Theodore Roosevelt

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Theodore Roosevelt, photo portrait of the Pach Brothers (1904)
Signature of Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. [ ˈθɪədɔɹ ˈɹoʊzəvɛlt ] (born October 27, 1858 in New York City , New York ; † January 6, 1919 in Oyster Bay , New York) was an American politician who served as the 26th  from 1901 to 1909 . Served as President of the United States .

After participating in the Spanish-American War , in which he commanded the Rough Riders , he was elected governor of New York in late 1898 . Under William McKinley , he was Vice President from March 4, 1901 for about six months until he was sworn in as President after the fatal assassination attempt on McKinley on September 14, 1901 at the age of 42. This makes Roosevelt - based on his age at the inauguration - the youngest president in US history to date.

As a candidate for the Republican Party , he was re-elected in 1904 , before he initially renounced the candidacy for another term in 1908. He was succeeded by William Howard Taft , who also belonged to the Republican Party. Because he was dissatisfied with his policy and the Republicans had not nominated him, but again the incumbent in 1912 , Roosevelt ran for the newly founded Progressive Party alongside Taft for the US presidency. Like Taft, however, he was defeated in the November 1912 election by Woodrow Wilson , the Democratic Party candidate .

At the international level, Roosevelt was the first American to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 , after having made a significant contribution to the end of the Russo-Japanese War with his diplomatic initiative the previous year .

Life to the presidency

Early years and education

Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War, 1898
NYPD Commissioner Roosevelt on tour

Theodore Roosevelt was born in New York City in 1858 as the son of Theodore Roosevelt (* September 22, 1831 - February 9, 1878) and his wife Martha "Mittie" Bulloch (* July 8, 1835 - February 14, 1884) in a very wealthy and socially established family was born. His father, who was of Dutch origin, was a successful and internationally active businessman whom Roosevelt accompanied on many trips to Europe and Egypt in his youth. So he stayed, inter alia. also a few months in Germany and also spoke some German (as well as French and Italian). From 1876 to 1880 he studied at Harvard University , where he was particularly fascinated by natural history. In 1882 his book about the naval war between England and the USA, which is valid up to modern times, was published under the title The Naval War of 1812 , in which he first showed his interest in the armament and importance of the fleet.

In the same year Roosevelt's political career began. He ran as an independent Republican Party candidate for the New York House of Representatives and was elected. He campaigned massively for reforms , which made other MPs aware of him. In 1884, however, he retired and stayed on his ranch in North Dakota for two years to work on his book The Conquest of the West . In 1886 he ran for the office of Mayor of New York City, nominated by the Republicans. He officially achieved 27 percent of the vote and thus lost in the election, which was overshadowed by allegations of fraud. The New York Police Department , under the control of Tammany Hall , had a reputation for being one of the most corrupt in America. Roosevelt was appointed head of the New York Police Department for two years in 1895 and radically reformed the police force. With his rigid alcohol bans on Sundays, he made many enemies, but kept his consistent line. Two years later he joined President William McKinley's cabinet as Deputy Secretary of the Navy. In this position, he supported the demand for a war against Spain , which opposed Cuba's aspirations for independence . On April 25, 1898, the Spanish-American War began and Roosevelt resigned from his position as Deputy Secretary of the Navy to set up a cavalry regiment, which he commanded as a colonel. With his " Rough Riders ", which consisted of daring cowboys, but also of sport riders from the East Coast upper class, he showed great daring and leadership; the operation in Cuba, where he also killed a Spaniard, earned him the reputation of a war hero. In 2001 he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his achievements . In 1898 he ran for governor of New York State and won that election. He took up his new office on January 1, 1899. As governor, he campaigned for reforms of working conditions in the factories and improved the supply and transport system.

The administration's promises have been kept ; Republicans advertising poster for the 1900 presidential election

Roosevelt had at times a private fortune, converted to 2010, of 125 million dollars, most of which he lost again.

