mother Teresa

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saint Teresa of Calcutta
Mother Teresa (1986)
Mother Teresa (1986)
Born August 26, 1910 ( Üsküb , Ottoman Empire )
Deceased September 5, 1997 ( Calcutta , India )
beatification October 19, 2003 by Pope John Paul II.
canonization September 4, 2016 by Pope Francis
Place of worship Mother House of Missionaries of Charity
Mother Teresa's signature

Mother Teresa ( Saint Teresa of Calcutta ; * August 26, 1910 as Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu [ ˈanjez gonˈʤe bɔˈjaʤiu ] in Üsküb , Ottoman Empire (today Skopje, North Macedonia ); †  September 5, 1997 in Calcutta , India ) was an Indian nun and missionary . She became known worldwide through her work with the poor , homeless , sick and dying , for which she received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 . In the Catholic Church , Mother Teresa is venerated as a saint . Her work and her person are controversial because of, among other things, the social and hygienic conditions in the dying houses as well as their assumed actual motivation for proselytizing and not for helping.

life and work

Early years and education

Mother Teresa was born as Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu on August 26, 1910 in Üsküp (today Skopje) in the Ottoman Empire, in what is now North Macedonia .

Nikollë Bojaxhiu, father of Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu

Gonxha grew up as the child of a wealthy Catholic Albanian family with her sister Aga and her brother Lazar. Her father Nikollë Bojaxhiu, a merchant, is originally from Mirdita , a region in northern Albania , and lived for many years in Prizren , and her mother Drane (née Bernai) from Novosella, a village near Gjakova in Kosovo . Gonxha received her schooling at a Catholic girls' school in Shkodra . When she was eight years old, her father died suddenly; she then devoted herself even more to the faith. At the age of twelve she decided to live as a religious and at the age of 18 asked for admission to the novitiate of the Loreto Sisters . The Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary , an Irish branch of the English Misses (IBMV) , were particularly involved in education in Bengal . First she was sent to the mother house of the Loreto Sisters in Ireland , but after two months she was sent to Bengal.

Her novitiate took place in the city of Darjeeling since 1929 . When dressing , with reference to St. Therese von Lisieux gave the religious name Teresa . She made her profession in Calcutta and worked there for seventeen years at St. Mary's School , where she first worked as a teacher and later as headmistress.

Work in india

On a trip through Calcutta on September 10, 1946, when she saw a crucifix , she felt the calling to help the poor. In her diary she described this experience as a mystical encounter with Jesus, who asked her with the words “I thirst” to serve him in the poorest of the poor. She sought permission to that exam to leave the Loreto Sisters for this apostolate temporarily, but this was only two years later. Mother Teresa was initially exclaustrated , i. H. she was allowed to leave the cloister, but remained a nun . From then on, Mother Teresa lived in Calcutta, where she initially worked alone until some former students joined her. A well-known portrait in Life magazine earned her the nickname “Saint of the Gutter”.

“Mother Teresa was always very natural and very nice. [...] I met her [...] in 1929. There was nothing special about her then. She was just a plain, normal girl. Very gentle, full of joy. Had fun in everything that happened. At that time there was nothing to suggest that she would ever leave Loreto, absolutely nothing. We never thought that she would achieve so much one day. "

- Sr. Marie-Thérèse Breen : Mother Teresa, biography of Navin Chawla

Mother Teresa took Indian citizenship in 1947 shortly after India gained independence . She spoke fluent Bengali at the time . In 1950 she founded the Community of Missionaries of Charity , who lived according to the evangelical counsels . Later the religious community received papal approbation . The religious order cares for the dying, orphans , homeless and sick people, but their special commitment lies in the care of lepers . Today more than 3,000 religious sisters and more than 500 friars in 710 houses in 133 countries around the world belong to the Missionaries of Charity. Mother Teresa received numerous awards for her work. The most important were the 1978 Balzan Prize for Humanity, Peace and Fraternity among the Nations and the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize .

