naked and the sick. Only those who serve with love can guard and protect. ”He appealed to those responsible in business and politics:“ Let us be 'keepers' of creation, of God's plan embedded in nature, keepers of others, of the environment; let us not allow signs of destruction and death to accompany the journey of this world of ours. ”Solidarity with the poor and the integrity of creation were reported as the main concerns of the sermon.
Participants were representatives from 180 states, 33 other churches and denominations and others from other religions , without a special Vatican invitation . For the first time, Bartholomew I, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople , who represents all oriental churches, took part in the inauguration of a Pope.
On March 23, 2013, Francis met privately with Benedict XVI. in Castel Gandolfo . They did not disclose the content of the conversation. Such a meeting of the Popes had not taken place for over 700 years.
Since taking office, Francis has emerged with particular concerns, behavior, and positions. He emphasizes social justice and has initiated a reform of the Vatican Bank (Istituto per le Opere di Religione) , but represents the conservative line of his predecessors on questions of sexuality.
Appearance and way of life
Francis is considered modest, but also determined and assertive. Before his election as Pope, he was described as an “ ascetic man of God”, “rather quiet intellectual”, “taciturn and media-shy” and aloof from current politics.
Some of the behaviors of Francis after his election have been interpreted as showing humility, a departure from his predecessor's style, and an intention to be a Pope of the Poor and to reform the Curia. In his first appearance on the benediction loggia of St. Peter's, he gave up wearing stole and mozetta greeted with "Brothers and sisters, good evening" and asked before the blessing urbi et orbi , "Before the Bishop blesses the people, I beg you, to call the Lord to bless me. ”He did not use the designated Mercedes with chauffeur, but a bus to drive to dinner, did not sit on the throne chair, and fetched his luggage from the accommodation where he was staying before the conclave had, himself off, paid for his room and walked to the Apostolic Palace. So far he has continued to live in the Vatican guest house Santa Marta , where he and other guests hold morning prayer every day before walking into the palace where his secretaries live. The papal suite there is to be used for representative purposes. As Pope, Francis does not receive a salary. Its expenses are covered by the church.
He continues to wear the iron pectoral cross from his cardinal days, not one made of precious metal. Instead of the papal red shoes, he wears orthopedic black shoes. He left the Pope Paul VI. The popular altar that was introduced and has since been removed will be set up again in the Sistine Chapel on March 14, 2013 and thus celebrated the mass facing the community. Before his inauguration, he drove through St. Peter's Square in an open car. His fisherman's ring is not made of gold , but of gold-plated silver . Before receiving the accredited Vatican ambassadors on March 22, 2013, he celebrated a mass with cleaners, gardeners and employees of the Vatican. He gave several times to a recently appointed before taking office with bulletproof bulletproof glass popemobile , uses a donated used Renault 4 , calling by phone letter writer to, visited the homeless, took spontaneously a friend in the popemobile with and embraced for minutes a incurable neurofibromatosis suffering man. In November 2014, he ordered three showers to be built for the homeless on the streets around St. Peter's Square. On the occasion of his 78th birthday, Pope Francis had hundreds of sleeping bags distributed to the homeless in Rome. Volunteers, including members of the Swiss Guard , distributed 300 sleeping bags printed with the Pope's coat of arms in the Italian capital. Furthermore, as a supplement to other offers for the homeless, which Pope Francis launched, there has been an ambulance with a Vatican license plate since Pentecost 2020, which is only parked around the Vatican for those in need.
Francis has been an honorary member of the Argentine first division soccer team CA San Lorenzo de Almagro since his bishopric and of the German third division TSV 1860 Munich since 2014 . His literary preferences are Friedrich Hölderlin , Jorge Luis Borges and Fjodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski . He appreciates the films of Italian neorealism . He likes the opera and is known as a good swimmer, tango dancer and cook.
Bishop of Rome
Immediately after his papal election, Francis emphasized his office as “Bishop of Rome” with the sentence “The diocese of Rome now has its bishop”, which he holds at the same time as papal office and which justifies this under canon law. He underscored this with an intercession in Santa Maria Maggiore in the inner city of Rome.
On April 8, 2013 he took the Lateran Basilica , his bishopric, with the cross staff of Paul VI. in possession, Benedict XVI. hadn't used it since 2008. He was welcomed as the successor of Peter, who strengthens all brothers in the truth of faith, presides over all churches in “love” and leads everyone on the path of holiness with “sure gentleness”. He said the prayer in the local language, Italian. This has been interpreted as his self-image, power and teaching authority different from previous popes, but similar to Paul VI. not to come to the fore. However, Francis does not question the primacy of the Pope: he does not see himself as the first bishop among equals (primus inter pares) , but wants to promote ecumenism with the title “Bishop of Rome”.
On May 23, 2013 he confirmed the Benedict XVI. appointed Cardinal Agostino Vallini as Cardinal Vicar of the Diocese of Rome. On September 28, 2013, he appointed an eight-member “Council of Cardinals ” to help him with the “government of the universal Church” and to work out with him a “revision project for the Apostolic Constitution Pastor Bonus on the Roman Curia”. The Council of Cardinals, headed by Óscar Rodríguez Maradiaga , met for the first time from October 1 to 3, 2013. On August 31, 2013, Francis accepted the resignation of Cardinal Secretary of State Tarcisio Bertone on October 16, 2013 and appointed the Vatican diplomat Pietro Parolin as his successor.
Reforms in the Vatican
On April 20, 2013, Francis cut the annual grant for the five cardinals who administer the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR, "Vatican Bank"), and special bonuses for Vatican employees for changing pontificate. The amount saved is to be used for social projects. He released the head of the property administration of the Apostolic See , Nunzio Scarano , who had been arrested on suspicion of money laundering and corruption , temporarily replaced the resigned head of the IOR Paolo Cipriani with Ernst von Freyberg and set up a commission to reform the bank by October 2013. The financial consulting firm Promontory Financial Group was commissioned to conduct a comprehensive investigation of all customer contacts of the IOR for money laundering. At the beginning of August 2013, for the first time in history , the Public Prosecutor of the Holy See submitted a request for legal assistance to the Republic of Italy over this money laundering affair .
In January 2014, Francis ended the papal honorary titles of Apostolic Protonotary and Honorary Prelate of His Holiness , which he had suspended since his election as Pope. In addition, he limited the granting of the title of Honorary Chaplain to His Holiness or Monsignor to deserving clergy at least 65 years of age. The titles that had already been awarded were retained.
On February 24, 2014, Francis had a fifteen-member "Economic Council" headed by a cardinal set up for the financial and administrative activities of the Curia, the Holy See and the Vatican City, as well as an " Economic Secretariat " under his direct control. In addition, he announced the appointment of a "general auditor" to carry out the audit of the economic council.
