Mohammed el-Baradei ( Arabic محمد مصطفى البرادعي Muḥammad Muṣṭafā al-Barādaʿī ; Born June 17, 1942 in Cairo , Egypt ) is an Egyptian diplomat . From 1997 to November 30, 2009, he was Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and together with it he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005 . At the end of April 2012 he founded his own political party called the " Constitutional Party ". He also leads the opposition alliance National Salvation Front . From July 14, 2013 to August 14, 2013, he was Vice President of Egypt.
Mohammed el-Baradei is the son of lawyer Mustafa el-Baradei, the former president of the Egyptian Bar Association . He studied in Cairo Law and graduated in 1962 with the license (or the Baccalaureate ) from. In 1964 he began his career as a diplomat, initially at the Permanent Mission of his country to the United Nations in New York and Geneva . In 1974 he received his doctorate from the New York University School of Law and was then a legal advisor at the Egyptian Foreign Ministry until 1978 .
He is a member of the International Law Association and the American Society of International Law as well as an alumnus of the Salzburg Seminar . He is married to the kindergarten teacher Aida Elkachef. The el-Baradei couple have two children, Laila and Mustafa. In connection with the negotiations in Iran about the restriction of nuclear research, rumors arose that Aida Elkachef was Iranian and therefore did not evaluate el-Baradei neutrally. It was feared that his wife would exert influence. This statement has been publicly contradicted by the IAEA.
Working in the IAEA
In 1980 he moved to the United Nations in the International Legal Program at the United Nations Training and Research Institute . At the same time, he was Associate Professor of International Law at the New York University School of Law from 1981 to 1987 .
In 1984 he was appointed representative of the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). From 1987 to 1991 he headed the agency's legal department. In 1993 he became Deputy Director General Hans Blix for External Affairs. On December 1, 1997, he was himself elected to succeed Hans Blix as General Director, and in 2001 he was re-elected to this office.
El-Baradei criticized the justification for the Iraq war that weapons of mass destruction were stored in this region and was therefore the target of sharp diplomatic attacks by the US administration under George W. Bush . This tried for months to prevent his re-election as Director General of the IAEA. The United States also submitted that el-Baradei had not spoken out clearly enough against Iran's nuclear program . El-Baradei repeatedly criticized Iran for not sufficiently opening up its nuclear weapons program to inspections, but he refused to accept pressure from the US to confirm the existence of a secret Iranian nuclear weapons program. He warned of a military attack and spoke out in favor of negotiations with Iran. Only after a meeting between el-Baradei and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice did the critical voices from the US government fall silent.
In December 2004 it was announced that ElBaradei systematically by the United States bugged was. He was outraged, especially since he knew that the US was working against him, but not that the Bush administration would risk a scandal and eavesdrop on him. He suspects that the US government wanted to use the illegal eavesdropping to find incriminating material that would have been used to blackmail him and drive him out of office. El-Baradei was an opponent of US President George W. Bush's plans to develop new, small atomic bombs and saw them as a violation of the spirit of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty .
Against the background of doubts about the correctness of the intervention in Iraq, which also increased in the USA from 2005, this diplomatic “barrage” gradually subsided. On September 26, 2005 el-Baradei was unanimously confirmed by the IAEA General Assembly in its seat in Vienna for a third four-year term of office as General Director. His term of office ended as planned on November 30, 2009; He was succeeded by the Japanese diplomat Yukiya Amano .
In 2011, el-Baradei criticized the conflict with Iran for withholding important documents and information from the US and Europe. They were not interested in a compromise with the Iranian government, but in regime change "by all means". He also accused Iran of “trickery”.
Turning to politics in Egypt and founding a party
El-Baradei was the central figure of the National Movement for Change , to which numerous opposition politicians had come together in February 2010. She campaigned for democratic reforms in Egypt. On September 6, 2010, el-Baradei called for a boycott of the November parliamentary elections in Egypt because this vote would certainly be manipulated.
Against the background of the revolution in Egypt in 2011 , he made serious accusations of US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in an article published in Newsweek on January 26, 2011 for her reluctant criticism of the parliamentary elections. On January 27, he called on President Hosni Mubarak to withdraw from politics and offered himself as an alternative to a transitional government. The following day there were reports that he had been placed under house arrest in Cairo after participating in a banned demonstration. In an interview with al-Jazeera the following day , he said he knew nothing about house arrest. The protests would continue until the president resigned. The political system must change before Egypt can move forward. He described Mubarak's speech, in which he had announced the dissolution of his government cabinet, as disappointing.
In 2011 el-Baradei expressed his desire to run for president within a democratic system. But already in January 2012 he withdrew his candidacy in protest against the Egyptian military rulers, pointing out that fair elections are currently not possible.