In her speech at the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony, Mother Teresa described abortion as the "greatest destroyer of peace":

“The greatest destroyer of peace today is the cry of the innocent, unborn child. If a mother can murder her own child in her own lap, what worse crime is there than if we kill each other? ... But today millions of unborn children are being killed and we say nothing. ... For me, the nations that have legalized abortion are the poorest countries. They fear the little ones, they fear the unborn child. "

“They [the lepers] suffer most from the fact that they are feared by everyone and that they are not wanted anywhere. My sisters and I try to give them another life, a second life so to speak. We have built many treatment and rehabilitation centers in India. There they can work with dignity. You don't have to beg. We are in very close contact with them and give them loving care. We want these people to feel loved too. "

- Mother Teresa : Mother Teresa, biography by Navin Chawla

In response to allegations that her employees often lack medical training, Mother Teresa replied: "It is not success, but faithfulness that is important."

The diary notes and letters from Mother Teresa, published in 2007 by Brian Kolodiejchuk, the postulator of her beatification process , show that she was in a crisis of faith for decades. Her doubts about the existence of God set in soon after her religious community was founded and did not leave her until her death. So she writes: “Inside of me it is ice cold” or “The souls no longer attract me - the sky means nothing anymore - for me it looks like an empty place.” Faith difficulties arise (“dark night of the soul”), however also with other saints .

Death and beatification

Oil painting by Żaba for the Bethlehem House of the Missionaries of Charity in Hamburg-St. Pauli (Żaba 2010)

Mother Teresa died on September 5, 1997; on September 13, 1997, she was buried in Calcutta with a state funeral and, at her request, was buried in the monastery she had founded with great sympathy from the global public.

The beatification process began in June 1999 with special permission from Pope John Paul II , since such a process is usually initiated after five years at the earliest. The hitherto shortest beatification process of modern times ended with the beatification of Mother Teresa on October 19, 2003. Her commemorative day in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church is September 5.


In 2002 Pope John Paul II recognized the healing of an Indian woman from a large tumor on her stomach as a miracle . Some doctors had no medical explanation for the healing of the woman who had a picture of Mother Teresa placed on her stomach. According to Serge Larivée, the head of a study that critically examined Mother Teresa in 2013, the treating doctors came to a different conclusion: After that, Besra did not suffer from cancer, but from an abdominal cyst in connection with tuberculosis, which successfully had been treated with medication. In December 2015, the healing of a Brazilian from several brain tumors in 2008 was classified as a miracle by an ecclesiastical commission of experts and officially recognized as such by Pope Francis . The relatives of the man had asked Mother Teresa for help and a medical expert commission had described the healing as scientifically inexplicable. With this second miracle recognized by the Church, she met the criteria for canonization . The canonization was proclaimed on the day before their liturgical memorial day by Pope Francis on September 4, 2016 in St. Peter's Square in Rome and was considered one of the highlights of the proclaimed Holy Year of Mercy .


Mother Teresa's work is controversial for several reasons. The social conditions in the death houses are mentioned as the main points of criticism. According to the critics, the sick suffered from the hygienic conditions there and received inadequate medical care, which is why many died who could have been saved. Another main allegation is the motivation of Mother Teresa, who, according to her own statements, gave proselytizing priority over humanitarian aid.

Social conditions in the houses of death

According to Robin Fox and Dave Hunt, the patients in the death house were often housed in large numbers on primitive cots in a confined space and the food supply was not always guaranteed to the necessary extent. Many of the houses donated to the order were originally well equipped, but were redesigned by Mother Teresa's order with regard to extreme simplicity and poverty (among other things, existing mattresses were disposed of). There was also little or no heating. Hunt also accuses her of a lack of transparency in dealing with the media, in the information about the use of donations and the refusal to return illegal donations. In addition, the dying were often baptized without their consent .

The author of Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict (2002), Aroup Chatterjee , doubts the efficiency of the aid work in Calcutta in an interview ("36,000 sick people she picked up from the streets. I didn't find a single person to whom this happened [...] Ambulances of the order have been converted to the transport service for the sisters, and when they called for help the order referred to the ambulance of Calcutta. "). In addition, according to Chatterjee, easily curable patients from the house where they died were not always admitted to a hospital, but sometimes it was possibly harmed by the treatment, for example through the use of non-sterilized, reused syringes. Furthermore, the administration of painkillers is said to have been prohibited. According to Mother Teresa, a special closeness to Jesus Christ can be experienced through suffering, so pain and suffering should be assessed positively. According to Serge Larivée , shortly before her death, she used palliative medical methods to alleviate her suffering.