With the establishment of the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life on September 1, 2016 and the Dicastery for Holistic Human Development on January 1, 2017, Francis dissolved a total of six previously existing papal councils. Their areas of responsibility were incorporated into the new dicasteries.
In the General Congregation before the conclave, Francis criticized “ecclesiastical self-centeredness” and “theological narcissism”. The church has to preach the gospel; Jesus Christ himself move them to do so. Evangelization presupposes “apostolic zeal” and “bold freedom of speech” so that the Church “goes out of itself” to the “limits of human existence”: “those of the mystery of sin, pain, injustice, ignorance, the lack of it religious practice, thought and all misery ”. An egocentric church claims "Jesus for its own life and does not let him step outside". A church that believes that it is already the actual light, ceases to be “the secret of light” and only lives “in order to incense one or the other”. On March 17, 2013 he affirmed: “I want a poor church for the poor.” The church is not political, but essentially spiritual. The Catholics must be missionary, also care for the well-being of the people and "like a field hospital after a battle" first heal the "social wounds". This must consistently take precedence over narrow questions of sexual ethics. The faithful wanted shepherds, not “functionaries or state clerics”: this was understood as a criticism of the curia and an intention to reform it.
As a cardinal in 2010, Bergoglio described celibacy , the dutiful celibacy of Catholic priests, not as an article of faith, but as a subordinate norm. He considered permission for regional exceptions to celibacy for cultural reasons to be conceivable, but ruled out a general revocation. As Pope, he affirmed in July 2013 that he, like his predecessor, rejects the ordination of women . But he wanted to strengthen the role of women in the church theologically. On October 8, 2013, he convened a Synod of Bishops on the subject of “Pastoral challenges for the family in the context of evangelization” from October 5 to 19, 2014.
On March 28, 2014, Francis confessed like a simple believer in St. Peter's Basilica and then made confession with 60 other priests of the faithful. In a sermon, he encouraged Catholics to make regular confession in view of the decline in confessional practice and exhorted the priests to take up their role in healing and absolution and to remove obstacles to them.
On April 27, 2014, in St. Peter's Square in Rome, Francis raised his predecessor John XXIII. and John Paul II in honor of the altars . He paid tribute to John XXIII. for his courage to enforce the Second Vatican Council and John Paul II as "Pope of the Family". Both would have restored and updated the "Church according to its original form".
On March 13, 2015, Francis announced an extraordinary Holy Year of Mercy , which was celebrated from December 8, 2015 to November 20, 2016.
Francis denounced the church's involvement in the persecution of witches and the burning of heretics as an injustice. Often in history people have been killed and condemned "although they were innocent: condemned with the word of God against the word of God," he said on Monday in his morning mass on April 11, 2016 in the Vatican. The accused were burned because, in the opinion of the judges, they did not conform to the word of God.
From February 21 to 24, 2019, Pope Francis convened for the first time all chairmen of the 114 bishops' conferences worldwide and around 70 other participants to a conference on sexual abuse in the Church. The purpose of the meeting was to raise awareness that sexual abuse is a crime. At the end of the four-day conference, the Pope said: "No abuse should ever be covered up, as was the case in the past."
Francis affirmed a secularism of the state, unless it is hostile to behave towards the religion and does not exclude religion from the social sphere. State secularity promotes peaceful coexistence between religions if the state respects the religious dimension in society and promotes its concrete expressions without identifying with a specific denomination.
Poverty and social justice
Because of his decades of advocacy for the poor, liberation theologians, representatives of church aid organizations and historians expected from Francis substantial church reforms, strong solidarity with marginalized groups and a sharp criticism of the neoliberal economic model . But he is "not a representative of a current that wants to promote profound changes in social structures".
In July 2013 Francis visited the Italian Mediterranean island of Lampedusa and the reception camp there for poverty refugees from Africa on his first long-distance journey and as the first Pope . He asked for forgiveness for the boat refugees who drowned an average of 1,500 a year during crossings and criticized the “globalization of indifference” against this misery.
At the World Youth Day in Rio de Janeiro in 2013 , he called for the overcoming of social exclusion in a favela, rejected the legalization of drugs and criticized police operations for violent pacification of protests. In church services he called on church officials with a quote from Mother Teresa to “serve Christ in the poor”, visit slums, invite young people to follow Christ even on the margins of society and a “culture of encounter” instead of the “throwaway mentality” “To build a culture. He called on the youth to interfere, as a Christian response to the social and political unrest, to build a just world based on solidarity and, if necessary, to cause unrest in their dioceses as well.
On October 4, 2013, Francis visited Assisi . In the bishop's house, in the presence of the Cardinal Council, he demanded that the Church, like Francis of Assisi, follow a “path of poverty”. Believers who are not prepared to renounce are “confectioners Christians with beautiful cakes, but not true Christians”. The church must refrain from all action that is not “for God and from God”, ie get rid of fear, open gates and meet the poorest. He also recalled the work of Bishop Giuseppe Placido Nicolini for persecuted Jews of Assisi during the Nazi era. In front of 50,000 visitors, including the Italian Prime Minister Enrico Letta , he recalled: The encounter with Jesus had brought Francis of Assisi to give up his “well-off, worry-free life” in order to radically “imitate Christ”. His peace is "no sentimentalism" and no pantheistic harmony . He asked for an end to all armed conflicts and called for people to hear the screams of the suffering and dying, for example in the Middle East.
In his teaching letter Evangelii Gaudium (sections 53-60), Francis unfolded a criticism of the current free market economy: "This economy kills." , “No to the new idolatry of money”, “No to money that rules instead of serving”, “No to social inequality that creates violence”. The criteria of competitiveness and the “law of the fittest” would have excluded large parts of the population from work and life prospects. Humans are only treated as consumer goods and are therefore not just exploited and oppressed, but thrown away like rubbish. The “overflow” theory, according to which economic growth by itself leads to more equality and social inclusion, has never been empirically confirmed. The resulting “globalization of indifference” makes one incapable of compassion for the suffering of others and of care. The deepest cause of the current financial crisis is that the predominance of money is accepted and the primacy of people is denied. Ideologies defending the absolute autonomy of markets and financial speculation and rejecting any state control would have created a growing income gap and a new invisible tyranny. Debts, their interest rates, corruption and tax evasion have assumed global proportions. In this system, “everything weak, like the environment, is defenseless against the interests of the idolized market, which become the absolute rule.” Behind this is the rejection of God because God cannot be controlled and manipulated by market laws, “because he allows people to their fullest Realization calls for independence from any kind of subjugation ”. The economically generated social inequality for its part causes violence "because the social and economic system is fundamentally unjust": "The evil crystallized in the unjust social structures is the reason why one cannot expect a better future." These passages sparked a debate in some western societies.