His growing popularity made him the ideal candidate for the office of US Vice President in 1900 , although the conservative wing of the party in particular had reservations about him and Roosevelt initially preferred to remain governor because of the greater scope for decision-making. Roosevelt finally accepted the nomination as running mate from President William McKinley in the summer of 1900 , who was re-elected for a second term in November 1900 . Roosevelt was sworn in as Vice President on March 4, 1901. Accordingly, he did not run for another term as governor in 1900; his term of office ended at the turn of the year in 1901 (at that time the governor of New York was elected for two - and not four - years, unlike today).

Presidency (1901–1909)

Roosevelt was sworn in as President in September 1901
Republican election poster from 1904
Roosevelt (left) with his future Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks (1904)

On September 14, 1901, William McKinley died as a result of an assassination attempt eight days earlier in Buffalo . With the president's death, Roosevelt automatically advanced to the highest office in the state for the remainder of the term. At the age of 42, he was the youngest American president to date, based on the age at which he was inaugurated. John F. Kennedy was a year older when he took office in 1961.

Shortly after taking office, he had the President's official residence, the White House , extensively restored. As part of the renovation, the original simplicity of the building was restored, and a side wing was added at the same time as the west wing . The additional space also took into account the growing size of the presidential staff. The renovation work was completed in 1904.

When the presidential elections again came up in 1904 , Roosevelt was unanimously nominated for the Republican presidential candidate. Initially, an internal party opposition candidate from the conservative Senator Mark Hanna was expected. However, he died in February of that year, making Roosevelt's leadership role in the party now undisputed. The Democratic rival candidate was Alton B. Parker , who belonged to the conservative wing of his party. In the presidential election on November 8, 1904, Roosevelt clearly defeated his challenger with 56.7 percent of the vote. In the electoral body he received 336 votes, Parker 140. His renewed swearing-in as president took place on March 4, 1905 in front of the Capitol in Washington. With the previous election, Charles W. Fairbanks, for the first time since Roosevelt's advancement to president, also filled the vacant office of vice president since 1901. Although Roosevelt initially disliked the election of Fairbanks at the nomination convention, he accepted it in order to pacify the conservative wing of the party. With his election victory, Roosevelt was the first president to be re-elected after moving up from the office of vice president. This was to be repeated in 1924 , 1948 and 1964 .

On the evening of the 1904 election, Roosevelt announced that the first three and a half years in the White House would be viewed as a full term of office and that he would not be re-elected in 1908. A little later, he regretted this statement, but in the end he stuck to the announcement.

Domestic politics

Social and economic policy

Roosevelt quickly began to realize his ideas in the country. Domestically, he strengthened the workers and campaigned massively for monopoly control over commercial enterprises (trusts); He even had a state complaint filed against the railway trust under the leadership of JP Morgan . His reforms concerned the administrative structures (e.g. attempt to establish an independent civil service), the economy and environmental policy. In doing so, he mainly opposed those who got rich at the expense of the workers, and thus went on a course of confrontation with most of the members of his own party. In October 1901, Roosevelt became the first President to receive an African American , Booker T. Washington , for an official meeting at the White House. In particular with conservative politicians from the southern states , this led to considerable resentment. Therefore, Roosevelt avoided inviting African Americans for the remainder of his presidency.

Roosevelt was the first president to get involved in a strike. When about 150,000 miners went to work in Pennsylvania during the so-called anthracite strike in 1902 , he campaigned for an improvement in their working conditions, a regular eight-hour day and better occupational health and safety, and advocated arbitration between employers and workers.

Environmental policy

During his tenure, Roosevelt also founded a number of national parks in the United States and is therefore an early advocate of conservation . In his honor, his portrait head was carved into the granite of Mount Rushmore , South Dakota , as one of four presidents , and Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota was established in 1978 . As a young man, he had often moved to North Dakota; he liked the hard life on the Western Frontier and especially the extreme experiences of nature. For a few years he also owned a ranch there, but it turned out to be economically unsustainable. One of his numerous books deals with being a cowboy in North Dakota, where he also served as an assistant sheriff.

