Tibetan script :
བསྟན་ འཛིན་ རྒྱ་མཚོ་
Wylie transliteration :
bstan ´dzin rgya mtsho
Pronunciation in IPA :
[ tɛ̃ ́tsĩ càtsʰo ]
Official transcription of the PRCh :
THDL transcription :
He is a Buddhist monk and lineage holder of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism . He advocates the rime movement. From his enthronement he was, like many of his predecessors, head of the Tibetan government and is considered the spiritual head of the Tibetans. In 2011 he resigned from his political offices.
In 1989 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
The formal name is, based on the address of comparable religious dignitaries, in German His Holiness or, if addressed directly, Your Holiness , Tibetans call him Kundün (Tibetan. Present), Yishi Norbu (Tibetan: "Wish-fulfilling jewel") or Gyelwa Rinpoche .
Childhood and youth
Tenzin Gyatso is the monk name of the current Dalai Lama . He was born on July 6, 1935 with the name Lhamo Döndrub in Taktser , a village in the Tibetan province of Amdo in northeastern Tibet , the second son of the Dekyi Tshering and Chökyong Tshering family. His mother gave birth to a total of 16 children, seven of whom survived childhood. Tenzin Gyatso has four brothers - Thubten Jigme Norbu (reincarnation of Taktser Rinpoche ), Gyalo Thöndrup, Lobsang Samten and Tenzin Chögyel - and two sisters: Tshering Dölma and Jetsün Pema . His sister Tshering Dölma and his brothers Lobsang Samten and Thubten Jigme Norbu have since passed away.
At the age of just under two years he was recognized by four monks based on a vision of the regent, oracles and other omens as the rebirth of XIII, who died in 1933 . Dalai Lama found. It is reported that the toddler spontaneously recognized a high lama disguised as a servant as "Lama from Sera Monastery " and took several items from the possession of the 13th Dalai Lama, which were displayed next to similar ones, as his property.
Lhamo Döndrub first had to be ransomed by the provincial governor through substantial bribes, which took almost two years of negotiations. He arrived in Lhasa at the age of about four , where he was enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama during the New Year celebrations on February 22, 1940 in the Potala by the Sitringasol ceremony. His new name was Jetsün Jampel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso - "Holy Lord, Kind Lord, Compassionate Defender of Faith, Ocean of Wisdom". Tibetans usually speak of the Dalai Lama as Yishin Norbu ("all wish-fulfilling gem") or simply Kundün ( present ).
The Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer stayed in Lhasa from 1946 to 1950, and from 1948 made friends with the young Dalai Lama, for whom he filmed, photographed and instructed him in the western form of arithmetic as well as in English and geography.
On November 17, 1950, the then 15-year-old Dalai Lama was given secular rule over Tibet, but in view of the apparently hopeless situation under the threat to Tibet from the People's Republic of China at that time, he and his government staff had to go to Dromo immediately Indian border, to safety. Harrer accompanied him until March 1951 and then set out for Europe. The Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa in the summer to resume his religious functions under an agreement with the Chinese.
Agreement with the People's Republic of China
On May 23, 1951, representatives of the Tibetan government signed the " 17-point agreement for the peaceful liberation of Tibet" in Beijing , with which Tibet was to be assured of internal political autonomy and religious freedom, but representation in foreign policy, in foreign trade and in military matters the Government of the People's Republic of China has been claimed. On October 24, 1951, following a resolution by the Tibetan National Assembly in Lhasa, Tenzin Gyatso's approval was telegraphed to Mao Zedong and the government of the People's Republic of China. He himself later stated that he had only agreed to the agreement in order to “save his people and the country from total destruction” . The agreement was preceded by the invasion of the Chinese People's Liberation Army in the eastern Tibetan province of Chamdo .
In 1954, at the invitation of the government of the People's Republic of China and against the resistance of the abbots of Sera , Drepung and Ganden , Tenzin Gyatso traveled to Beijing with an entourage of almost 500 people. Conservative forces of the Tibetan nobility and clergy feared that the Dalai Lama in Beijing could be swayed against their interests. In September 1954 he was elected MP and then Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. The Dalai Lama presented gifts to Mao Zedong and wrote a hymn to him in which he spoke to Mao Zedong et al. a. compared to Brahma . The Chinese government financed the construction of the Tagten Migyur Phodrang palace for the 14th Dalai Lama on the Norbulingka site . The palace was completed in 1956.