Like John Paul II , Francis openly opposed the mafia. During a visit to Calabria in March 2014, he set an example against Italy's mafiosi. In June 2014, Francis reaffirmed his stance in this regard with striking words.
Preservation of creation
On the United Nations World Environment Day on June 5, 2013, Francis appealed to "put a stop to the waste and destruction of food". He criticized the general way of thinking of the “throwaway culture” and the power of money - it is not people who rule, but money. He appealed to counteract the culture of wasting and throwing away. In a speech to Brazilian leaders from politics and society in July 2013, Francis called for the protection of the Amazon.
On June 18, 2015, the Vatican published the encyclical Laudato si ' , which deals primarily with environmental and climate protection as well as with problems that are exacerbated by ignoring ecological connections such as social injustice or the exhaustion of natural resources. Based on scientific knowledge, he named humans as the main cause of global warming and many other environmental problems. He called for an end to the use of fossil fuels , especially coal and oil , and declared the energy transition , i. H. the transition to sustainable energy generation in the form of renewable energies , to a moral necessity. At the same time, he spoke out against market-based climate protection instruments such as emissions trading , as he considers them to be unsuitable for bringing about the fundamental change that the current problems required. He also criticizes the looting of valuable resources for economic activities and the resulting loss of biodiversity . B. could represent for medical purposes, were irretrievably lost.
In September 2017, shortly after Hurricanes Irma and Harvey wreaked havoc in the Caribbean and the United States, Francis criticized deniers of man-made climate change . Climate change deniers should “please go to the scientists and get information from them”, they would express themselves “very clearly and precisely”. He also said that one had to be “stupid” and “stubborn” to deny climate change, which was interpreted as an indirect reference to the American President Donald Trump .
In June 2019, Francis declared a global “ climate emergency ” and declared that failure to contribute to greenhouse gas reduction would be “a brutal act of injustice towards the poor and future generations”.
Termination of pregnancy
Francis is a principled opponent of abortion . As a cardinal, he publicly contradicted a ruling by the Argentine Supreme Court in 2012 that exempted abortions after rape , and corresponding follow-up regulations in Buenos Aires. He advocates the Catholic inadmissibility of the use of artificial contraceptive methods . According to a report, however, he should use condoms to prevent epidemic diseases such as HIV such as Benedict XVI. exceptionally allow.
On October 10, 2018, during his weekly general audience in St. Peter's Square , Pope Francis compared abortion to contract killing : "To eliminate a person is like using a contract killer to solve a problem," said the Pope.
Francis sets the measures of Benedict XVI. against Catholic clerics who have committed sexual abuse : As before, priests among the perpetrators should not only be transferred but also dismissed from church service. To do this, he instructed the prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Gerhard Ludwig Müller, in April 2013. He had already represented this line in 2012. In 2014 he set up the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors .
Bergoglio had been known as a strict opponent of same-sex marriage and an advocate of same-sex civil partnership since 2010 . He rejects the adoption of children by homosexual partners as "discrimination" against these children. In July 2013, when asked how he wanted to deal with the " gay lobby", he said: "If someone is gay and seeks the Lord and has good will - who am I to condemn him?" According to the Catechism of the Catholics Church such persons should never excluded, but must be integrated into society; "They should be brothers". Not a homosexual tendency, but the lobbying of homosexuals is a serious problem for him. Lobbies are bad. Experts therefore expected the Catholic Church to be more tolerant in dealing with homosexual priests, but not a change in the Church's teaching that practiced homosexuality was a sin. In March 2014, Francis declared that the Church had to evaluate state regulations with regard to homosexual civil partnerships (e.g. with regard to health insurance). He continued to reject their equality in marriage law.
In September 2013, Francis declared: “We cannot only deal with the question of abortion, with homosexual marriages, with contraceptive methods. […] The church has sometimes let itself be locked into small things, in small regulations. But servants of this church should above all be servants of mercy. ”In doing so, he emphasized the priority of socio-ethical issues over sexual-ethical questions in the church.
During the return flight from his trip to the Philippines, the Pope was asked about the subject of contraception, among other things. Francis' answer to this question was: “Some believe - excuse the phrase - that to be good Catholics we must be like rabbits. No. Responsible parenting is something you have to look for. And I know many permitted methods that have helped. "
In January 2015, Francis was the first Pope to meet a transsexual man, the Spaniard Diego Neria Lejárraga , in an unofficial audience , and a short time later also with a pilgrimage group of around 50 American homosexual Catholics led by sister Jeannine Gramick .
In June 2016, Francis asked his church to apologize for the exclusion and discrimination against homosexuals. In October 2016 he declared that transsexuals should not be marginalized, they should “... be integrated, accompanied and brought 'closer to God' by the congregations. ... That is exactly what Jesus would do today. ”In the documentary film Francesco by director Yevgeny Afineevsky, which premiered in October 2020, about the life and work of the Pope, Francis spoke out in favor of registered partnerships and the associated legal recognition and security for homosexual couples:“ They are children of God and have the right to a family. Nobody should be excluded or unhappy because of something like that. "
Ecumenical and interreligious dialogue
Speaking to representatives of other churches and religions on March 19, 2013, Francis reaffirmed that he would continue the ecumenical and interreligious dialogue in the spirit of the Second Vatican Council . The followers of all religions could together do a lot for the preservation of creation, for the poor and for world peace .
On March 22, 2013, Francis emphasized to the diplomatic corps : His church strives for the well-being of every person, help for those in need in every corner of the world. The “dictatorship of relativism ” (Benedict XVI.), Which is particularly widespread in rich countries, endangers coexistence. Without truth there is no peace, because then everyone only claims their rights without worrying about the common good of all life. He wants to build “bridges to God and between people” through dialogue in order to overcome enmity and competition through brotherhood. To this end, the dialogue between the religions, especially with Islam and non-believers, should be strengthened.
At the 2013 reception of the Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby in Rome, the Pope spoke of the need for Catholics and Anglicans to work together , although the difficulties in ecumenical dialogue have grown. To the delegation of the World Council of Churches who had traveled to Rome , led by Olav Fykse Tveit , Francis spoke of the fact that the separation of Christians should not simply be accepted as a historical fact.
The first foreign visit of the Patriarch of Alexandria and Coptic Orthodox Pope Tawadros II was to the Vatican in 2013. The two church leaders paid tribute to the 40th anniversary of the consensus declaration of 1973, with which the 1,500-year-old mutual condemnation of Catholic and Coptic Christians as heretics was lifted.