Education and Sports Policy

Just as he worked with the Rough Riders for a close-to-nature, strenuous upbringing, he also got involved in the dispute about the design of American football , which in his view threatened to soften after a few deaths. In 1908 he interfered in rule disputes at the 1908 Olympics , because he believed the American sports rules to be just as correct as the British. Through his commitment, the Olympic Games were further politicized. He also corresponded with Pierre de Coubertin and sent him a lecture for the 1st Olympic Congress in Lausanne in 1913 .

Foreign policy

The Big Stick in the Caribbean Sea : Caricature of the US policy of intervention from 1904
President Roosevelt (right) on his voyage to Panama in 1906, here on the presidential ship Mayflower

Roosevelt's foreign policy is often described in terms of the big stick . This refers to a saying from one of his speeches from 1901, in which he quoted an African proverb:

“Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far. "

"Speak softly and carry a big stick, [then] you will go far."

This dictum was taken up by various cartoonists who portrayed Roosevelt with a big stick.

On December 6, 1904, in his annual speech to Congress, with the Roosevelt Corollary , his addition to the Monroe Doctrine , he laid the foundation for a more expansionist foreign policy within the Western Hemisphere, where he believed the United States should act as a police force. This was in response to several European powers having begun to exert military pressure on Latin American states that owed them money. So was z. For example, the German Reich was deterred by building up a strong American threat from a military operation against Venezuela , where they wanted to keep themselves harmless due to a lack of debt payments.

With the enforcement of the route of the Panama Canal through Panama against the route through Nicaragua preferred in the USA , the purchase of the failed Panama Canal Company from France (to date the most expensive land deal in history) and the more or less open support of the Panamanian independence movement against Colombia At the same time he strengthened the military and economic possibilities of his country in the Atlantic and Pacific regions. When he visited the canal construction site in 1906, he was the first incumbent president to leave the United States.

In 1905, as a negotiator, he led the peace negotiations at the end of the Russo-Japanese War in the east coast resort of Portsmouth . The negotiations, which were on the verge of failure on several occasions, ultimately led to the Treaty of Portsmouth , particularly because of his diplomatic skills . In 1906, Roosevelt became the first American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his contribution to ending this war . In 1906 he intervened in the first Morocco crisis and there, too, clearly showed how he saw the future role of the USA in the world.

Appeals to the Supreme Court

Roosevelt appointed three judges to the Supreme Court during his presidency :

Other appointments were made to lower federal courts.

Recorded states

Theodore Roosevelt

Oklahoma was granted state status during Roosevelt's tenure in the White House. Oklahoma was formally admitted as the 46th US state on November 16, 1907.

End of the presidency

By 1909 the internal dispute in the Republican Party intensified between progressive supporters of its policies and conservative voices in the party. As announced, Roosevelt waived a third term in office in the run-up to the 1908 presidential election . He supported William Howard Taft , whom he himself had brought into the cabinet as Secretary of War a few years earlier . Taft won the election and took office on March 4, 1909.

After the time in the White House

Private life and political activity after the presidency

Excerpt from a speech by Roosevelt on “Citizens' Rights”, recorded by Thomas Edison in New York's Carnegie Hall on March 12, 1912. Length 4:12
Roosevelt with a Killed Elephant in Africa (ca.1909)
Theodore Roosevelt as a Hunter 1885. New York studio photo.
Roosevelt during the 1912 election campaign

After giving up a new presidential candidacy, Roosevelt retired into private life for a few years.

During the Smithsonian-Roosevelt African Expedition from 1909 to 1910, he and his son Kermit , accompanied by Frederick Courteney Selous, took part in an expedition (big game hunt) to Africa, which was equipped by the Smithsonian Institution . Its purpose was to collect specimens for the Smithsonian's new natural history museum, now known as the National Museum of Natural History . The expedition collected around 11,400 specimens of animals, which it took the Smithsonian naturalists eight years to catalog. After the expedition, Roosevelt reported about it in his book African Game Trails .