In winter the 14th Dalai Lama visited other Chinese cities, in 1955 he celebrated the Tibetan New Year in Beijing and on this occasion gave a banquet for Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai , Liu Shaoqi and Zhu De .
In April 1958, the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee was established and the 14th Dalai Lama was elected chairman of the committee.
Flight and Exile
During the Tibet uprising , Tenzin Gyatso left his summer palace Norbulingka on March 17, 1959 and fled to India. There he had recently obtained the Geshe , the doctorate in Buddhist theology (cf. Indian philosophy ), after having proven himself in philosophical debates with teachers from the Drepung , Ganden and Sera monasteries .
On April 3, 1959, Jawaharlal Nehru informed the Indian parliament that he had granted asylum to the Dalai Lama, his family and their companions . Gyatso Tezpur was assigned as the first whereabouts , where he left on April 18. Another transfer to Masuri soon followed . Finally he was ordered to Dharamsala ( Himachal Pradesh ), where he resides to this day.
Before the flight, the Nechung oracle had been questioned with the result that “the Dalai Lama should leave Tibet”.
Relations with the West
In addition to previous political activities, the 14th Dalai Lama always campaigns intensively for peaceful, constructive and compassionate dialogue between people. To this end, he led lecture tours around the globe and edited publications in which the differentiated ideas of the Tibetan Buddhist religion on questions of life practice, the nature of human consciousness and other existential questions are explained.
Because of his keen interest in scientific topics and his collaboration with the North American lawyer Adam Engle and the Chilean neurobiologist and philosopher Francisco Varela , the US-based Mind and Life Institute was founded in 1990 . According to his own statement, the Dalai Lama is convinced that science and the Buddhist theses are absolutely compatible.
In October 2002 Tenzin Gyatso took part in the science congress "Unity in Duality" in Munich - together with nine scientists from different countries from different scientific fields: z. B. for the field of pharmacy Candace B. Pert , pharmacologist, USA; in the field of astrophysics Trịnh Xuân Thuận , astrophysicist born. Vietnam; for the biochemical department Rupert Sheldrake , England; in the field of psychology Jean Shinoda Bolen , psychiatrist and Jungian analyst, USA; the philosophical area represented by Marit Rullmann , project manager of the local Agenda 21, Germany; for the neurobiological specialty Humberto Maturana Biologist, in the context of neuroanatomy, neurobiology, Chile. Ultimately, it was formulated that the dualistic worldview of science does not have to contradict the idea of a unity on which all experiences are based. This meeting is an important station in the dialogue between Buddhist teaching and Western science.
The current Dalai Lama attends Buddhist schools in the west and gives instructions there at regular intervals in Buddhist teachings and rituals.
In addition to his moral authority, the 14th Dalai Lama has above all the status of an “ambassador of peace” in the West. In 1989 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to use peaceful means to raise awareness of the situation in his home country, Tibet .
The CIA supports the Tibetan government in exile
The armed resistance of Tibetans against the People's Republic of China was co-financed by payments from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to the Tibetan government-in-exile as part of the Cold War from the 1960s onwards . Around 250 Tibetans were trained in guerrilla tactics , some repeatedly, at Camp Hale , a training camp in Colorado that specializes in mountain warfare . In the course of this program, according to the television magazine Panorama , personal contacts were also made between Tenzin Gyatso and employees of the news service. Contacts were initiated by Tenzin Gyatso's representative, including his brothers, through the US consulate in Calcutta and the US embassy in New Delhi . According to a report by the Financial Times Deutschland, the topic of the contacts was explicitly military aid. In the specialist literature, however, it is emphasized that Gyatso avoided all contact with the CIA or the Kham rebels stationed in Mustang , and that this task was performed by his brother Gyalo Thondup .
In October 1998, the government-in-exile confirmed that it had received around US $ 1,700,000 from the CIA over several years in the 1960s. However, it was denied that Tenzin Gyatso personally benefited from a further fixed sum of US $ 180,000, which, according to research by the Süddeutsche Zeitung, was declared in CIA documents as “monetary aid for the Dalai Lama”. According to its administration, these amounts were used to set up offices in Geneva and New York City and for lobbying activities.
