Jassir Arafat (born August 24, 1929 in Cairo , Egypt , † November 11, 2004 in Clamart , Hauts-de-Seine department , France ), Arabic ياسر عرفات, DMG Yāsir ʿArafāt , originallyمحمد عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني / Muḥammad ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān ʿAbd ar-Raʾūf ʿArafāt al-Qudwa al-Ḥusainī , Kunya :أبو عمّار / Abū ʿAmmār , was a Palestinian politician and Nobel Peace Prize winner . He was the third chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization from February 4, 1969, and the first President of the Palestinian Territories from February 12, 1996 until his death on November 11, 2004 . In 1957 he was a co-founder and later leader of the Palestinian Fatah , which carried out numerous terrorist and bomb attacks on Israeli, Jordanian and Lebanese targets.
For decades, Arafat's endeavor was to destroy Israel; As a strategic means of implementing this goal, he favored violence against Israeli citizens and civil institutions, which would fundamentally destabilize the state, unsettle its citizens and ultimately make Israel easy prey for an attack by Arab armies. Arafat's support for the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait resulted in the displacement of the Palestinians from Kuwait in 1991 . Around 450,000 Palestinians had to leave Kuwait within a few days. This and the loss of essential supporters in the Arab world led Arafat to undertake peace negotiations with Israel on behalf of the PLO in 1993 , which led to mutual recognition. In 1994 he received the Nobel Peace Prize together with Shimon Peres and Jitzchak Rabin .
In 2000, Arafat negotiated unsuccessfully with Israel's then Prime Minister Ehud Barak and then President of the United States , Bill Clinton , about the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. After the failure of Camp David II , Arafat supported the Second Intifada , as a result of which he lost influence in the last years of his life, especially in foreign policy. It was only after Arafat's death that Palestinian leaders were ready to apologize for Arafat's support for Saddam Hussein and the invasion of Kuwait.
According to various biographers, Yasser Arafat was born in the Egyptian capital, Cairo . Arafat, on the other hand, frequently claimed to have been born in Palestine, giving contradicting statements over time. Sometimes he claimed to have been born in the old city of Jerusalem , sometimes in the Gaza Strip .
What is certain is that his father from Gaza and his mother came from a respected Jerusalem family. They had married in the 1920s and emigrated to Cairo. Yasser was the sixth of seven children. When he was about four years old, his mother died. In order to relieve the father with the six half- orphans, the mother's brother, Salim Abu Saud, took Jassir and his younger brother to live in Jerusalem, which at that time belonged to the British mandate of Palestine . He lived there for four years.
When he returned to Cairo after his father remarried, he attended school and later the university where he studied electrical engineering . For a time he occupied himself with Jewish culture, had Jewish acquaintances and read Zionist works e.g. B. by Theodor Herzl . In 1946 Arafat is said to have had intensive contact with Mohammed Amin al-Husseini , the Mufti of Jerusalem who collaborated with the German National Socialists and who had found asylum in Egypt. Al-Husseini was a distant relative of Arafat. However, that he was Arafat's uncle is a legend.
Arafat was now actively involved in the Arab national movement in Palestine. At the time he was a proponent of military confrontation and procured weapons that were smuggled into the Mandate area. In Cairo, Yasser Arafat made friends with Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini , who led the units of Palestinian Arabs in the Jerusalem region. When Arafat heard of Abdel Khader al-Husseini's death in the Palestinian War at the Battle of Kastel Mountain in April 1948, he broke off his studies in Cairo and took an active part in the war. He joined the Muslim Brotherhood that fought in the Gaza Strip and in the Battle of Kfar Darom .
When the Egyptian army intervened in the Palestinian War on May 15, 1948, Arafat and his unit were ordered to withdraw. This was a formative experience for him. He later accused the Arab states of treason for not helping the Palestinians win the battle and not allowing them to fight. The Palestinian Arabs suffered a military defeat against Israel. Around 750,000 Palestinians were displaced or fled and from then on lived mostly as stateless people in neighboring countries.
At the end of 1952 he was temporarily arrested after a failed assassination attempt on Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser .
In 1956 he left the university as a graduate engineer and founded the Union of Palestinian University Graduates . He then volunteered for the Egyptian army and fought against France , Great Britain and Israel in the 1956 Suez War . He was a lieutenant in the Egyptian army and was considered an explosives expert. In the same year he went to Kuwait , where he worked as an engineer and became a successful building contractor.
Foundation of Fatah
In 1957 he founded the first cell of the Movement for the Liberation of Palestine ( al-Fatah ) in Kuwait together with Chalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad ), from which the political party of the same name emerged in 1959 . From 1958 Arafat was a board member and from 1968 chairman of Fatah.
In the late 1960s, tensions between the PLO and the Jordanian government grew; Palestinian militias ( Fedayin ) had effectively established a state in the state of Jordan and controlled strategic positions such as the oil refineries near Zarqa . Jordan viewed these circumstances as a growing threat to its sovereignty and security and tried to disarm the Palestinian militias. In June 1970, after a failed Palestinian assassination attempt on the Jordanian king, open fighting broke out, which ended with the PLO's flight from Jordan to Lebanon . If the battle of Karame was seen as the first historic victory of the PLO, it suffered a heavy defeat under Arafat's leadership in 1970 with Black September . He first had to flee to Cairo and then to Lebanon.
Arafat's historic appearance at the UN General Assembly on November 13, 1974, when he gave a speech in uniform, with a keffiyeh and a pistol holster, was received with enthusiasm by the Arab and Communist states. In the speech, Arafat claimed that the PLO had sole power over Palestine. He spoke of wanting to create a world without colonialism, imperialism, neocolonialism and without " racism in all its forms, including Zionism ". Arafat avoided speaking of Israel in order to deny the state any legitimacy and instead used the term Zionist entity . In this speech, he presented Zionism as an imperialist, colonialist and racist ideology , which - decidedly reactionary and discriminatory - should be equated with anti-Semitism . He also repeated an old anti-Semitic stereotype, according to which Zionism wanted the Jews to show no loyalty to their home countries and to rise above their fellow citizens. He denied the UN the right to divide the indivisible homeland of the Palestinians , thereby rejecting the partition resolution of 1947. He also claimed that the 1948 Palestinian War was started by Israel and not by the Arab states.
As the legitimate political representative of the Palestinians, the PLO was granted observer status at the UN. The Palestinian shawl - draped like the contours of Palestine - like the holster was later one of his trademarks, without which he rarely appeared.
He gave another important speech on December 13, 1988. A novelty here was that the PLO recognized the UN resolution and showed a willingness to compromise. However, Arafat wanted the violent actions of the PLO to be understood as legitimate resistance. This speech also confirms the interpretation of UN General Assembly Resolution 194 , according to which it guarantees the right of return of the Palestinian refugees, thereby establishing a doctrine that is still valid today, at least in official statements by the PLO. In the speech, Arafat did not explicitly grant the Jews a right to national self-determination and did not explicitly accept that Israel could be a Jewish state .
As a consequence of the Israeli Lebanon campaign against the PLO headquarters in Beirut in July / August 1982, Arafat had to flee to Tunisia . He and his followers left Beirut, which was occupied by Israel, and established a new PLO headquarters in exile in Tunis .
The way to international recognition
In 1988 Arafat indirectly recognized Israel and in 1989 declared the 1964 PLO charter , which called for the destruction of the State of Israel, to be invalid.
In 1990, Arafat welcomed the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and expressed solidarity with Saddam Hussein . The rich Arab oil states on the side of the war opponent USA then froze their financial support for the PLO. Another consequence was the expulsion of the Palestinians from Kuwait in 1991 . Around 450,000 Palestinians had to leave Kuwait within a few days. This and the loss of essential supporters in the Arab world led Arafat to undertake peace negotiations with Israel on behalf of the PLO in 1993 , which led to mutual recognition.
On April 7, 1992, Arafat survived an Air Bissau passenger plane crash due to a sandstorm in the Libyan desert. Arafat was operated on several times on the brain and treated on the right eye in a hospital in Misrata because of a blood clot by surgeon Meftah Shwedy.
On September 13, 1993, when the declaration of principles on temporary (Palestinian) self-government between the State of Israel and the PLO was signed in Washington, there was a historic handshake between Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Jizhak Rabin . Nobel Peace Prize winner Rabin later paid with his life for this concession in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict through a terrorist attack by a Jewish ultra-nationalist.