Son Kermit also accompanied the ex-president to Europe, where the two visited Vienna in April 1910. Roosevelt had an hour-long audience with Emperor Franz Joseph I. From the audience in the Vienna Hofburg, Roosevelt's question was spread to the emperor, what was the purpose of his office or task in the 20th century, whereupon Franz Joseph said he was “the last Monarchs of the old school "and explained his understanding of office:" The purpose of my office is to protect my peoples from their politicians! "

In May 1910 Roosevelt was a guest at a military exercise in Döberitz near Berlin. Here he met the German Kaiser Wilhelm II . On May 12, 1910, Theodore Roosevelt received an honorary doctorate from the Philosophical Faculty of Berlin University . In the same year he caused a stir with his Paris speech Citizenship in a Republic .

Since Roosevelt was not satisfied with the policies of his successor Taft, he sought again for the Republican top candidacy for the 1912 presidential election . However, incumbent Taft was re-elected as a candidate at the Republican National Convention . He then applied as a candidate for the Progressive Party ("Bull Moose Party"). The explosive mood in the election campaign culminated in an assassination attempt on October 14, 1912. Although the shot was fired at close range, Roosevelt suffered only one flesh wound and gave a speech of over 60 minutes before he was taken to the hospital.

Roosevelt's candidacy split Republican votes and enabled Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win at a time when Republicans had almost always been president. However, Roosevelt and his vice-presidential candidate, California Governor Hiram Johnson , won 27 percent more votes than Taft (23 percent). Although he even won the majority of the vote in California , Wilson clearly won with 41 percent and 435 out of 531 voters .

Besides Roosevelt, only his relative Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for more than two terms ( 1940 for a third and 1944 for a fourth). The first US President, George Washington , had recommended that his successors should not remain in office for more than two terms. It was not until 1951 that the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution limited the presidential term of office to two terms .

Theodore Roosevelt advocated US involvement in the conflict in Europe as early as 1914 after the beginning of the First World War and its escalation. Until the USA entered the war in 1917, he criticized President Wilson for his foreign policy of neutrality. Although Wilson, like Roosevelt, advocated progressivism- oriented reforms domestically , both politicians were divided by a mutual dislike. In 1918, Roosevelt voted for intervention in Russia in response to the October Revolution . He also called for the war to continue until the Central Powers unconditionally surrender . Roosevelt firmly opposed the fourteen-point plan presented by Wilson .

Although the Progressive Party he founded had received a high proportion of the popular vote in 1912 , it was only able to win a few seats and government posts (mainly in California). Roosevelt realized that a permanent establishment as a third force would hardly be possible. So he later returned to the Republican Party. In the 1916 presidential election , he spoke out in favor of the Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes , who was defeated by incumbent Wilson in an extremely narrow decision. Hughes was also part of the progressive wing of the party. Roosevelt's resignation, among other factors, helped conservative forces gain influence in the Republican Party. The opposite trend emerged among the Democrats, with the liberal and progressive camp growing stronger.

Roosevelt-Rondon Expedition

The original crew of the Roosevelt-Rondon Expedition in Brazil, from left: Zahm, Rondon, Kermit, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala (1914)

1913-1914 Roosevelt and the Brazilian Colonel Cândido Rondon led the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition to the Amazon Basin , in which Roosevelt's son Kermit also took part. A river was renamed in honor of Roosevelt in Rio Roosevelt . The ex-president suffered serious health damage during this expedition, from which he never recovered.


By 1918, Roosevelt was again considered a possible candidate for the Republican presidential candidacy in 1920 . However, his health put an end to such plans: as a late consequence of the injuries sustained on his expedition in the Amazon basin, the former president had to undergo an operation, which he barely survived. The death of his youngest son Quentin , who fell in Europe in 1918, hit him mentally hard. On January 6, 1919, Theodore Roosevelt died in his sleep at the age of 60 on his Sagamore Hill estate in Oyster Bay on Long Island .