The CIA stopped supporting the fight when the United States lost the Vietnam War and Richard Nixon initiated a policy of détente against the People's Republic of China. The CIA began reducing the operation in 1967, and in 1974 the Dalai Lama called on the last of the guerrillas to lay down their arms.
Relations with the German-speaking area
Tenzin Gyatso is particularly connected to Carinthia through Heinrich Harrer , whom he visited several times in Hüttenberg . In 1992 the Dalai Lama inaugurated the Buddhist prayer room of the Heinrich Harrer Museum , and on Harrer's 90th birthday in 2002 he blessed the newly built Tibetan pilgrimage route Lingkor . At the end of April 1994 the Friedrich Naumann Foundation organized a trip to Germany for him , which took Tenzin Gyatso to Bonn and Berlin , where he had talks with the President of the Bundestag Rita Süssmuth , the Governing Mayor Eberhard Diepgen and the FDP Honorary Chairman Otto Graf Lambsdorff . In October 1998, for a week, he gave a daily briefing to around 8,000 people in the large open space of the former British military camp Camp Reinsehlen in the Lüneburg Heath . On May 14, 2006, Tenzin Gyatso visited Hüttenberg to lay the foundation stone for a Tibet center. Around 5000 people took part in the laying of the foundation stone.
At the end of July 2005, Tenzin Gyatso was a guest in Wiesbaden for three days . He was awarded the Hessian Peace Prize and celebrated his 70th birthday. At the end of his visit he gave a speech in front of around 20,000 people in the Wiesbaden spa gardens .
From July 19 to 29, 2007, the 14th Dalai Lama was in Hamburg , where he gave lectures at the Am Rothenbaum tennis stadium, among other places . At the end of one of his longest trips abroad, he was in Freiburg im Breisgau to inaugurate a stupa in the local Tibet Kailash House, a Tibetan health center, and to give a lecture in the Rothaus Arena.
From September 17 to 19, 2007 the Dalai Lama took part in the Waldzell Meeting in Melk Abbey in Lower Austria . On September 20, he was invited by Federal Chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer to an interview at the Federal Chancellery, for which he was heavily criticized by the Chinese.
From September 20 to 21, 2007, Tenzin Gyatso visited Münster for the second time after 1998 . There he received an honorary doctorate from the Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy from the Westphalian Wilhelms University for his services in mediating between religion and science. For Gyatso this is both the first honorary doctorate from a German university and the first from the field of natural sciences. On the second day, he held discussions with representatives of the Graduate Schools at Münster Castle and gave a lecture on the topic of “Global Responsibility in Science and Society” to around 4,500 guests.
After paying a visit to Hessenpark on September 22, 2007 , Tenzin Gyatso visited Chancellor Angela Merkel in her official residence one day later . This was the first meeting with a German head of government. The Chinese government criticized Merkel for her decision and canceled various meetings with German government representatives.
From May 14th to 20th, 2008 the Dalai Lama visited several cities, including Bochum , Mönchengladbach , Nuremberg , Bamberg and Berlin, following an invitation from the Tibet Initiative Germany under the motto “No peace without human rights” .
At the beginning of 1998, Tenzin Gyatso appeared in an advertisement for the IT company Apple . The ad with a large-format picture of the Dalai Lama was part of a marketing campaign that was specifically aimed at the Asian markets under the slogan “Think Different”. The other personalities used were Alfred Hitchcock , Albert Einstein , Pablo Picasso , Mahatma Gandhi, and Amelia Earhart . In April 1998, Apple announced that it would in future forego the motif in its advertisement and instead concentrate on better-known personalities. This sparked speculation that the Chinese government was putting pressure on the company. Apple explicitly denied this. Commenting on the company's decision, a well-known market researcher from Hong Kong University said it was impossible for Amelia Earhart to be better known in the region than the Dalai Lama. A spokesman for the Dalai Lama said it was evident that the matter was related to China, a significant market for the company. The Dalai Lama had given the company permission to use the image motif worldwide, he had not been advised that it would not be used in the campaign in China.
Withdrawal from politics
In March 2011, the Dalai Lama asked the Tibetan parliament in exile to release him from his political duties. Democratically elected representatives should replace him. Tsewang Rigzin, the president of the world-wide organized Tibetan Youth Congress, has long questioned the non-violent course of the religious leader. Lobsang Sangay , a lawyer who was elected the new Prime Minister of the Tibetan government-in-exile at the end of April 2011, will play his political role .