In December 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize together with Shimon Peres and Jitzchak Rabin . During the week of mourning for Yitzchak Rabin after his murder in November 1995, Arafat visited Leah Rabin and her family at their apartment in Tel Aviv to express their condolences. It was the first time he stepped on Israeli soil. For security reasons he was unable to attend the funeral ceremonies. He described how much he was upset by the murder and how desperate he was about having lost his partner in the peace process. In 1995 Arafat received the German Media Prize in Baden-Baden .
In 2000, Arafat negotiated with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and US President Clinton at Camp David about the creation of a Palestinian state. However, the negotiations failed. The outgoing President Clinton and Barak, who was replaced shortly afterwards in general elections by his political opponent Ariel Sharon , blamed Arafat for the failure of these negotiations. Arafat, on the other hand, blamed Barak and Clinton for the failure.
Second intifada and political decline
Even before the Second Intifada , Arafat was accused of playing a double game. While he campaigned for peace and diplomacy on the international stage, he is said to have made anti-Semitic speeches against Israel in front of his supporters in Gaza. He was also repeatedly accused of actively participating in arms smuggling for paramilitary and terrorist purposes (see Karine-A affair ) and of making the security forces under his command available to the National Authority for attacks on Israel. There were also reports from British media such as the BBC that terrorist organizations such as the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, which is affiliated with Fatah , are indirectly financed by EU funds through the Arafat-ruled autonomy authority. Finally, he tolerated or supported the renewed Palestinian uprising, which isolated him mainly in terms of foreign policy.
In response to the Second Intifada, Israel repeatedly occupied parts of the Palestinian autonomous territories. The Israeli government also blamed Arafat himself for violent attacks. From 2001 onwards, Arafat , who lives in Ramallah, has been placed under house arrest several times by Israel . His helicopters were destroyed in December 2001, preventing him from traveling between Gaza and Ramallah. During Operation Schutzschild from March 29, 2002 to May 3, 2002, the Israeli army destroyed part of Arafat's headquarters, the Muqāta'a . On September 11, 2003, the Israeli government decided to expel Arafat. He was supposed to be brought into exile in North Africa by helicopter. After the expulsion order, tens of thousands of Palestinians took to the streets to protest. Arafat appealed to the population to resist the decision. He would " rather die than surrender ".
On 14 September 2003, the Israeli Deputy Prime Minister presented Ehud Olmert also an attack on Arafat as a legitimate way represents its removal. On September 16, 2003, were US a resolution of the UN Security Council against the expulsion of Arafat at their veto fail. Germany abstained.
In May 2002 the BND stated that the use of EU funds for terrorism “cannot be ruled out”, since Arafat apparently did not distinguish between the structure of the autonomous regime and his Fatah movement. The report continues to speak of “known mismanagement” and “widespread corruption” (file number 39C-04/2/02).
At the time, the USA and Israel had already repeatedly asked the European Union in Brussels to examine the use of the subsidies for the Palestinian Authority more closely. Brussels said that the International Monetary Fund would ensure transparency and control of the funds . However, the IMF released a 2003 report on “Economic Achievements and Reforms in Conflict Conditions” which found that more than $ 900 million in funding for the Palestinian Authority “disappeared” between 1995 and 2000. Only Arafat and "close confidants" were authorized to issue instructions for the use of the money. According to the report, Arafat controlled 8% of the total Palestinian budget by the time he died.
Arafat was married to Suha at-Tawil , with whom he had a daughter, Zahwa (born July 24, 1995 in Neuilly-sur-Seine ), since July 17, 1990 . From the beginning of the second Intifada , i.e. from 2001, the wife and daughter lived in Paris and Tunis. In 2007 Suha moved to Malta .
Yasser Arafat's health deteriorated sharply on the night of October 28, 2004. He hadn't eaten in over a week because of an inflammation in his digestive tract. The Israeli government lifted the travel ban due to his serious illness and assured him that he would return to the West Bank . The following day Arafat was flown to Paris and taken to the Percy Military Hospital for treatment , which also has special departments for the treatment of burn victims and radioactively contaminated patients.