Political aftermath

The four presidents at Mount Rushmore (left to right): George Washington , Thomas Jefferson , Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln

Theodore Roosevelt is considered by historians to be the first modern US president and is still very popular with the American population. Through the political rise of the USA to a world power at the beginning of the 20th century, he succeeded in giving the presidency lasting weight. In particular, he successfully claimed the right of the president to formulate the increasingly important foreign policy . Although, in the opinion of many historians, its foreign policy appeared to do more justice to the global political role of the United States, it is also viewed critically. Even during his tenure, Roosevelt was repeatedly confronted with the accusation of imperialism , even though his foreign policy encompassed more security than economic aspects. Domestically, too, he was by no means passive, reforms under the catchphrase square deal in social and economic policy are of not inconsiderable importance in the historical context. Above all, they underline the expansion of presidential power vis-à-vis Congress , after legislative impulses had come more from the legislature in recent decades . Most historians also consider Roosevelt's progressive environmental policy to be significant, as it was essentially far ahead of its time (environmental protection played virtually no political role in Roosevelt's day). Because of his domestic politics, Roosevelt is often regarded as the first progressive US president, including Woodrow Wilson ( New Freedom ) , Franklin D. Roosevelt ( New Deal ) and Lyndon B. Johnson ( Great Society ) .


Roosevelt family photographed by the Pach Brothers, 1903

Theodore Roosevelt first married Alice Hathaway Lee (1861–1884) in 1880, with whom he had a daughter:

  1. Alice (1884–1980) ⚭ 1906 Nicholas Longworth (1869–1931), member of the US House of Representatives .

In 1886 he married Edith Kermit Carow (1861–1948) for the second time . The marriage had five children:

  1. Theodore (1887–1944) ⚭ 1910 Eleanor Butler Alexander (1889–1960)
  2. Kermit (1889–1943) ⚭ 1914 Belle Wyatt Willard (1892–1968)
  3. Ethel (1891–1977) ⚭ 1913 Richard Derby (1881–1963)
  4. Archibald (1894–1979) ⚭ 1917 Grace Stackpole Lockwood (1894–1971)
  5. Quentin (1897–1918, killed as a fighter pilot in World War I)

Theodore Roosevelt was distantly related to the later Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt ; the two were fifth cousins.

The teddybear

Roosevelt's official portrait in the White House

The teddy bear was named after him. During an unsuccessful hunting trip for days in Mississippi , during which Roosevelt had resolved to shoot a bear, no one was seen; when one of his hunting assistants came across a rather small bear (235 pounds, a little over 100 kilograms), he tied it to a tree and released it to Roosevelt to shoot. Roosevelt, however, refused to get such a prey and decided not to shoot it (the bear was then killed with a knife by one of his helpers).

The cartoonist Clifford Berryman of the Washington Post put the bear in a cartoon round and cute, which fall then on the front page of the Washington Post published on 16 November 1902, the text "Drawing The Line In Mississippi". Some readers wanted to see more of it. Berryman made the bear smaller, rounder and cuter in the following cartoons and placed him on every picture with the president. Since the short name for Theodore is "Teddy" in American, the bear was quickly called "Teddy's Bear" by the readers and finally became "Teddy Bear".

Coincidentally, this winter the German company Steiff had started producing small bears with movable joints and a button in the ear, of which the New York company FAO Schwarz ordered 3,000 pieces. This is how the worldwide success of the teddy bear began; Steiff quickly sold the plush toy in its own country, where it is still sold today under the Germanized name.


Theodore Roosevelt in Masonic clothing at the Spokane Masonic Temple in 1905
Roosevelt's gravestone

Roosevelt was a Freemason and visited many Masonic lodges around the world , including in Africa, Europe and South America. Masonic correspondence is also included in his thousands of letters.

On January 2, 1901, at Matinecock Lodge No. 806 Long Islands , he was promoted to journeyman on March 27 of the same year and made master on April 24. He was an honorary member of the lodges Masonic Veterans Association of the Pacific Coast (1901), Illinois Masonic Veterans Association (1903), Pentalpha No. 23 in Washington, DC (April 4, 1904) and Rienzi in Rome .