A minority of Buddhist monks and lay people continue to worship the patron deity Dorje Shugden , which the 14th Dalai Lama personally no longer continues, as in his opinion this practice goes hand in hand with a sectarian attitude, especially towards the Nyingma school, and thus an ecumenical one Attitude is not beneficial. These steps have also mobilized the reactionary wing. Since these tensions go back to the time of the Fifth Dalai Lama, Dorje Shugden is seen to be personally hostile to him and the political position associated with him. Prof. Dr. Georges Dreyfus sums up this:
"This sectarian stance is the central message of the founding myth of the Shuk-den tradition, the wrathful transformation of Trul-ku Drak-ba Gyel-tsen into Shuk-den and his hostility to the Fifth Dalai-Lama. This hostility reflects the attitude of a part of the Ge-luk tradition which advocates a strictly Ge-luk practice and opposes the importation of Nying-ma teachings into their tradition. This opposition between two visions of the Ge-luk tradition focuses on the figure of the Dalai- Lama because of the way in which the Fifth and the Fourteenth Dalai-Lamas have considered the institution they represent, ... as resting on an eclectic religious basis in which elements associated with the Nying-ma tradition combine with an overall Ge-luk orientation Shuk-den, then, is less the spirit of teh Ge-luk political resentment against a strong Dalai-Lama, than it is the spirit of a religious resentment against a perceived threat to the integrity of the Ge-luk tradition. "
In 1996, he emphatically advised employees of the Tibetan government in exile and the monks and laypeople under his authority from worshiping Shugden. It is said that the vast majority of exiled Tibetan monasteries excluded monks who refused to give up the practice, but to what extent these groups self-isolated is currently unclear. It cannot be denied that tensions between the groups persist: In 1997, three high-ranking monks who publicly and in the media actively advised against the practice of this deity were victims of violence. These crimes have not yet been adequately investigated. In this context, both sides made the most serious mutual allegations.
In addition, his role in the Karmapa conflict was discussed publicly and controversially.
Depiction of the history of Tibet
Critics accuse Tenzin Gyatso of portraying the conditions in what was then Tibet in an idealized way. According to the critics, the Lamaist monks, along with a small class of aristocrats, owned all the land; there were serfs and slaves who were monitored by a monk's police. Mutilating corporal punishment was also common.
The Tibetan government-in-exile contradicts this representation, which was also disseminated by the Chinese authorities . It is "incorrect to call the old Tibetan society a feudal society or a slave system". In fact, Tibet "before the invasion was much more egalitarian than most other Asian countries at that time".
Demand for autonomy, accusation of separatism
Tenzin Gyatso campaigns for the autonomy of Tibet within the People's Republic of China , which the rulers call separatism . On March 10, 1963, the 14th Dalai Lama proclaimed a constitution based on democratic principles for the Tibetan government-in-exile , which considered him head of state until his resignation in 2011 . For many Tibetans, Tenzin Gyatso's demand for autonomy does not go far enough; they demand full independence for Tibet.
On the issue of nuclear armament in India, he repeatedly expressed his regret at this development. In 1998, after underground nuclear weapons tests in India and in the year of the first tests in Pakistan , he called for the worldwide elimination of all nuclear weapons and referred to statements made by the leadership of the People's Republic of China. At the same time, he took the position that it was undemocratic when other large countries claim the right to possess nuclear weapons, but demand that countries like India renounce these weapons.
In 2005 he declared in a speech that war was “out of date” and that the goal was a demilitarized world. He is a supporter of the International Campaign for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons (ICAN). During the 2008 presidential campaign in the United States , he supported an appeal to candidates to campaign for nuclear disarmament if they were elected. In 2009 he was a signatory to one of 17 Nobel Prize winners addressed to US President Barack Obama to renounce nuclear weapons.
With regard to global migration, Gyatso advocates an ethic of universal, i.e. transnational responsibility, and predicts a gradual erosion of national borders in the future. Ultimately, he sees states as human organizations as transitory. He demands that the refugee question should not be answered with unilateral regulations, but that multilateral agreements should be reached between the states. Nevertheless, he expressed concerns about Germany's refugee policy and said that "Germany could not become an Arab country".