On the occasion of the commemorative year "125 years of the Union of Utrecht ", Pope Francis received the Bishops' Conference of the Old Catholic Church in October 2014 , chaired by the Archbishop of Utrecht Joris Vercammen in a private audience. In his address, the Holy Father positively emphasized the role of the International Roman Catholic - Old Catholic Dialogue Commission (IRAD) and called for Catholics and Old Catholics to work together more in the face of the spiritual crisis in Europe.
In November 2014, Pope Francis visited the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Bartholomeos I on the occasion of the St. Andrew's Festival in his Istanbul office, Phanar . In a personal conversation, the great bond between the Catholic and Orthodox Church was emphasized. It was expressly pointed out that since the lifting of mutual excommunication in 1965, great progress has been made in understanding, even though some issues are not yet capable of consensus. In the ongoing discussions of the bilateral commission, there are different views, among other things, on the question of the papal primacy .
In November 2014, the former chairman of the Lutheran World Federation Christian Krause brought the personal invitation to the joint celebrations of the Reformation anniversary. At the end of 2014, the Pope invited the Salvation Army to the Vatican for the first time .
With Pope Francis, relations with the World Evangelical Alliance (WEA) have also deepened. Since the beginning of his term in office, Francis has met repeatedly with representatives of the WEA. The current deputy general secretary of the WEA, Thomas Schirrmacher , is considered a close confidante and friend of the Pope.
On February 12, 2016, Francis met on neutral ground ( Havana airport ) with the Patriarch of Moscow , Kyrill I. It was the first meeting of the heads of both churches since the establishment of the Moscow Patriarchate in 1589/90 or since the meeting of the Pope Eugene IV. With the Moscow Metropolitan Isidore of Kiev at the Council of Ferrara in 1438/39. A joint statement was made at the meeting . Commemorations took place in turn on each anniversary of the historic meeting. In each case, a special aspect was the focus of the reflection. On the fifth anniversary, it was The Church and the Pandemic .
On March 9, 2019, Francis met with the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints , Russell M. Nelson , in the Vatican. This was the first meeting between a President of the LDS Church and a Pope in the history of these two churches.
As archbishop, Bergoglio maintained good relations with the Jewish community in Argentina. After the bombings of the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA) building in 1994, he was the first to sign a petition condemning the attack and demanding that the perpetrators be held accountable. In 2007 he took part in the celebrations of the Jewish festival Rosh Hashanah . He allowed the Argentine branch of the Jewish organization B'nai B'rith to hold their annual commemoration of the "Reichskristallnacht" in 1938 and the Holocaust in Catholic churches in the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires. Bergoglio participated repeatedly in these celebrations and appeared as the keynote speaker on November 12, 2012 in the Cathedral of Buenos Aires .
On June 24, 2013, Francis told the International Jewish Committee for Interreligious Cooperation (IJCIC) that "no Christian could be an anti-Semite" because of the roots of Christianity in Judaism. He was referring to the Vatican declaration Nostra aetate of 1965, which obliges Christians to fight anti-Semitism. He called this a "key to relationships with the Jewish people". The Jewish delegation asked for the canonization of Pius XII. (Pope from 1939 to 1958) until the full opening of the Vatican archives for the Nazi era , which is expected in 2014 .
Dignitaries of Islam in Argentina publicly welcomed Bergoglio's election as Pope. On his inauguration, Francis paid tribute to the many representatives of the Islamic world in front of the diplomatic corps on March 22, 2013. Grand Sheikh Ahmed el-Tayeb , representative of the Sunna , offered him “full cooperation and love” in a letter on March 26, 2013, “in order to secure common values and put an end to the culture of hatred and inequality”.
For Ramadan 2013, Francis sent the Muslims a message of greeting in which he called for the youth of both religions to be educated to show mutual respect. Unfair criticism and slander, ridicule and belittling should be avoided everywhere; you know how painful this is for others. In this way lasting friendship can grow.
In March 2021, Francis met in Najaf with the most important Shiite cleric in what is now Iraq , Ali as-Sistani . Sistani said after the meeting that Christians should live in peace and have the same rights as all other Iraqis. Francis' trip to Iraq was a Pope's first trip there.
In June 2016, Francis condemned the death penalty under any circumstances. In October 2017, he campaigned for the absolute rejection of the death penalty, including within the framework of the catechism. This was changed accordingly on August 2, 2018.
Nuclear weapons and nuclear energy
On his trip to Japan in November 2019, where he also visited Hiroshima and Nagasaki , he called for the worldwide abolition of nuclear weapons , the possession of which he declared to be immoral. Nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction are not an appropriate response to the desire for peace; He described the arms race as a waste of valuable resources that could instead be used for development tasks and environmental protection. In his encyclical Laudato si ', Francis judged the use of nuclear energy as a risky project that could "deeply damage the quality of life [...]". The dangerous nuclear waste contributes to the fact that the earth is "more and more transformed into an immeasurable garbage dump". At a meeting with victims of the nuclear disaster in Fukushima , he expressed concern about the continued use of nuclear energy.
Francis condemned the attack on the satire magazine Charlie Hebdo in January 2015, at the same time he denied satire about religion: "Many people complain about religion, it can happen, but it has limits," said Francis. Every religion has a dignity that one should not make fun of. In order to explain the limits of freedom of expression , he cited insulting his own mother as a vivid parallel. This has been interpreted as an attack on freedom of expression. The editor-in-chief of Charlie Hebdo, Gérard Biard, classified the statements as a restriction of press freedom and nonsense. In this context, Alexander Kissler accused Francis of a latent understanding of the assassins: "In any case, the joke shows a good measure of understanding for the supposed motives of the murderers (...)."
Consecration for women
In his apostolic letter " Evangelii gaudium " he described the "priesthood reserved for men as a sign of Christ the Bridegroom, who gives himself up in the Eucharist", as "a question that is not open to discussion." In the Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation " Querida Amazonia " he stated literally: "Jesus Christ shows himself as the bridegroom of the community celebrating the Eucharist in the form of a man who stands before it as a sign of the one priest." In doing so, contrary to the expectations of some circles, he continued to rule out the ordination of women to priests after this topic had been discussed at the Amazon Synod the previous year .
At the beginning of April 2020, he set up a new study commission, which has to re-examine the possibility of women being admitted to the diaconate . Ten members of the body work under the direction of Cardinal Giuseppe Petrocchi . Five of the commissioners are women engaged in theological science.
Access to the lecturer and acolyte service
With the Motu proprio Spiritus Domini , on January 10, 2021, women were permanently commissioned to serve as lecturers and acolytes under canon law . These official offices ("ministeria") were previously only available to women for a limited period of time.