A 2013 study by three researchers from the Universities of Montreal and Ottawa concluded that donation income had not been managed transparently. Therefore, the question arises, where have millions of donated dollars gone. The study doubts that Mother Teresa's reputation as the selfless savior of the poor is true, and claims it was the result of a deliberate church publicity campaign.

Social environment

From around 1970, initiated by Malcolm Muggeridge's hagiographic work, Something Beautiful for God: Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1971), the media began to elevate Mother Teresa to a saint. According to Bishnupriya Ghosh, the myth that had formed around her soon put her actual work in the shade. In West Bengal the Communist Party ruled around this time , which tried to free the poor from their economic dependence on local elites through agricultural reforms. Instead of supporting the lower classes in their struggle for independence, Mother Teresa's individual-religious promises of salvation supported the anti-communist counter-movement. This went hand in hand with the rejection of progressive social and socialist movements by the Vatican, as they emerged with the liberation theology in South America and in other parts of the Third World . The fact that the Catholic “Church of the Poor” in South America rejected Mother Teresa's organization was not mentioned in public.


Mother Teresa is accused of having accepted money in large quantities regardless of where it came from, even from dubious sources. Her sponsors included, for example, the athlete and banker Charles H. Keating (1923–2014), who was a central figure in the savings and loan crisis in the United States in the 1980s . When Keating was charged with illegal business practices and fraud in 1992 , Mother Teresa sent a letter of support for her friend to the court praising him as a benefactor and declaring herself ignorant of business matters. Her asserted political neutrality also contradicted the lecture tour that she held in Ireland in 1995 to argue against the planned abolition of the current ban on divorce . The proponents of the abolition ultimately won a referendum by a narrow majority.

Religion and motivation

Christopher Hitchens published in 1995 in The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice a comprehensive criticism with the core statement that Mother Teresa was less about helping the poor and sick, but about spreading her fundamentalist Catholic faith. Mother Teresa put it differently: “Acts of charity are always a means of drawing closer to God.” In countless comments, Mother Teresa expressed the attainment of holiness and unity with Christ as her main personal goal. She did exactly what the Catholic doctrine had to do to achieve holiness: social engagement, religious rituals and asceticism. Susan Kwilecki and Loretta S. Wilson see this as a purposeful, rationally planned approach that stands in contrast to alleged selflessness. The practical result of this endeavor was that Mother Teresa did not use her donations to create hospitals or old people's homes that meet today's quality requirements, but rather primitive, monastery-like mass accommodation, in which assistance was linked to a strict set of ritualized rules. Mother Teresa declared such asceticism to be a prerequisite for holiness. Their profit does not seem to have been of a financial nature, but rather the godliness striven for for themselves and their helpers.

According to Kwilecki and Wilson, Mother Teresa advocated the teaching of the Catholic Church on the use of contraception and the prohibition of abortion, and gained influence through her conversations with statesmen and eminent figures at conferences around the world as an ambassador of Papal Catholic values. This calculated influence is opposed to self-characterization as a compliant tool of God. In individual cases, Mother Teresa put the uncompromising asceticism based on her faith above the needs of the Missionaries of Charity, for example when she refused to accept a large building in the New York borough of Bronx as a gift to set up a shelter for the homeless. Because the city administration made the installation of an elevator for the disabled and Mother Teresa refused, the entire project was abandoned. She justified these decisions with the words: "God did not call us to be successful, but to be believers."

Awards and honors

Mother Teresa receiving the Medal of Freedom from President
Ronald Reagan in 1985
Mother Teresa Memorial House in Skopje

The asteroid (4390) Madreteresa , discovered on April 5, 1976, was named after her in 1998.

In Albania, Mother Teresa's beatification day is celebrated as a national holiday, on which authorities and schools are closed. The government donated a Mother Teresa order. In 2003, Tirana Airport was named after Mother Teresa on the occasion of her beatification.

The Teresa of Calcutta Church in Bolzano- Firmian

In Skopje there is a memorial near the house where she was born, and a museum that opened in 2009, the Mother Teresa Memorial House. Other monuments can be found in Albania and Kosovo, as well as in various cities with large Albanian populations in North Macedonia and South Serbia.