On November 4th, his condition worsened again; a " deep coma " has been reported. On November 10th, the kidneys and liver failed . Switching off the life support devices was refused for religious reasons. As a result of the liver damage and the resulting disturbance in the synthesis of the blood clotting factors, there was a cerebral haemorrhage . Yasser Arafat died on November 11, 2004 at 3:30 a.m. (CET).
After saying goodbye with military honors, Arafat's body was flown to Cairo in a French military plane, accompanied by his widow.
The central memorial service took place on November 12th at Cairo International Airport , to which high-ranking politicians from all over the world were invited. Following the military ceremony in Cairo, the coffin was flown to Ramallah , where the burial ceremony took place in the early afternoon. Arafat's request to be buried on the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem on the site of the Al-Aqsa Mosque was not granted by the Israeli government. Israeli Justice Minister Yosef Lapid commented on this with the words "Jewish kings are buried in Jerusalem, not Arab terrorists" . Arafat was buried in a stone coffin on the site of his former official residence in Ramallah to the great sympathy of the Palestinian population. His coffin was surrounded by earth from the Jerusalem Temple Mount.
On November 10, 2016, an “Arafat Museum” was opened in Ramallah next to the Arafat mausoleum. It cost $ 7 million and was funded by the Palestinian authorities in the West Bank. Among other things, his glasses, his revolver, his passport, his Nobel Peace Prize medal (now in the possession of Hamas ) and other memorabilia are on display. An uncritical Palestinian view of things is conveyed, for example in the depiction of the massacre at the Olympic Games in Munich in 1972 (“Response to the attack by Israeli and German security forces”). Arafat's birth is moved from Cairo to a Palestinian village near the old city of Jerusalem, according to Palestinian legends. References to his wife Suha at-Tawil are avoided, the many allegations of corruption and nepotism are completely ignored.
Just hours after Arafat's death was announced, Palestinian militants attacked the Jewish settlement of Netsarim in the Gaza Strip. In Ramallah, extremists warned the new Palestinian leadership under Mahmoud Abbas of a “ sell-out of the Palestinian cause ” and threatened Arafat's successors with death if they were willing to make concessions to Israel. The Fatah splinter group "al-Aqsa Brigades" renamed itself Martyr Yasser Arafat Brigades .
The Israeli army sealed off the West Bank completely after Arafat's death. Even Palestinians with valid work permits were not allowed to enter Israel. However, several hundred buses transported Palestinians from the Gaza Strip to the funeral in Ramallah.
Fears that the death of Yasser Arafat a setback for the Middle East - peace process meant initially proved unfounded. The Palestinian Authority canceled anti-Israel television ads and made efforts to reform the security forces. In return, the Israeli government released around 150 Palestinian prisoners, pledged support in the Palestinian elections and announced a return to the roadmap .
The Palestinian leadership constitutionally appointed the President of Parliament Rauhi Fattuh as Arafat's provisional successor and declared a 40-day mourning. In the presidential election on January 9, 2005, Mahmoud Abbas was elected chairman of the Palestinian Authority.
Speculation and investigation into cause of death and exhumation
The al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades , like the radical Palestinian organization Islamic Jihad, held Israel responsible for Arafat's death and threatened revenge. Jihad leader Khalid al-Batesch said that Israel's Prime Minister Ariel Sharon had "a hand in the killing of Arafat". However, doctors at the Percy military hospital in Clamart near Paris , where Arafat was last treated, and Arafat's confidants ruled out that the Palestinian chief had been poisoned. An autopsy did not take place, according to the widow's wishes.
Since neither Arafat's doctors nor his widow disclosed the exact cause of death, further public speculation ensued. Specialists particularly suggested poisoning and AIDS . Ahmad Jibril , General Secretary of the Palestinian People's Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC), said in July 2007 that he had seen the French report on Arafat's death. The report stated that Arafat had AIDS. Ashraf al-Kurdi, Yasser Arafat's personal physician since 1986, told the Jordanian news website Amman on August 12, 2007 that the Palestinian leader suffered from the HIV virus but did not die of the immunodeficiency disease AIDS. The virus is said to have been injected into Arafat's blood shortly before his death, according to al-Kurdi, who stated that the actual cause of death was poisoning. In August 2011, Fatah accused Mohammed Dahlan , who had previously been excluded from the party , of being behind the poisoning of Arafat and of even having obtained the poison from Paris himself. In 2005, Haaretz published an analysis by Israeli experts, according to which a possible poisoning must most likely have taken place at a dinner on October 12, 2004.
