Alfred Hermann Fried
Alfred Hermann Fried (born November 11, 1864 in Vienna , Austrian Empire ; † May 4, 1921 there ) was an Austrian pacifist and writer. As the founder of the magazine Die Waffen Down! and other activities for peace received Fried in 1911 together with the organizer of the International Conference for Private Law at The Hague , Tobias Asser , the Nobel Peace Prize .
Alfred Fried was born in Vienna into a Jewish family. His parents were the private civil servant Samuel Fried and his wife Bertha née Engel. Their parents were the businessman Leopold Engel († 1877, Vienna) and his wife Babetta nee Weiss († 1870, Vienna), both buried in the Jewish cemetery in Währing . Fried's aunt Kathinka Engel married the writer Ludwig Ganghofer . The important Wiener Salonblatt belonged to his uncle Moritz Engel . Fried married three times: in the first marriage Gertrud Gnadenfeld, in the second marriage Martha Holländer (the sister of Felix Hollaender ) and in the third marriage, 1908, Therese Frankl (née Vollandt), the ex-wife of his school friend Paul Franken (pseudonym for Siegfried Frankl), who wrote a detailed article on the tenth anniversary of Fried's death in “ Wiener Tag ” in 1931 .
life and work
Alfred Fried attended school until he was 15 years old. After training as a bookseller, he worked in this profession in Berlin from 1883 . From 1888 to 1895 he was the owner of the publishing house that bears his name (initially together with Jacques Gnadenfeld). Later he started to publish himself. He became a pacifist in 1881 through an exhibition of war paintings. Ten years later he began to devote himself intensively to peace propaganda.
From 1892 he and Bertha von Suttner gave up the pacifist magazine Die Waffen! out. He articulated his pacifist ideas in it and in the journal Die Friedens-Warte, which appeared in 1899 . After he had co-founded the German Peace Society in 1892 , his goal was to create an international organization for peacekeeping. From 1894 he was a regular visitor to the international peace congresses and interparliamentary conferences in Brussels , Budapest , Kristiania and Vienna. He prepared reports for the German-language press and distributed them. From 1896 to 1900 he edited the monthly peace correspondence , which served as the magazine of the German Peace Society, and in 1899 became editor of the magazine Die Waffen Nieder! In 1899 he set up the rally committee for the peace conference in Berlin and in 1902 he was present at the opening of the War and Peace Museum in Lucerne . From 1903 he was a member of the International Peace Institute. Since February 9th, 1908 he belonged to the Freemason Lodge Socrates in Pozsony .
Fried was also a committed member of the Esperanto movement . In 1903 he published the textbook of the international auxiliary language Esperanto . In 1911 he founded the Association for International Understanding with Otfried Nippold . During the First World War , Fried, "besieged by German censorship", sought refuge in Switzerland with the Friedenswarte and advocated the formation of the League of Nations . For Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations actually launched against he spoke very critical.
Alfred Hermann Fried died after a long illness on May 4, 1921 in Vienna's Rudolfsspital . After cremation in the municipal crematorium in Munich , Fried was buried for the last time in the urn grove of the Simmering fire hall (department ALI, no. 63). His grave is one of the honorary dedicated or honorary custody grave sites of the City of Vienna.
- The most popular quotations and most famous sayings in German, Latin, French, English and Italian , see a. - archive.org .
- The diary of someone sentenced to death. 1898
- The Hague Conference, its meaning and its results. 2nd thousand, 1900
- Small ads. Social graffiti from the fair of life , 1900. - archive.org .
- Textbook of the international auxiliary language "Esperanto". With dictionary in Esperanto-German and German-Esperanto. 1903
- Germany and France. A word about the necessity and possibility of a Franco-German understanding . 1904
- Handbook of the Peace Movement , 1905. - archive.org .
- The Modern Peace Movement , 1907. - archive.org .
- The second Hague Conference , its work, its results and its significance. 1907
- The Foundations of Revolutionary Pacifism , 1908. - archive.org .
- The international life of the present. 1908
- Vienna - Berlin. A comparison. 1908 - facsimile
- The sick war. 1909
- The emperor and world peace. 1910
- Pan America. Development, Scope, and Importance of the Intergovernmental Organization in America. 1810-1916. 1910
- Handbook of the Peace Movement. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition. Edition in 1 volume, 1911 and 1913
- Brief explanations about the nature and goal of pacifism. 1914 - archive.org
- European Restoration , 1915. - Full text online
- From world war to world peace. Twenty war essays , 1916. - Full text online
- The demand of pacifism , 1916. - Full text online
- - (Ed.), Bertha von Suttner: The struggle to avoid world war. Marginal glosses from two decades on the events before the catastrophe. 1892-1900 and 1907-1914. 2 volumes, 1917. - Volume II online in parts
- United States Efforts to Build and Consolidate Interstate Order (1794–1917) , 1917. - Full text online
- My war diary. 4 volumes, 1918/20
- Problems of Peace Technology , 1918. (Volume 6 of the series After the World War ). - Full text online
- - (Ed.), Viscount Gray : The League of Nations. A scrapbook. 1919
- The world protest against the Versailles peace . 1919
- Armand Amselem: Les prix Nobel de la paix juifs. Recherche la paix et poursuis-la (Ps 34:15). Aléas, Lyon 2006, ISBN 2-84301-139-6 .