In an interview with the BBC , Tenzin Gyatso commented on the increasing number of refugees in Europe . Europe should take in the refugees, train them and teach them skills that they could use to rebuild their homeland. He added: "A limited number [of refugees] is fine, but for all of Europe to become a Muslim or African country at some point - impossible." The BBC interview was well received in the international media landscape.
The 14th Dalai Lama has been involved in the work of the SOS Children's Villages since the 1960s . The starting point was the Tibetan refugee children, who at the time had a great need for places of refuge in India.
The Dalai Lama is also the patron of the worldwide " Action for Happiness " movement, founded in 2010 , which works to build a happier and more caring society.
Tenzin Gyatso received a number of awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize , presented on December 10, 1989 in Oslo.
In German-speaking countries he was awarded the following honors:
- Dr. Leopold Lucas Prize on June 16, 1988
- Human rights award of the Karl-Franzens-University Graz on October 14, 2002
- Hessian Peace Prize on July 27, 2005
- Osgar on May 12, 2007 in Leipzig
- Honorary doctorate from the Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster on September 20, 2007
- international award as cavalier of the order of smiles
- German Media Prize 2008 on February 10, 2009
- Honorary doctorate from the Department of Foreign Language Philologies at the Philipps University of Marburg on August 3, 2009
- Templeton Prize on March 29, 2012
- South Tyrolean minority award on April 10, 2013
Introductions and basics
- The teachings of Tibetan Buddhism . Goldmann, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-442-21539-0
- The heart of all religions is one , Goldmann, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-442-13278-9
- The Four Noble Truths - The Basis of Buddhist Practice . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-596-14973-8
- Introduction to Buddhism - The Harvard Lectures . Herder, Freiburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-451-06778-5
- Dalai Lama, Felizitas von Schönborn: Compassion and Wisdom - A conversation with Felizitas von Schönborn . Diogenes, Zurich 2004, ISBN 978-3-257-06397-4
- The wisdom of the heart . Goldmann, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-442-21686-9
- The Book of Humanity - A New Ethic for Our Time . Bastei Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2002, ISBN 3-404-60514-4
- The way to happiness . 4th edition. Herder, Freiburg 2004, ISBN 3-451-05490-6 ( 1st place on the Spiegel bestseller list from June 24th to September 1st and from September 9th to 15th, 2002 )
- The wisdom of forgiveness . 3. Edition. Hardcover - Lübbe, July 2005, ISBN 3-7857-2051-3
- Dzogchen - The Heart Essence of Great Perfection . Theseus, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89620-171-9
- Chant of Inner Experience - The Steps on the Path to Enlightenment . Dharma Edition, Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-927862-28-2
- Dalai Lama, Howard C. Cutler: Rules of happiness for everyday life . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2004, ISBN 978-3-451-05843-1
- Kalachakra tantra . Theseus, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-89620-182-4
- Logic of love . Goldmann, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-442-13266-5
- May all beings be happy . Diamant, Munich, ISBN 3-9807572-3-4
- Advice from the heart . Diogenes, Zurich 2003, ISBN 3-257-06338-5
- The essence of meditation. Kamalashila root text . Practical explanations at the heart of Buddhist spirituality. Translated from the English by Stephan Schuhmacher. Ansata, Munich 2001, ISBN 978-3-7787-7177-8 ; limited preview in Google Book search
- The Dalai Lama's appeal to the world . ( No. 1 on the Spiegel bestseller list from July 18 to September 18, 2015 )
Connection to western science
- The world in a single atom - My journey through science and Buddhism. Theseus Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-89620-270-7
- Dalai Lama, Laurens van den Muyzenberg: Leading, shaping, moving: Values and wisdom for a globalized world. From the English by Jürgen Neubauer. Campus, Frankfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-593-38687-4
- My life and my people. The tragedy of Tibet. Translated into German by Maria Steininger, Droemer Knaur, Munich 1962 (original edition My land and my people. McGraw Hill, New York 1962)
- The book of freedom. The autobiography of the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate . 14th edition. Bastei Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2004, ISBN 3-404-61239-6
- Manuel Bauer u. a .: On the way for peace. DVA, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-421-05873-3 .
- Mayank Chhaya: Dalai Lama: The Revealing Life Story and His Struggle for Tibet . IB Tauris, New York City 2008, ISBN 978-1-84511-763-4
- Daniel Goleman : Dialogue with the Dalai Lama: How we can overcome destructive emotions . dtv, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-423-34207-2 .