Allegations and demand for resignation
The British Vatican journalist Christopher Lamb writes in 2020 of more than 100 public attempts to “undermine Francis - an outsider who had never lived or worked in Rome before his election and who dedicated his work to the outsiders and people who have been written off and forgotten by society Has". He names two groups of opponents of the Pope:
- Catholic traditionalists or ultra-conservatives who reject the Pope for allegedly “breaking” with church doctrine, accusing him of not campaigning effectively enough against same-sex marriage, abortion and contraception, and who criticize the “unpopular” style of his administration;
- populist and nationalist politicians (Lamb names the Italian Matteo Salvini , the American President Donald Trump and the Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro ) who do not like a Pope “who repeatedly admonishes to welcome migrants and protect the environment”; the former strategist of President Trump, Steve Bannon , called Francis in 2016 as the "enemy".
One of the loudest and most militant critics and opponents of Pope Francis is the Italian bishop emeritus Carlo Maria Viganò . In connection with the account of sexual abuse from the Cardinal stand retired Washington Old Archbishop Theodore McCarrick and the cover-up scandal involving his offense of August 25, 2018 was at night released a elfseitiges letter of Archbishop Viganò in the United States, in which he claims that Pope Benedict XVI. Imposed severe canonical sanctions against McCarrick and imposed a life of prayer and penance on him, and his successor, Pope Francis, accused him of repealing them in 2013 and making McCarrick one of his advisors, even though he had been informed of McCarrick's offenses by himself . In his letter, he urged Pope Francis and several cardinals to resign from office. Church historians see this as an attempt by Viganò and others to overthrow the Pope.
On October 7, 2018, Cardinal Curia Marc Ouellet sharply criticized Viganò's allegations. In his reply to Ouellet, Viganò again criticized the Pope and described homosexuality in the clergy as a "contagious plague". To complain about victims of abuse , but not to name "homosexuality as the main cause of countless sexual abuse", is "hypocrisy". In 2020 he accused the Pope of apostasy after he had advocated the recognition of homosexual partnerships under civil law. His statements are " heterodox ".
- Meditaciones para religiosos. Diego de Torres, Buenos Aires 1982, ISBN 950-02-1000-2 .
- Reflexiones espirituales sobre la vida apostólica. Diego de Torres, Buenos Aires 1987, ISBN 950-9210-07-2 .
- Reflexiones en esperanza. Ediciones Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires 1992.
- As editor: Diálogos entre Juan Pablo II y Fidel Castro . Dir. Y coor. por JMB Editorial de Ciencia y Cultura, Buenos Aires 1998, ISBN 987-507-074-2 (Spanish; translation of the title: Dialogues between John Paul II and Fidel Castro ).
- Educar. Exigencia y pasión. Desafíos para educadores cristianos. Editorial Claretiana, Buenos Aires 2003, ISBN 950-512-457-0 .
- Ponerse la patria al hombro. Memoria y camino de esperanza. Editorial Claretiana, Buenos Aires 2004, ISBN 950-512-511-9 .
- La nación por construir. Utopia, pensamiento y compromiso. VIII Jornada de Pastoral Social. Editorial Claretiana, Buenos Aires 2005, ISBN 950-512-546-1 .
- Corrupción y Pecado. Algunas reflexiones en torno al tema de la corrupción. Editorial Claretiana, Buenos Aires 2006, ISBN 950-512-572-0 .
- El verdadero poder es el servicio. Editorial Claretiana, Buenos Aires 2007, ISBN 978-950-512-628-6 .
- Conversations with Sergio Rubin and Francesca Ambrogetti: El Jesuita . Javier Bergera Editor, Buenos Aires, Argentina 2010, ISBN 978-950-15-2450-5 .
- German: Pope Francis. My life, my Way. The conversations with Jorge Mario Bergoglio . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2013, ISBN 978-3-451-32708-7 .
- with Abraham Skorka: Sobre el Cielo y la Tierra. Editorial Sudamericana, Buenos Aires 2010, ISBN 978-950-07-3293-2 ( online excerpt ). German edition: About heaven and earth. Jorge Bergoglio in conversation with Rabbi Abraham Skorka. Riemann, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-570-50161-0 .
- Nosotros como ciudadanos, nosotros como pueblo. Hacia un bicentenario en justicia y solidaridad 2010–2016. Editorial Claretiana, Buenos Aires 2011, ISBN 978-950-512-744-3 .
- Mente abierta, corazón creyente. Editorial Claretiana, Buenos Aires 2012, ISBN 978-950-512-778-8 . German edition: Open mind and believing heart. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau [a. a.] 2013, ISBN 978-3-451-32709-4 .
- Lumen fidei (“Light of Faith”, June 29, 2013.) The first encyclical by Pope Francis is based on a draft by Benedict XVI. It was the first time that an encyclical on faith as a whole was published. With this encyclical the Pope confirms his personal loyalty to the faith.
- Laudato si ' (“Praise be to you”, June 18, 2015). German edition: Laudato si: the Pope's environmental encyclical . Complete edition. Paperback. Freiburg i.Br .: Herder, 2015. ISBN 3-451-35000-9 .
- Fratelli tutti (On Fraternity and Social Friendship, October 3, 2020, Pope Francis).
- Evangelii gaudium ("Joy of Good News", November 24, 2013)
- Fidelis dispensator et prudens “On the establishment of a new coordinating body for the economic and administrative affairs of the Holy See and the State of Vatican City”, February 24, 2014
- Apostolic Exhortation for the Year of Consecrated Life , November 21, 2014
- Mitis Iudex Dominus Jesus “On the reform of the canonical procedure for declarations of marriage nullity in the Code of Canon Law”, September 11, 2015
- Amoris laetitia Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation for the Synod of Bishops (October 2014 and October 2015), March 19, 2016 (published April 8, 2016)
- Like a loving mother Motu proprio apostolic letter, June 4, 2016, Procedure for the impeachment of bishops in connection with sexual abuse
- Maiorem hac dilectionem Apostolic Exhortation in the form of a motu proprio on additions to beatification and canonization, July 11, 2017
- Imparare a congedarsi Apostolic letter in the form of a motu proprio, which regulates the age-related resignation procedure of heads of dicasteries and high prelates at the Roman Curia, February 12, 2018.
- Gaudete et exsultate Apostolic Exhortation "On the Call to Holiness in Today's World" March 19, 2018 (published April 9, 2018)
- Aperuit illis Apostolic Exhortation " Inaugurating the Sunday of the Word of God" , September 30, 2019
- Admirabile signum Apostolic Exhortation “On the Significance and Value of the Nativity Scene ” , December 1st, 2019
- Querida Amazonia  Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation to the Special Assembly of the Bishops of Amazonia : “To the people of God and to all people of good will.” Signed February 2, 2020, published February 12, 2020
- Patris corde Apostolic Exhortation “On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the elevation of St. Joseph to the patron saint of the whole Church” , December 8th, 2020
- Antiquum ministerium Apostolic letter in the form of a motu proprio for the introduction of the ministry of catechists, May 10, 2021
- Traditionis custodes Apostolic Exhortation in the form of a motu proprio on the use of the Roman liturgy in the form before the reform of 1970, July 16, 2021
- Antonio Spadaro SJ (Voices of the Time, August 2013): Part I , Part II .