On the tenth anniversary of her death, statues were inaugurated in front of the airport in Tirana , Albania, and in Manchester by the Albanian community in England (in the church of Gorton). In October 2012, a statue and a square were also named in her honor in Budapest .

2010 was the patron saint of Mother Teresa at their 13th anniversary, the Mother Teresa Cathedral in Pristina (Kosovo) ordained .

In 2012, a newly built Teresa of Calcutta Church was consecrated in the Bolzano district of Firmian.

Publications (selection)

  • Words of Love , introduction by Malcolm Muggeridge (orinal title: A Gift for God, translated by Franz Johna). Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau, Basel, Vienna 1977, ISBN 3-451-17974-1 .
  • What matters is the heart. Prayers, thoughts, meditations. Benno, Leipzig 2004, ISBN 3-7462-1739-3 .
  • My life with the poor , with the most important original texts, selected and introduced by Marianne Sammer, Patmos, Ostfildern 2011, ISBN 978-3-491-72567-6 .
  • Be kind and merciful, words from Mother Teresa , edited by Roswitha Kornprobst, Missio Aachen, Butzon & Bercker, Kevelaer 2016, ISBN 978-3-7666-2289-1 .


  • Klaus Vetter (script and direction): Mother Teresa or the freedom to be poor , Catholic. Filmwerk, Frankfurt / M. 1975 (videocass., VHS, 45 min.)
  • Kevin Connor (director): Mother Teresa, in the name of the poor of God , 1997 (videocass., VHS 93 min .; DVD 2015)
  • Christopher Hitchens (author): Hell's Angel: Mother Teresa , 1994 (TV documentary, English, 30 min.)
  • Maria Magdalena Koller : (Director): Mother Teresa: Saints of Darkness , Austria 2010 (TV documentary, 51 minutes)
  • Marcel Bauer : The Testament of Mother Teresa , Germany 1996 (TV documentary, 45 minutes)
  • Michael Mandlik (Author): Mother Teresa. A nun's legacy. Portrait , Germany 2003 (TV documentary, 30 minutes)
  • Orlando Corradi and Jon Song Chol (directors): Madre Teresa , Italy / North Korea 2010 (animation film, 90 min.)
  • Mother Teresa's difficult legacy . In: Deutsche Welle . The documentary paints a new and unadorned picture of Mother Teresa's work (TV documentary, 2015, 45 minutes).