Suspected poisoning with polonium 210
In December 2011 and January 2012, the reporter Clayton Swisher contacted Arafat's widow in Malta and Paris and received from her files and a bag of personal items (toothbrush, clothes, keffiyeh ) that Arafat had used in his final days.
On July 3, 2012, the Al-Jazeera television station published the results of the Swiss Institute de Radiophysique at the University of Lausanne , to which the objects had been given for examination. Increased concentrations of radioactive polonium 210 were found compared to natural occurrences . Due to its short half-life of only 138.38 days, the radiation is halved every 138 days. Eight years after Arafat's death, only a millionth would be left of the original amount. The Swiss institute emphasized that the results were not evidence of poisoning, but at least an indication of it. The symptoms described in Arafat's French medical records that led to his death did not match the known symptoms of radioactive poisoning.
Various other experts have also expressed doubts about the theory that Arafat died by poisoning from polonium. According to an expert quoted by the Jerusalem Post , the polonium concentrations reported by the radiological institute on Arafat's personal belongings could not be traced back to poisoning eight years ago because of the half-life of Polonium 210, but would have to have been applied at a later date.
On July 31, 2012, Suha Arafat filed a complaint against unknown persons in Nanterre, France, for murder. The French judiciary launched an investigation into the cause of death at the end of August 2012. The Palestinian leadership and also the widow endorsed an exhumation, which is normally forbidden in Islam . The first preparations were made at the beginning of November, as a lot of concrete had to be removed from the mausoleum. On November 27, 2012, Arafat's body was exhumed and a team of foreign experts took samples. In September 2015, the responsible French examining magistrates decided to discontinue the ongoing proceedings, said the Nanterre public prosecutor's office, because there was insufficient evidence of a murder.
Controversial research results
In mid-October 2013, an interim result from Swiss toxicologists became known, according to which poisoning was possible but not certain. On November 6, 2013, the University of Lausanne announced that it had detected a level of polonium 210 in the samples that was significantly higher than that of natural concentrations. At the same time, they determined that the amount of lead 210 was significantly higher than the natural occurrence . Lead 210 can mask polonium poisoning because polonium 210 is a by-product of lead 210 in the radioactive decay chain and, after some time, is in radioactive equilibrium with lead . Since lead 210 has a significantly longer half-life, the residues of a possibly previous polonium poisoning can no longer be detected due to the new formation of polonium 210. The presence of the lead 210 was explained as a possible contamination of the hypothetical poison polonium. It was calculated that from an assumed poison dose of 1 GBq at the time of death, 4–5% would still have remained in the body, which would have decreased to approx. 15 Bq total dose by the time it was exhumed. The researchers couldn't rule out polonium as a cause of death, but neither did they declare it certain that polonium caused death. The results would "moderately support the proposition" ("moderately" is more certain than "slightly" and less certain than "strongly"). Independent researchers commented that the study was therefore not evidence of poisoning.
On December 3, 2013, it was reported that the French investigation team, also commissioned, had come to the conclusion that poisoning could be ruled out, rather it pointed to a natural cause of death. The research reports of a Russian investigation team, which also had access to Arafat's remains, also rule out poisoning. After the public prosecutor's office in Nanterre announced in March 2015 that the polonium traces from Arafat's grave were of natural origin, they applied for the proceedings to be discontinued in mid-July 2015. The investigating judges in Nanterre followed the application and closed the case in early September 2015.
In a scientific article published by the Swiss team in November 2015, poisoning is classified as plausible but not proven. The same study found a higher likelihood of assuming poisoning with Po 210 than the opposite assumption, assuming multiple ingestion of Po 210 in small doses.
In June 2016, a court in Paris refused (not in the last instance) to reopen the investigation into the suspected murder because there was no legal basis.