- Walter Göhring: Suppressed and forgotten. Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Alfred Hermann Fried. Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna 2006, ISBN 978-3-218-00768-9 . - Table of contents online (PDF; 67 kB).
- Walter Göhring: Peace without Frontiers - to Alfred Hermann Fried, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate 1911 . (Traces to the present). Löcker, Vienna 2011, ISBN 978-3-85409-583-5 .
- Guido Grünewald (Ed.), Alfred Hermann Fried: Organize the world! The Nobel Peace Prize Laureate - his life, work and lasting impulses (= History & Peace Volume 36), Donat Verlag, 2016
- Bernhard Kupfer: Lexicon of Nobel Prize Winners. Patmos, Düsseldorf 2001, ISBN 3-491-72451-1 .
- Beate Mache: Alfred H. Fried and the pacifist movement. Kalonymos , H. 1, Essen 2015, p. 12 (also online)
- Helmut Mauermann: The International Peace Office 1892 to 1950. Silberburg Science, History, 284. Silberburg, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-925344-78-0 .
- Petra Schönemann-Behrens: “Organizes the world”. Life and work of the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Alfred Hermann Fried (1864–1921). Dissertation University of Bremen , 2004, DNB , OBV .
- Petra Schönemann-Behrens: Alfred H. Fried. Peace Activist - Nobel Prize Winner . Römerhof, Zurich 2011, ISBN 978-3-905894-10-3 .
- Bernhard Tuider: Alfred Hermann Fried - an Adlatus or Inspirer of Bertha von Suttner? New perspectives on the relationship between two leading figures of the Austrian peace movement. In: Marianne Klemun (ed.): Science and colonialism . Viennese magazine for the history of modern times, Volume 2/2009, ISBN 978-3-7065-4748-2 , pp. 134-162.
. Studienverlag, Innsbruck 2009,
- Bernhard Tuider: Alfred Hermann Fried. Pacifist in World War I - Illusion and Vision. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Saarbrücken 2010, ISBN 978-3-639-25061-9 .
- Wilhelm Urbanek (Ed.): 100 years Nobel Peace Prize to Alfred Hermann Fried. Verlag Bezirksmuseum Alsergrund, Vienna 2011, ISBN 3-902140-08-9 .
- Hans Wehberg : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1961, ISBN 3-428-00186-9 , p. 441 f. ( ).
- The distribution of the Nobel Prizes. (...) The winners of the Peace Prize. Alfred H. Fried. In: Pester Lloyd , Abendblatt, No. 283/1911 (LVIII. Volume), December 11, 1911, p. 5 middle. (Online at ANNO ). .
- Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 1, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1957, p. 361 f. (Direct links to , ). In:
- Literature by and about Alfred Hermann Fried in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Alfred Hermann Fried in the German Digital Library
- Entry on Alfred Hermann Fried in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Information from the Nobel Foundation on the award ceremony for Alfred Hermann Fried in 1911
- Jutta Duhm-Heitzmann: November 11th, 1864 - The birthday of Alfred Hermann Fried WDR ZeitZeichen from November 11th, 2014. (Podcast)
- Paul Franken: “The champion of disarmament. On the tenth anniversary of Alfred H. Fried's death ”. In: " The Vienna Day ". May 3, 1931. pp. 1f.
- Office of the Interparliamentary Conferences et al. , Bertha von Suttner (Ed.): Put your arms down! Monthly for the promotion of the peace movement, official organ of the Office of the Interparliamentary Conferences and the International Peace Bureau in Bern as well as the German Peace Societies in Vienna, Berlin etc. Date of publication: 1.1892, February - 8.1899. S. n. , Dresden, Leipzig, Vienna, . - Online at ANNO .
- Paul Franken: “The champion of disarmament. On the tenth anniversary of Alfred H. Fried's death ”. In: "The Vienna Day". May 3, 1931. pp. 1f.
- Website: The Peace Watch
- Martin Otto: At Suttners over the sofa. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) November 14, 2011 (No. 265), p. 28.
- Stefan Zweig : Feuilleton. To the memory of Alfred H. Fried. In: Neue Freie Presse , Morgenblatt, No. 20368/1921, May 13, 1921, p. 1 ff. (Online at ANNO ).
- Little Chronicle. (...) Dr. Alfred H. Fried died. In: Neue Freie Presse , Morgenblatt, No. 20361/1921, May 6, 1921, p. 6 middle. (Online at ANNO ). .
- Little Chronicle. (...) Dr. Alfred H. Fried. In: Neue Freie Presse , Morgenblatt, No. 20362/1921, May 7, 1921, p. 8, center right. (Online at ANNO ). .
- www.friedhoefewien.at - Graves dedicated to honor in the fire hall Simmering cemetery (PDF 2016), accessed on March 7, 2018.
Alsergrund: memorial plaque for Nobel Prize winner Fried. Ceremony on May 25th, 6 p.m., in Widerhofergasse . In: wien.gv.at , accessed on 30 July 2011 and
Andreas Hermann Landl: plaque commemorating revolutionary pacifists in Vienna by actor entfetzt . In: friedensnews.at , May 26, 2011, accessed on July 31, 2011.
- Andreas Hermann Landl: 100 Years Nobel Peace Prize to Alfred H. Fried . In: friedensnews.at , July 6, 2011, accessed on July 31, 2011.
|SURNAME||Fried, Alfred Hermann|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian pacifist, publicist, Nobel Peace Prize laureate|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 11, 1864|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 4, 1921|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Vienna|