- Eugenio Scalfari (La Repubblica, September 24, 2013): Il Papa a Scalfari: so cambierò la Chiesa "Giovani senza lavoro, uno dei mali del mondo (Italian). German summary
- 2018: Pope Francis - A man of his word ( Pope Francis: A Man of His Word , documentary, director: Wim Wenders )
- 2019: The Two Popes ( The Two Popes , feature film directed by Fernando Meirelles , Francis is portrayed by Jonathan Pryce )
Assignments and Awards
- On November 6, 2014, Pope Francis was awarded the Shahbaz Bhatti Freedom Prize by the Secretary General of the World Evangelical Alliance, Geoff Tunnicliffe (New York), at an audience in the Vatican with representatives of the evangelical umbrella organization.
- The composer Ludger Stühlmeyer dedicated his composition Klangrede - Sonnengesang des Franziskus , for choir ( SATB ), violin and organ ( Suae Sanctitati Papae Francisci de toto corde dedicat ) to Pope Franziskus . The Capella Mariana chamber choir sang the world premiere on October 4, 2015 as part of the Days of New Church Music in Bavaria .
- On May 6, 2016, Pope Francis received the Aachen Charlemagne Prize “because of his outstanding messages and symbols that his pontificate sets for peace and understanding, for mercy and tolerance, solidarity and the preservation of creation”. The prize was not awarded in Aachen , as usual , but in Rome .
- On the occasion of the anniversary of the Reformation , a wind delegation from the Northern Church traveled to Rome in April 2017 , led by state trombonist Martin Huss . During the general audience on April 5, 2017, Pope Francis was presented with the composition Salutatio ad papam . This composition by Claudia Huss was premiered on St. Peter's Square in front of 20,000 listeners as a so-called Pope Tush and broadcast live by Vatican Radio.
- On the 80th birthday of Pope Francis, the Francis Mass for choir and orchestra was created by Sven M. Hellinghausen . The premiere took place in 2017 in St. Peter's Basilica. The composition is divided into the chants Kyrie , Gloria , Sanctus , Benedictus and Agnus Dei .
- In the oratorio Laudato si ' by Helmut Schlegel OFM ( libretto ) and Peter Reulein (music), the figure of Pope Francis appears alongside Maria , Francis of Assisi and Clare of Assisi . In the oratory , Pope Francis builds a bridge from the crucifixion scene on Mount Golgotha to the suffering of the present. He emphasizes female talent and the importance of women's charism for church and society. Texts from the encyclicals Laudato si ' and Evangelii gaudium were used . The motto of the Holy Year of Mercy also plays a central role. The oratorio was premiered on November 6, 2016 in the High Cathedral in Limburg .
- Horacio Verbitsky: El silencio. De Paulo VI a Bergoglio. The relaciones secretas de la Iglesia con la ESMA. ("The silence. From Paul VI. To Bergoglio. The Church's secret relations with ESMA") Sudamericana, Buenos Aires 2005, ISBN 950-07-2035-3 (Spanish).
- Sergio Rubin, Francesca Ambrogetti: Pope Francis. My life, my Way. El Jesuita. The conversations with Jorge Mario Bergoglio. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2013, ISBN 978-3-451-32708-7 .
- Mario Galgano : Francis - The Pope from the other end of the world. A portrait. Sankt-Ulrich-Verlag, Augsburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-86744-245-9 .
- Simon Biallowons: Francis, the new Pope. Kösel, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-466-37092-4 .
- Heiko Haupt: Franziskus - The Pope of the Poor. Riva, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-86883-327-0 .
- Thomas J. Craughwell (Ed.): Pope Francis. The Pope from the End of the Earth. Saint Benedict Press, 2013, ISBN 978-1-61890-136-1 .
- Anna De Simone: Pope Francis , Translation Angela Renis, Brindin Press, UK, 2013, ISBN 978-1-4909-7871-0 .
- Miguel Hirsch: Jorge. Encounters with someone who did not want to become Pope. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2014, ISBN 978-3-451-33456-6 .
- Hans Waldenfels : His name is Franziskus. The Pope of the Poor . Schöningh, Paderborn 2014, ISBN 978-3-506-76639-7 .
- Nello Scavo: Bergoglio's List. Pope Francis and the Argentine military dictatorship. A story of people who disappeared and lives saved . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2014, ISBN 978-3-451-34046-8 .
- Margit Eckholt : A Pope of the People. The Latin American coinage of Pope Francis . In: Theological-Practical Quarterly ThPQ , Volume 163, Pustet, Regensburg 2015, pp. 4–19, .
- Stefan Kiechle : Crossing borders. Pope Francis and his Jesuit roots . Echter, Würzburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-429-03857-1 .
- Erika Rosenberg : When I took the subway with the Pope. Jose Bergoglio from Buenos Aires. Herbig, Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-7766-2753-4 .
- Jörg Ernesti , Martin Lintner, Markus Moling (eds.): Pope Francis: Challenge for Theology and Church Tyrolia, Innsbruck 2016, ISBN 978-3-7022-3503-1 .
- Andrea Tornielli : The name of God is mercy. Kösel, 3rd edition Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-466-37173-0 .
- Norbert Mette : Do not remain indifferent! Pope Francis' social message. 2nd edition, Matthias-Grünewald-Verlag, Ostfildern 2018, ISBN 978-3-7867-4035-3 .
- Jürgen Erbacher : Thinking ahead. Francis as Pope and politician. Patmos Verlag, Ostfildern 2018, ISBN 978-3-8436-1038-4 .
- Paul M. Zulehner / Tomáš Halik (eds.): Pro Pope Francis. Worldwide support for the Pope from the church people . Patmos Verlag, Ostfildern 2018, ISBN 978-3-8436-1115-2 .
- Austen Ivereigh: Wounded shepherd. Pope Francis and his struggle to convert the Catholic Church . Henry Holt and Co., New York 2019, ISBN 978-1-250-11938-4 .
- Andreas English : The pact against the Pope. Francis and his enemies in the Vatican. C. Bertelsmann, Munich 2020, ISBN 978-3-570-10368-5 .
