Federal Intelligence Service

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Federal Intelligence Service
- BND -

Logo of the Federal Intelligence Service
State level Federation
position Higher federal authority
Business area Federal Chancellery
founding April 1, 1956
predecessor Organization Gehlen
Headquarters Berlin
president Bruno Kahl
Vice President Vice-President for central tasks and representative of the President
BrigGen Michael Baumann

Tania Freiin von Uslar-Gleichen,
Vice-President for Military Affairs,
GenMaj Werner Sczesny

Servants about 6,500 (2020)
Budget volume 1.022 billion  euros (target 2021)
Web presence www.bnd.bund.de

The Federal Intelligence Service ( BND ), based in Berlin (until the beginning of 2019: Pullach ), is one of the three German federal intelligence services , alongside the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV) and the Military Counter-Intelligence Service (MAD), and is the only German intelligence service responsible for the civil and military Foreign intelligence. Like the BfV and the MAD, it is subject to the control of the intelligence services . Its activity has been regulated by the BND law since 1990 .

The BND is the only the Federal Chancellery directly subordinate federal authority and has approximately 6,500 employees. Within the Federal Chancellery, Department 7 is responsible for the technical supervision of the BND and for coordinating the three federal intelligence services. Its head , since 2018 Bernhard Kotsch , is the coordinator of the federal intelligence services . The BND was created on April 1, 1956 when the Gehlen organization was taken over into federal service.


Logo of the BND

The BND has the task of gaining knowledge about foreign countries that are of importance to the Federal Republic of Germany in terms of foreign and security policy , to collect and evaluate the necessary information . If information, including personal data, is collected for this purpose within the scope of the BND Act , its processing is based on the data protection requirements of the BND Act.

The Federal Intelligence Service may process the necessary information, including personal data, for self-protection, for security checks on its employees, for checking access to messages and for transactions abroad. To fulfill his tasks he may also use the powers according to § 8 Abs. 2 and § 9 of the Federal Constitutional Protection Act. This includes intelligence resources , such as V-persons , observations , legends and camouflage signs . In contrast to the foreign intelligence services of some other states, the BND has no police executive powers according to Section 2 of the BND Act . B. not authorized to carry out arrests .

The BND is legally obliged to inform the Federal Chancellery or the Federal Ministries about the knowledge gained within the scope of their competence. In addition, there is an obligation to inform the Federal Chancellery about the activities of the BND. The BND has also taken over the central situation management for the Bundeswehr and supports the Bundeswehr in its missions abroad with intelligence. In background discussions , employees of the BND inform the members of the German Bundestag and take part in meetings of Bundestag committees . The BND prepares around 400 reports per month and answers around 750 inquiries from the federal government. In addition, members of the BND meet around 150 times a month for specialist briefings with their customers, for example members of federal ministries .


The BND has eleven departments.

Regional evaluation and procurement (LA and LB)

The LA and LB departments evaluate information obtained from all regions of the world and prepare it for the federal government and other addressees in the form of reports and analyzes. The focus of interest is on conflicts in crisis regions and the observation of regions that are still stable so that emerging crises can be identified as early as possible.

In addition, they put the Federal Government's intelligence mandates into so-called procurement orders for their operational staff around HUMINT who are deployed around the world . The Regional analysis to create situation reports from individual information and oral or written reports to the federal government or decision makers of different authorities. It takes the following elements into account:

  • politics
  • military
  • Economy
  • ecology
  • sociology
  • story

International Terrorism and Organized Crime (TE)

Department TE is responsible for the investigation of cross-border dangers of international terrorism and internationally organized crime .

It collects information about so-called asymmetrical threats , evaluates them and makes them available to the federal government.

The department cooperates internationally with many partner services, security authorities and scientific institutions.

Proliferation, arms trade, ABC weapons, defense technology (TW)

The TW department is responsible for the procurement and evaluation of all information on the subject of proliferation , i.e. the transfer of atomic , biological , chemical weapons and the corresponding carrier technology , as well as for monitoring developments in armaments technology .

Technical education (TA)

Radome of the telecommunications office of the Federal Intelligence Service (BND code name: Hortensie III, abbreviation: 3 D 30), used here in summer 2006. Until 2004 these were part of the former Bad Aibling Station , a facility of the US secret service NSA as part of the global spy network Echelon .

The TA department acquires information by technical means. It is responsible for telecommunications intelligence ( SIGINT ). In doing so, knowledge about abroad is gained by filtering the international communication flows. It also analyzes cyber threats and ways to counter them.