“Something that seemed so attractive about Freemasonry that I gladly took the chance to become a Freemason is the fact that what a government often only praises, namely treating every person as a person according to their merits, is being realized here . "

- Theodore Roosevelt : Speech on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of George Washington's master degree (1902)

He headed the annual inspection of the Christian Freemasons' organization, the Knights Templar , on May 26, 1902 in the ellipse south of the White House . At the Masonic laying of the foundation stone of Army War College on February 21, 1903, he gave a speech and on April 24, 1903 laid the foundation stone of the north gate of Yellowstone National Park under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Montana . On April 14, 1906, he laid the Masonic foundation stone for the office building of the US House of Representatives in Washington, DC

In Washington State , Roosevelt solemnly laid the foundation stone of the Masonic Temple in Tacoma on May 22, 1903 , that of the Temple in Spokane on May 26 of the same year, and on June 8, 1907, the foundation stone was laid for the Masonic Temple on 13th St. and New York Ave. . in Washington, DC

He honored the ceremony of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for the 200th birthday of Benjamin Franklin on April 19, 1906. He attended the laying of the foundation stone of the Pilgrim Memorial on August 20, 1907 in Provincetown , Massachusetts in Masonic clothing . He last paid a visit to the New York Grand Lodge on May 11, 1917.

The Pulitzer Prize- winning biography of Edmund Morris makes no mention of Roosevelt's Masonic activities.


Like his family, Roosevelt was a member of the Dutch Reformed Church . He attended Madison Square Presbyterian Church until the age of 16 . Later, while living in Oyster Bay, Roosevelt attended an Episcopal church with his wife . In Washington, however, he attended the Grace Reformed Church .

As president, he advocated the separation of religion and state and found it not wise to mint In God We Trust on coins and print on banknotes, as it was sinful to write the name of a deity on something as mundane as money.


Theodore Roosevelt gave the DC-6 "Theodore Roosevelt" its name , as did the jumping bass species Etheostoma teddyroosevelt, which was discovered in 2012 . Furthermore, several ships of the United States Navy have been named after him, such as the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt . On November 8, 2019, an asteroid was named after him: (188693) Roosevelt . In addition, two counties in the United States are named after Roosevelt.

In culture

Roosevelt is portrayed or caricatured in the following films / video games:

In the story The Jaguar God of Culebra by Don Rosa , Dagobert Duck meets Theodor Roosevelt and in the end receives the first teddy bear, which was named after Roosevelt, instead of the treasury of the Incas, Mayas and Aztecs, which means that Dagobert does a good business.

A life-size equestrian sculpture and a bust made of butter were created in 1904.

Roosevelt Cabinet


  • Edmund Morris: The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. (Volume 1, Pulitzer Prize ).
  • Edmund Morris: Theodore Rex. (= Volume 2).
  • Edmund Morris: Colonel Roosevelt . tape 3 . Random House , New York 2010, ISBN 0-375-50487-7 .
  • Kathleen Dalton: A Strenuous Life . Vintage Books, New York City 2004, ISBN 0-679-44663-X .
  • Bernhard Kupfer: Lexicon of Nobel Prize Winners. Patmos Verlag Düsseldorf 2001.
  • Mellander, Gustavo A .; Mellander, Nelly Maldonado & Magoon, Charles Edward; (1999). The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1-56328-155-4 . OCLC 42970390 . A more historical perspective.
  • Natalie A. Naylor et al .: Theodore Roosevelt: Many-Sided American. - Interlaken, NY: Heart of the Lakes Publishing, 1992.
  • John Morton Blum: The Progressive Presidents: The Lives of Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Lyndon B. Johnson WW Norton, New York City 1982, ISBN 978-0-393-00063-4 .
  • Mellander, Gustavo A. (1971). The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Danville, Ill .: Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568 .


  • Ken Burns : The Roosevelts: An Intimate History . Seven-part television documentary on PBS (United States, 2014).