- Franziskus , Internationales Biographisches Archiv 11/2013 from March 14, 2013, in the Munzinger archive ( beginning of the article freely accessible)
- Official website of the Vatican of Pope Francis
- Entry for Pope Francis, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, SJ on catholic-hierarchy.org
- Haunhorst, Regina: Francis. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- "Time": Pope Man of the Year. orf.at, December 11, 2013, accessed on April 28, 2018 .
- Michael Hesemann: Pope Francis . 1st edition. Herbig, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-7766-2724-4 , pp. 225-227 .
- Kristina Puga: The Bergoglios react to having a pope in the family. In: NBS Latinon. Retrieved March 15, 2013 (with family photos).
- Short biography of the new Pope: Pope Franziskus. Vatican Radio, March 13, 2013, accessed March 20, 2013 .
- Francis and the "Theology of the People". Neue Zürcher Zeitung , April 8, 2013, accessed on April 26, 2013 . ; Jorge Mario Bergoglio: Prefacio. In: Silvia Kot (ed.): Ser Católico hoy frente al tercer milenio. Manrique Zago Ediciones, Buenos Aires 1997, ISBN 987-509-019-0 , p. 5.
- Antonio Spadaro SJ, Interview with Pope Francis In: Voices of the Time of September 19, 2013.
- Dirk Schümer: He knows what he's doing . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . No. 63 , March 15, 2013, p. 63 ( Online [accessed March 15, 2013]).
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- Cristian Martini Grimaldi: My pupil Bergoglio. L'Osservatore Romano , accessed on April 26, 2013 (edition 15/2013).
- Barbara Hans : The Surprise Pontiff. In: Spiegel Online . March 13, 2013, accessed May 31, 2020 .
- Francis has lived with reduced lung capacity for 55 years
- Pope Francis “I have consulted a psychoanalyst” , Spiegel Online, September 1, 2017
- Pope Francis sought advice from psychoanalyst , rp-online, September 2, 2017
- Edgar González Ruiz: Cruces y Sombras - perfiles del conservadurismo en America Latina. 2006, ISBN 9968-9664-0-1 , p. 99; Hernán Brienza: Biografía no autorizada de Jorge Bergoglio. ( Memento of February 2, 2003 in the Internet Archive ) Tres Puntos, 2004; Guardia de Hierro. The organización peronista en la que militó Francisco. Tiempo Argentino, March 17, 2013.
- Horacio Verbitsky: Pope Francis. Verbitsky repeats his accusations. LAB (Latin America Bureau) March 27, 2013, archived from the original on September 29, 2013 ; Retrieved April 24, 2013 . , English translation from the Spanish Horacio Verbitsky: Cambio de piel. Página / 12 , April 17, 2013, accessed April 24, 2013 .
- Pope Francis. From the End of the Earth to Rome. Harper, Wall Street Journal, April 2013, pp. 48 f.
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- Oliver Das Gupta: The Argentinian. Süddeutsche Zeitung , March 14, 2013, accessed on March 20, 2013 .
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- Pope Jorge Mario Bergoglio lived as a student in Rothenburg. Tauber-Zeitung , April 10, 2013, accessed on April 10, 2013 .
- “I also know the empty moments.” The Pope in an interview with Giovanni di Lorenzo . DIE ZEIT 11/2017 March 9, 2017 page 13; http://www.sueddeutsche.de/bayern/legende-um-die-knotenloeserin-jetzt-ist-klar-papst-franziskus-war-nicht-in-augsburg-1.3412711 Now it is clear: Pope Francis was not in Augsburg
- Heiko Haupt: Franziskus. The Pope of the Poor. Munich 2013, p. 2009 f .; Simon Biallowons: Francis, the new Pope. Munich 2013, p. 17 f.
- José Pablo Martín: El movimiento de sacerdotes para el Tercer Mundo. Un debate argentino. (Editions 41–42 of Nuevo mundo ) Guadalupe, 1992, p. 97 f.
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- Heiko Haupt: Franziskus. The Pope of the Poor - the exclusive biography. 2013, p. 1988 ff. (Part 1: “The victims and the assessment today”).
- Yorios report from 1999, quoted in: Horacio Verbitsky: La llaga abierta. Page 12, May 9, 1999; Interview excerpts in Horacio Verbitsky: El silencio. De Paulo VI a Bergoglio. The relaciones secretas de la Iglesia con la ESMA. P. 103 ff.
- Silvia Dutrénit Bielous, Gonzalo Varela Petito: Tramitando el pasado. Violaciones de los derechos humanos y agendas gubernamentales en casos latinoamericanos. Koch Media, 2010, ISBN 978-607-7629-28-3 , p. 321.
- Juan E. Mendez: Truth and Partial Justice in Argentina, an Update. Human Rights Watch, 1991, ISBN 0-929692-91-8 , p. 34.
- José María Rosa: Historia argentina. El proceso. (Volume 19) Editorial Oriente, p. 76.
- statement Yorios according to court documents of the Argentine Justice for a lawsuit against torturers of 28 December 2011, p 760 online (PDF; 5.7 MB).
- Francesco Jalics: Ejercicios de contemplación. Introducción a la forma de vida contemplativa ya la invocación a Jesús. San Pablo, 2003, ISBN 950-861-191-X , pp. 140ff; quoted by Horacio Verbitsky: Doble juego. La Argentina católica y militar. Editorial Sudamericana, 2006, ISBN 950-07-2737-4 , p. 73, and after Hilda Marchiori: Victimologia / Victimology. 2008, ISBN 987-1432-10-0 , p. 108. According to note 42, ibid., This information is missing in the Argentine edition of the book by Jalics. - See also Special report: The damning documents that show new Pope DID betray tortured priests to the junta, Daily Mail.uk, March 17, 2013.
- Horacio Verbitsky: El Infierno es poco - El almirante y el cardenal, Pagina / 12, November 9, 2010.
- Francisco Jalics: Ejercicios de contemplación. Introducción a la forma de vida contemplativa ya la invocación a Jesús. (1994), 2nd edition, San Pablo, 2003, ISBN 950-861-191-X , pp. 160 f .; German: Franz Jalics: Contemplative Exercises. 12th edition, Echter, 2009, ISBN 978-3-429-01576-3 . Received in: George M. Anderson: With Christ in Prison. Jesuits in Jail from St. Ignatius to the Present. 2000, pp. 63-65.
- Marie Katharina Wagner: Bergoglio and the military dictatorship. "I will do everything I can to get him out." FAZ, March 16, 2013, accessed on May 14, 2013 .
- Emilio Fermín Mignone: Iglesia y Dictadura. El Papel de la Iglesia a la Luz de Sus Relaciones con el Régimen Militar. (1986) 2nd edition, Ediciones del Pensamiento Nacional, 2006, ISBN 950-581-379-1 , pp. 158-160.