- Gilles van Grasdorff: The Dalai Lama. The biography . 2nd Edition. Barth, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-502-61133-5 .
- John Kenneth Knaus: Orphans of the Cold War - America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival , PublicAffairs 2000, ISBN 978-1-891620-85-0 .
- Claude B. Levenson: Dalai Lama. The authorized biography of the Nobel Laureate . Patmos, Düsseldorf 2004, ISBN 3-491-69415-9 .
- Sabine Wiegand: Dalai Lama XIV. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-499-50673-4
- Martin Scorsese : Kundun , 1997
- Jean-Jacques Annaud : Seven Years in Tibet , 1997. Film adaptation of the book of the same name by Heinrich Harrer.
- Albert Knechtel and Thea Mohr: A Life for Tibet , 2005. A portrait of the 14th Dalai Lama.
- Focus TV report by Gabor Harrach: If a god comes to visit ... about the Dalai Lama major event in 2009 in Frankfurt.
- Rick Ray: 10 Questions for the Dalai Lama , USA 2006.
- Literature by and about Tenzin Gyatso in the catalog of the German National Library
- Newspaper article about Tenzin Gyatso in the press kit 20th century of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Information from the Nobel Foundation on the 1989 award ceremony for Tenzin Gyatso (English)
- Official website of the Dalai Lama (english)
- Dalai Lama - History of a Name and Title ( Memento of March 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Audio recordings with Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso in the online collections of the Austrian Mediathek (radio reports)
References and comments
- Interview with Jetsun Pema. In: Berliner Zeitung , 10./11./12. May 2008, magazine
- As the oracle means . In: Der Spiegel . No. 15 , 1959, pp. 34 ( online ).
- In Tibet at that time the abacus was used , and Harrer reports that he often went slower with the western method.
- Tsering Shakya : The genesis of the Sino-Tibetan agreement of 1951 . In: Alex McKay: The History of Tibet - The Modern Period: 1895-1959. The Encounter with Modernity. Routledge 2003, ISBN 0-415-30844-5 , p. 603; A. Tom Grunfeld: The Making of Modern Tibet. ME Sharpe 1996, ISBN 1-56324-714-3 , p. 113; Stephan Haas : The Tibet question - an analysis of the reasons and the legality of the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950/1951. LIT Verlag , 1997, ISBN 3-8258-2872-7 ; Jin Hui etc. (Ed.): Documents and illustrations on the social history of Tibet. China Intercontinental Press, Beijing 1995, ISBN 7-80113-026-X , p. 46.
- Facts About The 17-Point "Agreement" Between Tibet and China (PDF file; 2.7 MB), Part One: "The 17-Point Agreement" - The full story as revealed by the Tibetans and Chinese who were involved. DIIR Publications 2001
- Melvyn Goldstein : A History of Modern Tibet. The Calm Before the Storm: 1951-1955. University of California Press 2007, ISBN 0-520-24941-0 , p. 478; Patricia Cronin Marcello : The Dalai Lama. A biography. Greenwood 2003, ISBN 0-313-32207-4 , p. 73.
- Melvyn Goldstein: A History of Modern Tibet. The Calm Before the Storm: 1951-1955. University of California Press 2007, ISBN 0-520-24941-0 , p. 479.
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- A. Tom Grunfeld: The Making of Modern Tibet. ME Sharpe 1996, ISBN 1-56324-714-3 , p. 116; German translation in Anna Louise Strong : Tibetan Interviews. Verlag Neue Welt, Peking 1961 (title of the original edition: Tibetan Interviews. German by Senta Lewin), p. 78; Tibetan original, Chinese and English translation in: Xīzàng zìzhìqū dàng'ànguǎn 西藏自治区 档案馆 (Ed.): Xīzàng lìshǐ dàng'àn huìcuì 西藏 历史 档案 荟 粹 . Wénwù chūbǎnshè 文物 出版社, Beijing 1995, ISBN 7-5010-0876-0 .
- rtag brtan mi 'gyur pho brang རྟག་ བརྟན་ མི་ འགྱུར་ ཕོ་ བྲང ། / Dádàn Míngjiǔ Pōzhāng 达 旦 明 久 颇 .