Web links

Commons : Theodore Roosevelt  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Theodore Roosevelt  - Sources and full texts (English)

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Dominik Nagl: "I am a part of everything that I have read" - The "Cowboy" President Theodore Roosevelt as a writer and literary critic. In: Patrick Ramponi et al. (Ed.): Poets and leaders: The literature of statesmen, popes and despots from the early modern period to the present. Tübingen 2014, pp. 253–268, here: pp. 257f.
  2. ^ Howard Zinn: A People's History of the United States . Harper Perennial, New York 2005, ISBN 0-06-083865-5 , p. 273.
  3. ^ Theodore Roosevelt | Spanish-American War | US Army | Medal of Honor Recipient. Accessed September 30, 2020 .
  4. Christian Wernicke: Power and Millions - Mitt Romney is not the first extremely rich politician who wants to become American President. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . January 27, 2012.
  5. ^ Ragnhild Fiebig-von Hase: Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909). Representative of "modern" America. In: Christof Mauch (Ed.): The American Presidents. 5th, continued and updated edition. Munich 2009, pp. 254–269, here: p. 258.
  6. ^ Ragnhild Fiebig-von Hase: Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909). Representative of "modern" America. In: Christof Mauch (Ed.): The American Presidents. 5th, continued and updated edition. Munich 2009, pp. 254–269, here: p. 259.
  7. ^ Ragnhild Fiebig-von Hase: Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909). Representative of "modern" America. In: Christof Mauch (Ed.): The American Presidents. 5th, continued and updated edition. Munich 2009, pp. 254–269, here: p. 260.
  8. ^ Ragnhild Fiebig-von Hase: Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909). Representative of "modern" America. In: Christof Mauch (Ed.): The American Presidents. 5th, continued and updated edition. Munich 2009, pp. 254–269, here: p. 262.
  10. Arnd Krüger : Neo-Olympism between nationalism and internationalism, in: Horst Ueberhorst (Hrsg.): Geschichte der Leibesübungen , Volume 3/1, Berlin: Bartels & Wernitz 1980, 522-568.
  12. ^ President Roosevelt's African Trip . In: Science . 28, No. 729, December 18, 1908, pp. 876-877. doi : 10.1126 / science.28.729.876 . PMID 17743798 .
  13. ^ Smithsonian-Roosevelt African Expedition . In: National Museum of Natural History: Celebrating 100 Years . Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
  15. see, inter alia, Isabella Ackerl: Geschichte Österreichs - Daten von 1806 bis today (2012); Georg Markus : You will laugh, it's serious. A humorous balance sheet of the 20th century , Amalthea, Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-85002-429-6 .
  16. ^ Ragnhild Fiebig-von Hase: Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909). Representative of "modern" America. In: Christof Mauch (Ed.): The American Presidents. 5th, continued and updated edition. Munich 2009, pp. 254–269, here: pp. 268/69.
  17. ^ Theodore Roosevelt: Life after the presidency American President
  18. ^ Ragnhild Fiebig-von Hase: Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909). Representative of "modern" America. In: Christof Mauch (Ed.): The American Presidents. 5th, continued and updated edition. Munich 2009, pp. 254–269, here: p. 268.
  19. ^ Ragnhild Fiebig-von Hase: Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909). Representative of "modern" America. In: Christof Mauch (Ed.): The American Presidents. 5th, continued and updated edition. Munich 2009, pp. 254–269, here: p. 269.
  20. American President: Theodore Roosevelt: Impact and legacy
  21. ^ William R. Denslow, Harry S. Truman : 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z Part Two . Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4179-7579-2 .
  22. ^ Matinecock Masonic Historical Society ( Memento of February 6, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  23. Religion of Theodore Roosevelt
  24. Ralph C. Reynolds: In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash . 1999
  25. New Fish Species Discovered: Roosevelt, Carter, Clinton, Gore and Obama . of November 19, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  26. ^ Charles Curry Aiken, Joseph Nathan Kane: The American Counties: Origins of County Names, Dates of Creation, Area, and Population Data, 1950-2010. 6th edition. Scarecrow Press, Lanham 2013, ISBN 978-0-8108-8762-6 , p. XIV .
  27. Son Rosa: Uncle Dagobert Volume 28 - The Jaguar God of Culebra. Ehapa Verlag, Cologne, 2003.