  • Renzo Allegri: Mother Teresa. A life for the poorest of the poor . 3rd edition of the revised and expanded new edition, Neue Stadt Verlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 978-3-87996-732-2 .
  • Wolfgang Bader: Passage. Mother Teresa's treatment of the dying . Neue Stadt Verlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 978-3-87996-591-5 .
  • Aroup Chatterjee: Mother Teresa. The Final Verdict. Meteor Books, Kolkata 2003, ISBN 81-88248-00-2 (a critical examination of Teresa's life and work by an author from Calcutta, English).
  • Shane Claiborne: I must be crazy to live like this. Uncompromising experiments in matters of charity. (Original title: The Irresistible Revolution translated by Wolfgang Schrödter). Brunnen, Gießen / Basel 2007, ISBN 978-3-7655-3935-0 .
  • Werner Ludwig Fischer: Mother Teresa of Calcutta, a model of holiness of contemporary Catholicism Frankfurt am Main 1984, DNB 841052689 (Dissertation University Frankfurt am Main 1984, 256 pages)
  • Norbert Göttler: Mother Teresa. (rororo monograph 50705) Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-499-50705-2 .
  • Christopher Hitchens : The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice . Verso Books, London 1995, ISBN 1-85984-929-6
  • Christopher Hitchens: Mother Teresa - a media saint. Severity for the poor, leniency for the rich. In: Die Tageszeitung , November 15, 1996
  • Brian Kolodiejchuk (Ed.): Come, be my light. The Secret Records of the Calcutta Saints. (Original title: Come Be My Light translated by Katrin Krips-Schmidt). Pattloch Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-629-02197-7 .
  • Susan Kwilecki, Loretta S. Wilson: What Mother Teresa Maximizing Her Utility? An Idiographic Application of Rational Choice Theory . In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion , Vol. 37, No. 2, June 1998, pp. 205-221
  • Serge Larivée, Carole Sénéchal and Geneviève Chénard: Les côtés ténébreux de Mère Teresa. In: Studies in Religion / Sciences Réligieuses of January 15, 2013 (French; table of contents in English and French here ).
  • Colette Livermore: When God's children are silent. Why I left my order and how I found mercy (Original title: Hope Endures by William Heinemann, Random House Australia Pty Ltd., 2008; translated from English by Elfriede Peschel). Blanvalet Verlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-442-37489-2 .
  • Leo Maasburg : Mother Teresa. The wonderful stories , Pattloch, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-629-02248-6 .
  • Malcolm Muggeridge: Mother Teresa. Life and work of the Nobel Peace Prize laureate (= Herder Library , Volume 628). 12th edition. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1979 (original title: Something beautiful for God ), ISBN 3-451-07628-4 (preface by Georg Hüssler).
  • Thomas T. Mundakel: The angel of the poor. Mother Teresa, the biography (translated from the English original by Klaus Kreitmeir). Pattloch, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-629-01677-4 (the Indian author Ṭi. Ṭi. Muṇṭaykkal is a teacher at Ramagiri High School, Kerala ; social worker and writer ( Malayalam )).
  • Wolf Oschlies : Mother Teresa. The youth in Skopje. Wieser, Klagenfurt / Celovec 2009, ISBN 978-3-85129-828-4 .
  • Pier Paolo Pasolini : The Breath of India (travel report) (Original title: L'odore dell'india . Longanesi & C. Editori, Milano 1962. Translated by Toni Kienlechner), German first edition, Beck and Glückler, Freiburg im Breisgau 1986, ISBN 3- 924175-23-3 .
  • Albert Ramaj : Mother Teresa of Calcutta is Gonxhe Bojaxhiu from Skopje . On the family history of Mother Teresa. In: Thede Kahl, Izer Maksuti, Albert Ramaj (eds.): The Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia. Facts, analyzes, opinions on interethnic coexistence (= Vienna Eastern European Studies Volume 23). Lit, Vienna / Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8258-0030-X , pp. 39–64.
  • Marianne Sammer: Mother Teresa. Life, work, spirituality. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-53605-0 .
  • Gunnar Schedel: The godless Teresa. Of mothers and fairy tales . In: Marvin Chlada , Gerd Dembowski (ed.): The new saints 2. Reports from the media heaven . Alibri, Aschaffenburg 2001, ISBN 3-932710-35-5 .
  • Tiziano Terzani : A first class saint . In: Der Spiegel . No. 47 , 1996, pp. 184–196 ( online - November 18, 1986 , on the controversy surrounding Mother Teresa by the former Spiegel expert on Asia).
  • Lucinda Vardey (Ed.): The Easy Way. (Original title: A Simple Path translated by Sabine Schulte), Bastei-Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1997, ISBN 3-404-61399-6 .
  • Ulrike Witten: Diaconal learning based on biographies: Elisabeth von Thüringen , Florence Nightingale and Mother Teresa , EVA, Leipzig 2014, ISBN 978-3-374-03884-8 (Dissertation University of Leipzig 2012/2013, 407 pages).
  • Claudia Zankel (Ed.): Life to love. Annual reading book. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau / Basel / Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-451-27018-8 .
  • Stefan Zekorn , Markus Trautmann (ed.): Witnesses of faith in Kevelaer - Mother Teresa . Butzon & Bercker, Kevelaer 2007, ISBN 978-3-7666-0986-1 .