- George M. Anderson: With Christ in Prison. Jesuits in Jail from St. Ignatius to the Present. 2000, p. 17 f. And p. 37, fn. 6.
- Horacio Verbitsky: Con el mazo dando, April 1999; English translation.
- Bernd Pickert: The Pope and the Junta in Argentina: Accomplice or Savior? Taz, March 14, 2013.
- Sam Ferguson: When Pope Francis Testified About the Dirty War In a closed hearing, he disputed accusations of complicity with the junta. New Republic, March 14, 2013.
- Nina Baumann: Riddle about Bergoglio's role in dictatorship - Jesuit priest moves away from his allegations against Pope Francis. Focus, March 15, 2013.
- Michael Warren: Graciela Yorio Accuses Pope Francis Of Abandoning Jesuit Priest Brother During Argentina's Dirty War. Associated Press, April 18, 2013.
- Horacio Verbitsky: El silencio. De Paulo VI a Bergoglio. The relaciones secretas de la Iglesia con la ESMA. Editorial Sudamericana, 2005, ISBN 950-07-2035-3 , pp. 104-106; Horacio Verbitsky: Los signos del cardenal. ( Memento of May 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Página / 12, May 2, 2010.
- Monitor: Habemus papam: The new Pope and the dark years of the dictatorship. ( Memento from March 18, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) WDR, March 14, 2013.
- Sergio Rubin, Francesca Ambrogetti: El Jesuita. Conversaciones con el cardenal Jorge Bergoglio, sj. Vergara & Riba, 2010, ISBN 950-15-2450-7 .
- Anette Langer: The Pope and the Argentine Junta: In the Twilight of the Dictatorship. Spiegel Online , March 13, 2013, accessed April 26, 2013 .
- Philipp Lichterbeck: The two faces of Pope Francis , Der Tagesspiegel from March 15, 2013.
- Francis and the dictatorship. Junta investigators exonerate the Pope. NTV, March 16, 2013.
- Jesuit junta victim Jalics reconciled with Pope. kirchensite.de, March 15, 2013.
- Statement by Father Franz Jalics SJ. ( Memento from May 6, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) German Province of the Jesuits, March 15, 2013.
- Supplementary statement by Father Franz Jalics SJ. ( Memento from March 28, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) German Province of the Jesuits, March 20, 2013.
- Facsimile of the note printed in: Bergoglio - "Mentiras e calúnias" na Igreja argentina. Historia bem Contada, April 12, 2012.
- Matteo Luigi Napolitano: Il Papa, il Nunzio apostolico e la dittatura argentina. ( Memento of March 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Vaticandiary, March 20, 2013; English translation. ( Memento from March 26, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Heiko Haupt: Franziskus. The Pope of the Poor. 2013, p. 2010.
- Jonathan Watts, Uki Goni: New pope's role during Argentina's military era disputed. The Guardian, March 15, 2013.
- Pope silent over French priest's murder in Argentina. Lawyer. Agence French Press, March 14, 2013; Jens Andermann: Is this Pope the best informer of God? Weekly newspaper, March 21, 2013.
- Vladimir Hernandez: Argentina 'Dirty War' accusations haunt Pope Francis. BBC Mundo, March 15, 2013; Michael Warren: Bergoglio OK'd slain priest sainthood cases. ( March 20, 2013 memento on the Internet Archive ) Huffington Post, March 19, 2013.
- Hugh O'Shaughnessy: The sins of the Argentinian church. The Guardian, Jan. 4, 2011.
- Pope Francis' Junta Past: Argentine Journalist on New Pontiff's Ties to Abduction of Jesuit Priests. Democracy Now, March 14, 2013 (video-recorded telephone interview and transcript).
- Jeffrey L. Klaiber: Los Jesuitas en América Latina, 1549-2000. 450 años de inculturación, defensa de los derechos humanos y testimonio profético. Fondo Editorial de la Universidad Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, 2007, ISBN 9972-9995-8-0 , pp. 357 f .; Thomas Reese: Francis, the Jesuits and the Dirty War. NCR, March 17, 2013.
- Pérez Esquivel: "El Papa no tenía vínculos con la dictadura". BBC Mundo, March 14, 2013.
- New Pope. Leonardo Boff defends Francis against allegations of proximity to the junta. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . March 14, 2013.
- Atacan a Bergoglio porque Cristina no quería que for Papa. (PDF; 512 kB) Clarin.com, March 15, 2013.
- Robert Cox: The cardinal's knowing or unknowing surprise. Buenos Aires Herald, March 17, 2013.
- No sólo el Vaticano está muy lejos. clarin.com; Pope. Further relief to the incriminated past. kathweb, March 17, 2013.
- Uki Goni: Pope Francis. What did he really do in Argentina in the 1970s? The Guardian, March 19, 2013.
- Priest says saved by Pope during Argentina 'dirty war' ( Memento of January 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) The New Age, March 22, 2013; Jose Luis Caravias: Bergoglio saved my life. jesuit.ie.
- Uruguay / Argentina. Bergoglio was an escape helper. Vatican Radio, March 24, 2013.
- Andrea Gagliarducci: Financial decisions key factor in Pope's reform drive. Catholic News Agency, Vatican City, April 17, 2013.
- Bartsch, Ehlers et al .: The nearable. Der Spiegel , March 18, 2013, accessed on March 28, 2013 .
- John L. Allen: Profiles. New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, what runner-up in 2005 conclave. National Catholic Reporter, March 3, 2013.
- Roly Villani: Francis “will be a great Pope”. Clelia Luro de Podesta weighs in on the new pontiff. Tiempo Argentino, March 17, 2013.
- Stella Calloni: acusado de tener vínculos con la dictadura; la derecha lo defiende. Jornada, March 16, 2013.
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- Argentine cardinal emphasizes humility, shuns the limelight, even cooks for himself. ( December 22, 2015 memento on the Internet Archive ) AP / North County Times, April 12, 2005.
- Jorge Mario Bergoglio is Pope Francis. ( Memento of April 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) German Bishops' Conference.
- Sandro Magister: Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Profession: Servant of the Servants of God. L'espresso 49/2002.
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- The way of friction with the Kirchners. Clarin, March 19, 2013.
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Archbishop of Buenos Aires
|Mario Aurelio Poli|
|Eduardo Vicente Mirás||
President of the Bishops' Conference of Argentina
|José María Arancedo|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Bergoglio, Jorge Mario; Bergoglio SJ, Cardinal Jorge Mario; Bergoglio SJ, Jorge; Franciscus|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Argentine religious, 266th Pope, Bishop of Rome, head of state of the Vatican|
|BIRTH DATE||December 17, 1936|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Buenos Aires , Argentina|