- 1993 Grand Cross of the Portuguese Order of Merit
- 1993 Félix Houphouët Boigny Peace Prize with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres
- 1994 Prince of Asturias Prize for International Cooperation
- 1994 Nobel Peace Prize with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres
- 1995 German Media Prize
- 1999 Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (1st class)
- Hero of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
- Helga Baumgarten : Arafat: between struggle and diplomacy . Ullstein, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-548-36419-5 .
- Andrew Gowers , Tony Walker: Arafat: Behind the Myth . Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg 1994, ISBN 3-434-50035-9 (translation of Behind the myth: Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian revolution , 1990).
- Amnon Kapeliuk: Yasser Arafat: The biography . With a foreword by Nelson Mandela , Palmyra, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 978-3-930378-59-3 .
- Gerhard Konzelmann : Arafat. From terrorist to man of peace. Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1993, ISBN 3-404-61296-5 . (= Bastei-Lübbe-Taschenbuch , Volume 61296, biography).
- Aharon Moshel: The olive branch in one hand: Yasser Arafat and the PLO . Facta, Munich / Hamburg 1988, ISBN 3-926827-10-6 .
- Barry Rubin, Judith Colp Rubin: Yasir Arafat: A Political Biography. Oxford University, Oxford 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-516689-7 .
- Danny Rubinstein: Yasser Arafat. From guerrilla fighter to statesman . Palmyra, Heidelberg 1996, ISBN 3-930378-09-4 (translation of The Mystery of Arafat , 1995).
- Hassan Sadek: Arafat. Hugendubel, Munich / Kreuzlingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-7205-2751-4 . (= Diederichs compact ).
- Janet and John Wallach: Yasser Arafat. The biography. Heyne, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-453-08755-0 .
- Yasir Arafat in the Munzinger archive ( beginning of article freely available)
- Literature by and about Jassir Arafat in the catalog of the German National Library
- Information from the Nobel Foundation on the 1994 award ceremony for Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin (English)
- Focus on Arafat in the Egyptian weekly newspaper Al Ahram
- Rafael Seligmann: Bury him in Jerusalem , FAZ , November 7, 2004
- Yasser Arafat biography ( memento from October 31, 2004 in the Internet Archive ), nahostkonflikt.net
- Internet presence of the PLO ( Negotiations Affairs Department ) (English, Arabic, Hebrew)
- Wolfgang G. Schwanitz : Yasir Arafat: Palestinian politician (PDF, 1.3 MiB)
Some critical considerations:
- Michael Naumann: No ball for Arafat , Die Zeit , September 18, 2003
- Petra Steinberger: The Glimmer of Hope Liar , SZ , November 4, 2004
- Gisela Dachs and Reiner Luyken: This is how Arafat sacrifices the youth of Palestine , Die Zeit , 44/2000
- Jörg Steinhaus: The Long Way of Jassir Arafat , Kronos , February 2, 2001
- Palestinians mourn Arafat but struggle for liberation will continue - Trotskyist analysis of Arafat's work, Maavak Sozialisti (Israeli section of the CWI ), November 11, 2004 (English)
- Barry Rubin, Judith Colp Rubin: Yasir Arafat: A Political Biography. P. 11f.
- Claudia Baumgart-Ochse: Israel's confrontation with terrorist violence: history, strategies and challenges, PRIF report 10/2008 p. 3 f.
- Barry Rubin: Israel: an introduction . Yale University Press, New Haven / London 2012, ISBN 978-0-300-16230-1 , p. 204
- Arafat's Squalid End How he wasted his last 30 years . Slate Christopher Hitchens November 17th, 2004
- Jill Crystal: Kuwait: Post-War Society. In: The Persian Gulf States: A Country Study. Library of Congress, accessed March 5, 2011 .
- Abbas apology to Kuwait over Iraq , BBC News, Dec. 12, 2004
- Florian Harms: To the death of Arafat - The terrorist with the Nobel Prize , on spiegel.de from November 11, 2004
- Pinhas Inbari: MIDDLE EAST: Duel of the Antipodes. In: Focus Online . March 17, 2003, accessed October 14, 2018 .
- Portrait - Jassir Arafat ( Memento from May 13, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Harvey W. Kushner: Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks / London / New Delhi 2003, p. 42 et al.