Web links

Commons : Mother Teresa  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. [1]
  2. a b Vatican: Mother Teresa of Calcutta. Retrieved February 1, 2011 .
  3. Saimir Lolja: Nënë Tereza, katër Vjet më pas .
  4. Lolja, Saimir (2004). Nënë Tereza, një vit më pas: In memoriam. Panorama No. 739, pp. 1-8.
  5. ^ The different Loreto sisters according to orden-online
  6. Around 20 years after the death of Mother Teresa: The controversial "Angel of the Poor". In: . Retrieved September 4, 2016 .
  7. a b Jan Roß : Diary: No love, no faith . In: Die Zeit , No. 38/2007, p. 57.
  8. Navin Chawla: Mother Teresa. The authorized biography , Goldmann, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-442-12488-3 , p. 41
  9. Navin Chawla: Mother Teresa. The authorized biography , Goldmann, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-442-12488-3 , p. 14
  10. Sieberer, Christian: Mother Teresa and Brother Roger, Chapter XIII. Retrieved on 2012-10-29,
  11. Speech at the award ceremony of the Nobel Peace Prize: December 10, 1979, Oslo, Norway .
  12. Navin Chawla: Mother Teresa. The authorized biography , Goldmann, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-442-12488-3 , p. 13
  13. RP ONLINE: Letters published to confessor: Mother Teresa had lost her faith. Retrieved July 10, 2017 .
  14. David van Biema: Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith. on: .
  15. Miracle puts Mother Teresa on saintly path in: The Guardian , December 21, 2002, accessed December 18, 2015
  16. a b Michael Remke: The dark side of Mother Teresa in: Die Welt, March 7, 2013, accessed on September 5, 2016
  17. Die Welt: Mother Teresa Still Missing a Miracle to Holiness , August 25, 2010
  18. Mother Teresa to become saint after Pope recognises 'miracle' - report in: The Guardian, December 18, 2015, accessed December 18, 2015
  19. Mother Teresa is canonized in: Die Zeit , December 18, 2015, accessed December 18, 2015
  20. Pope canonise Mother Teresa on Tagesschau online, September 4, 2016, accessed on September 4, 2016
  21. Mother Teresa will be canonized in September on Tagesschau online, March 15, 2016, accessed on March 15, 2016
  22. Vatican: Mother Teresa is canonized . In: The time . ISSN  0044-2070 ( online [accessed March 15, 2016]).
  23. Hellmuth Vensky: Mother Teresa - Saint or Angel of Death? Die Zeit, August 26, 2010
  24. Volker Pabst: Canonization of Mother Teresa: The Immaculateness of the Saints In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung of September 1, 2016
  25. Robin Fox: Mother Theresa's care for the dying , in: The Lancet , September 17, 1994; 344 (8925), pp. 807-808, PMID 7818649 .
  26. a b Dave Hunt: The Tragedy of Mother Teresa , CLV 1999 ( excerpt with sources )
  27. Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict (first three chapters online)
  28. a b c Interview with Aroup Chatterjee. In: Frankfurter Rundschau , September 5, 2007, p. 48.
  29. Study scratches the myth of Mother Teresa “Everything but no saints”. Süddeutsche Zeitung, March 8, 2013
  30. Mother Teresa prayed instead of helping. in: 20 Minuten Online from March 5, 2013, accessed on March 6, 2013
  31. Mother Teresa: anything but a saint ... ( Memento from April 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: Université de Montréal Nouvelles , March 1, 2013, accessed on March 6, 2013
  32. ^ Bishnupriya Ghosh: Global Icons: Apertures to the Popular. Duke University Press, Durham 2011, p. 298, ISBN 978-0-8223-5016-3
  33. Christopher Hamilton: Raimond Gaita on Saints, Love and Human Preciousness . In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice , Vol. 11, No. 2, Springer, April 2008, pp. 181–195, here p. 185
  34. Vijay Prashad: Mother Teresa: Mirror of Bourgeois Guilt. In: Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 44/45, 8-14. November 1997, pp. 2856-2858
  35. ^ Bruno Maddox: Books in Brief: Nonfiction. New York Times, Jan. 14, 1996
  36. "Works of love are always a means of becoming closer to God." Quoted from Susan Kwilecki, Loretta S. Wilson, 1998, p. 211
  37. Susan Kwilecki, Loretta S. Wilson, 1998, pp. 212f
  38. Susan Kwilecki, Loretta S. Wilson, 1998, pp. 215, 218
  39. Minor Planet Circ. 31609
  40. "Ndahet nga jeta kreu i Partise Komuniste Hysni Milloshi." Bota Sot , October 27, 2012, accessed October 27, 2012 (Albanian).
  41. Serbia: Mother Teresa Church in Kosovo ,, September 5, 2010
predecessor Office successor
- Superior General of Missionaries of Charity
Nirmala Joshi