At the end of April 2012 el-Baradei founded the “Constitutional Party”, its own political party . According to its own statements, it should save the revolution as an alternative to the dominant Islamist groups. At the same time, el-Baradei assessed the transition phase under the rule of the Military Council as “tragic”, as the economic situation had deteriorated and no new constitution had been drawn up until the presidential election.
In the run-up to the constitutional referendum , the Egyptian attorney general, Talaat Ibrahim Abdullah, who was appointed by President Mohammed Morsi himself, initiated investigations against el-Baradei and the former general secretary of the Arab League, Amr Mussa, following charges of “inciting the citizens to overthrow” and “espionage for Israel” to let.
On July 5, 2013 (two days after the military coup in Egypt against the elected President Morsi) el-Baradei was supposed to be appointed head of a transitional government. Interim President Mansur changed this plan at short notice, apparently because the Salafist Party of Light offered resistance.
On July 9, 2013, el-Baradei was appointed vice president of the interim government around Prime Minister Hasim al-Beblawi . El-Baradei should be primarily responsible for international relations. On August 14, 2013 he resigned from this office, justifying this with the attempt by the Egyptian government to resolve the political crisis in Egypt by force. For triggered carnage he said. "I have submitted my resignation because I can not bear responsibility for decisions that I do not agree Regrettably, those who call for violence and terror of what happened today, benefit . "
On August 18, 2013 el-Baradei left Egypt and flew to Vienna, where he has an apartment from the IAEA era.
On October 7, 2005 it was announced that the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize would be awarded to el-Baradei and the International Atomic Energy Agency. In doing so, the Norwegian Nobel Prize Committee recognized her work against the misuse of atomic energy for military purposes and the guarantee of maximum safety standards in the peaceful use of atomic energy.
On December 4, 2009 el-Baradei was awarded the Great Golden Decoration of Honor on Ribbon for Services to the Republic of Austria by the Austrian Federal President Heinz Fischer .
In 2010, the German Federal President Horst Köhler awarded him the Great Cross of Merit with Star and Shoulder Ribbon of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany .
- Guardian of the Apocalypse. A struggle for a world without nuclear weapons , Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2011 ISBN 978-3-593-39348-3
- Biography of Mohamed ElBaradei at the IAEA (English)
- Literature by and about Mohammed el-Baradei in the catalog of the German National Library
- Transcription of an interview in the English newspaper The Guardian with Mohammed ElBaradei (March 31, 2010, English)
- Information from the Nobel Foundation on the 2005 award ceremony for Mohammed el-Baradei (English)
- Interview with Mohamed El Baradei: Michael Thumann and Gero von Randow: »We build up pressure«. In: The time . May 14, 2010, accessed March 10, 2011 .
- Protest against Egypt's military council: Nobel laureate ElBaradei founds his own party ( Memento from May 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) at tagesschau.de, April 29, 2012 (accessed on April 29, 2012).
- Zeit.de: Nobel laureate ElBaradei founds new party
- Spiegel-Online: Egypt decides about its future
- Florian Rötzer: If ElBaradei comes to power, Israel would have to attack Iran quickly. In: telepolis. February 2, 2011, accessed February 2, 2011 .
- Georg Mascolo : spiegel.de wiretapping affair - Baradei outraged by US eavesdropping - Spiegel.de, December 13, 2004
- Spiegel interview with Mohamed ElBaradei. 'Egypt's Military Leadership Is Reacting Too Slowly' , Spiegel.de April 19, 2011
- BBC News : ElBaradei to form 'national association for change' , February 24, 2010.
- ElBaradei calls for an election boycott
- Mohamed ElBaradei: The Return of the Challenger
- Egypt: Al-Baradei offers itself for interim government
- Protests in Egypt: Al-Baradei apparently arrested in Cairo
- Protesters back on Egypt streets
- El-Baradei withdraws candidacy
-  
- spiegel.de July 7, 2013: Power struggle in Egypt: President Mansur withdraws ElBaradei's nomination
- Focus from July 9, 2013
- Chaos in Cairo: Egypt's Vice President ElBaradei resigns. In: Spiegel Online . August 14, 2013, accessed June 9, 2018 .
- Selma Köhn, Cairo: Egypt: The Muslim Brothers want to win or die. In: welt.de . August 14, 2013, accessed October 7, 2018 .
- Der Standard (December 5, 2009), p. 8
- List of all decorations awarded by the Federal President for services to the Republic of Austria from 1952 (PDF; 6.9 MB)
- Address by Federal Minister. H. Koehler on the occasion of d. Award of the Gr. Merit Cross with Star and Shoulder Ribbon d. Order of Merit d. BRD to Dr. M. ElBaradei
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Egyptian lawyer and diplomat, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2005 Nobel Peace Prize laureate|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 17, 1942|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Cairo|