- Yasser Arafat - From Terrorist to Freedom Fighter: Facts and Questions on the Person and Politics of Yasser Arafat , July 1, 2004
- Danny Rubinstein: Yasser Arafat. From guerrilla fighter to statesman. Palmyra, Heidelberg 1995, ISBN 3-930378-09-4 , pp. 23-24
- Thomas Schmidinger, Dunja Larise: Between God's State and Islam. Handbook of political Islam , Vienna 2008, p. 77 f.
- Leah Rabin: I continue on his way. Memories of Jitzchak Rabin , Droemer Knaur, 1997, ISBN 3-426-26975-9 .
- $ 900 million - DIE WELT - WELT ONLINE
- NETZEITUNG NAHOST: USA: National Authority involved in arms smuggling ( Memento of March 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- ISRAEL ATTACKS ARAFAT OUTPOST ( Memento from May 27, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), PBS on December 3, 2001
- Resolution No. S / 2003/891 (in German) (PDF; 16 kB)
- Arafat continues in a coma , Die Zeit , November 5, 2004
- Yasser Arafat Museum Focuses On Palestinian Leader , npr , November 28, 2016
- A new museum devoted to Yasser Arafat , Los Angeles Times , November 9, 2016
- Elliott S. Horowitz: Reckless Rites: Purim and the Legacy of Jewish Violence . Princeton University Press , Princeton, NJ 2006, ISBN 978-0-691-13824-4 , p. 3.
- As PA prepares to exhume body, Israel calls Arafat poisoning claim 'baseless' , Ha-Aretz on July 4, 2012.
- Al-Manar TV (Lebanon) ( Memento from July 15, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), July 5, 2007.
- Fatah: Ex-Gaza strongman Mohammed Dahlan poisoned Arafat , Haaretz August 8, 2011.
- Revisiting Arafat's last days , Clayton Swisher in al-Jazeera blog on July 3, 2012.
- Frederik Obermaier, Süddeutsche Zeitung : The trace of the radiant poison.
- 'Polonium found on Arafat's clothing was planted' , JPost of May 7, 2012.
- "Murder": Arafat's widow reports. In: the press on July 31st.
- Der Spiegel ( online ).
- Palestine demands the exhumation of Arafat. In: Spiegel on July 4, 2012.
- Swiss team visits Arafat's grave ahead of Exhumation. In: Ha-Aretz on November 6, 2012.
- Cécile Feuillatre: Arafat body exhumed: The truth about Yasser Arafat. ( Memento from May 22, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) At fr-online.de, November 27, 2012, accessed on November 27, 2012.
- Investigations into Arafat's death are discontinued , Spiegel online. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Yasser Arafat's underwear tells experts little about his death. In: Ha-Aretz on October 14, 2013.
- Polonium-210 found in Arafat's body. In: n-tv , November 6, 2013; David Poort: Q&A: Francois Bochud on the Arafat report. In: Al Jazeera , November 8, 2013.
- Is the hypothesis “Arafat poisoned” moderately supported by the Swiss report, “strongly wrong”? In: Joods Actueel of December 3, 2013.
- taz.de : Report on Arafat's cause of death: No poison found. December 3, 2013, accessed January 30, 2015 .
- Yasser Arafat died of natural causes - Russian report. In: BBC .co.uk , December 26, 2013.
- Investigations into Arafat's death stopped. In: Die Zeit , September 2, 2015.
- Investigations into Arafat's death discontinued ( memento from September 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) at: Tagesschau.de , September 2, 2015, accessed on September 3, 2015
- 210-Po poisoning as possible cause of death: forensic investigations and toxicological analysis of the remains of Yasser Arafat
- No murder trial into Yasser Arafat's death, French court rules ( Memento from June 25, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- International reactions: Chirac and Bush express their condolences. In: derStandard.at. November 12, 2004, accessed December 3, 2017 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Muhammad 'Abd ar-Rahmān' Abd ar-Ra'ūf 'Arafāt al-Qudwa al-Husainī; محمد عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني (Arabic)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Palestinian politician and Nobel Peace Prize winner|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 24, 1929|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Cairo , Egypt|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 11, 2004|
|Place of death||Clamart , France|