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- Mayank Chhaya: Dalai Lama: The Revealing Life Story and His Struggle for Tibet . Pp. 110, 111
- Information on the Science Congress Unity in Duality
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- The Dalai Lama and the CIA , ARD / Panorama , June 7, 2012, accessed June 10, 2012
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- Sam van Schaik: Tibet: A History . Yale University Press, New Haven (CT) 2011, ISBN 978-0-300-15404-7 , p. 239
- Spots on the résumé - The Dalai Lama and the proximity to the CIA ftd.de, June 9, 2012 ( memento of June 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on June 10, 2012.
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- Wowereit wants to receive the Dalai Lama. Der Tagesspiegel, May 14, 2008, accessed on July 8, 2020 .
- Nirvana in Schneverdingen , Der Spiegel , November 2, 1998
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- The Dalai Lama in Munster 20./21. September 2007 ( Memento from January 8, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) uni-muenster.de
- The Dalai Lama's cheerful admonitions . In: Westfälische Nachrichten , September 21, 2007
- The first listeners come in the morning ( memento from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) on faz.net, accessed on August 20, 2015
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- Tibetan Youth Congress website , accessed April 15, 2011
- Tagesschau.de: Dalai Lama initiates political withdrawal ( memento of March 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) of March 14, 2011 (accessed on April 4, 2011)
- cf. New political head of the Tibetans in exile - A Harvard professor as a bearer of hope ( memento from April 30, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) at tagesschau.de, April 27, 2011, accessed on April 27, 2011.
- Georges Dreyfus: "The Shuk-den Affair: History and Nature of a Quarrel", Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, Volume 21, Number 2, 1998, p. 269
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- Erik D. Curren: Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today . Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, New Delhi 2008, ISBN 978-81-208-3331-9 , pp. 18-22
- NDR Panorama , broadcast on November 20, 1997
- Frank Bessac: This Was the Perilous Trek to Tragedy . In: Life , November 13, 1950, pp. 130-136
- igfm-muenchen.de (PDF; 42 kB)
- tibet.de ( Memento from May 4, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Dalai Lama says he's sad over India's nuclear testing (MJS) , Canada Tibet Committee, May 14, 1998
- With Disarming Humor, the Dalai Lama Tackles Weapons and War , The New York Times , September 26, 2005
- The Dalai Lama supports ICAN , International Campaign for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons , 2008
- The Dalai Lama Sends Message to White House , The Huffington Post , June 26, 2008
- Nobel Laureates Call for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons ( Memento of December 3, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), wagingpeace.org, September 26, 2009
- Charles R. Strain: The Migrant, My Mother: Buddhist Ethical Perspectives on Migration. In: Elizabeth W. Collier, Charles R. Strain (Eds.): Religious and Ethical Perspectives on Global Migration. Lexington Books, Lanham 2014, ISBN 978-0-7391-8714-2 , pp. 185-208; here: p. 199 .
- Heiner Rindermann: Cognitive Capitalism: Human Capital and the Wellbeing of Nations. Cambridge University, Cambridge 2018, ISBN 978-1-107-05016-7 , p. 139 .
- Till Fähnders: Interview with the Dalai Lama: “Refugees should only be admitted temporarily” , FAZ.net , May 31, 2016.
- Rajini Vaidyanathan: The Dalai Lama on Trump, women and going home . June 27, 2019 ( bbc.com [accessed August 10, 2019]).
- Dalai Lama warns 'keep Europe for Europeans' and send migrants home. June 27, 2019, Retrieved August 11, 2019 (UK English).
- Dalai Lama says 'Europe belongs to Europeans'. September 12, 2018, accessed on August 11, 2019 .
- Dalai Lama and the SOS Children's Villages
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- Our Patron. Action for Happiness, accessed March 18, 2019 .
- Honorary doctorate - doctor honoris causa in Faculty 12 , overview of honorary doctorates on the homepage of the Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy (FB12) of the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, accessed: February 8, 2017
- pdf (38 pp.)
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|Tenzin Gyatso (alternative names of the lemma)|
|Tenzin Gyatsho, Tenzin Gyatso, dancer Gyatso, chin .: 丹增 嘉措 , Dānzēng Jiācuò|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||bsTan-'dzin rGya-mts'o (Tibetan); Lhamo Dhondrub (maiden name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Tibetan XIV Dalai Lama|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 6, 1935|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Taktser , Amdo Province , Tibet|