The restrictions on fundamental rights under Article 10 of the Basic Law are monitored on the one hand by the Parliamentary Control Committee ( Section 14 of the G 10 Act) and on the other hand by the G 10 Commission ( Section 15 of the G 10 Act). The independent body ( § 16 BNDG) is responsible for the control of foreign-foreign telecommunications intelligence ( § 6 ff. BNDG), where the scope of protection of Article 10 GG is not opened .

The TA department remained at the former headquarters in Pullach after the BND moved to Berlin.

Due to the ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court on the international-foreign telecommunications investigation of the Federal Intelligence Service of May 19, 2020, the legal basis for the technical investigation in the BND law must be revised in accordance with the constitution by the end of 2021.

Overall Situation Department / FIZ and Supporting Specialist Services (GU)

All information of the service flows through the GU department. It is responsible for the coordination and control of the production processes of the BND and also represents an interface to the intelligence of the Bundeswehr . On December 31, 2007, the BND took over part of the tasks of the dissolved Center for Intelligence of the Bundeswehr .

The BND representative for special crisis situations is assigned to this department and coordinates crisis management, for example if German nationals abroad are at risk.

The management and information center (FIZ) is part of the department. Here, the situation is monitored around the clock " 24/7 " and the various forms of reporting by the Federal Intelligence Service are edited and reported to the Federal Government and the highest federal authorities.

The GU department also provides the producing departments LA, LB, TE and TW with basic information such as the following services:

  • worldwide topographic and geographic data
  • Evaluation of satellite and aerial photographs
  • Open information acquisition ( OSINT ) from the Internet, print and other data sources and databases

Information technology (IT)

IT is responsible for continuously dealing with innovations in the areas of

  • Data processing
  • telecommunications
  • office automation
  • chemistry
  • Physics, etc.
  • Communications engineering
  • Information technology and
  • Software development

It also issues development and procurement orders to industry.

She is also responsible for the

  • Advice to internal users
  • Planning and project planning
  • Procurement and Development
  • Testing and evaluation
  • Commissioning and further development of technical systems

Internal Service (ID)

The Internal Service (ID) department sees itself as a modern service provider for administrative service tasks in the Federal Intelligence Service. This includes the areas of responsibility:

The ID department also houses the areas of occupational medicine and occupational safety required by law for the Federal Intelligence Service. In addition, the ID department supports employees who work for the Federal Intelligence Service in countries with critical developments, e.g. B. through psychological counseling.

The Federal Intelligence Service imparts intelligence knowledge and special skills in its own school. In addition to scientific content, intelligence skills are also taught as part of career courses in an in-house technical college course.

Central Department (ZY)

The central department performs all personnel and administrative tasks, i.e. tasks in the following areas:

  • Organizational development
  • Human resource management
  • Personnel service
  • household
  • Legal Office
  • Official data protection

With regard to human resources, the focus is on the processes of determining requirements, recruiting and deploying employees. The planning of the use of financial resources, their management and evidence of their use are key areas of finance.

Intrinsic safety (SI)

The internal security is responsible for the security of the service and for the defense against espionage , provided it is directed against the BND.

Examples of the tasks of this department are:

  • Protection of data during processing, storage and transmission
  • Material protection of properties
  • Security advice
  • Security reviews of current and future employees
  • Eavesdropping
  • Observation of own employees
  • Investigations
  • Administrative assistance for the BfV

Move (UM)

The UM department is responsible for the control and coordination of large construction projects of the BND. The program for moving the BND had the following tasks:

  • Chausseestrasse project
  • Project Bavaria
  • Project intermediate removals
  • Project social, employee care and information informs BND internally about the move.

Since the opening of the Berlin headquarters at the beginning of 2019, the UM department has been concentrating on expanding and converting the Pullach property into a modern technical reconnaissance center.


The headquarters of the BND has been in Berlin-Mitte since the beginning of 2019 . Other main locations are in Berlin-Lichterfelde and in Pullach near Munich . In addition, the BND has other, partly secret, offices in Germany and abroad, including the residencies .

Berlin-Mitte (headquarters)

Headquarters of the BND in Berlin-Mitte

The central BND office was 2006-2018 on the site of the former Stadium of World Youth in Berlin's Mitte built. The main building on Chausseestrasse was planned by the Berlin office of Kleihues + Kleihues and built under his direction. The technical and logistics center of the BND headquarters is located in the north development, the center for intelligence training and further education and the BND visitor center are located in the south development . Around 4,000 employees work in the Berlin headquarters, including the management of the BND. The move took place in several stages between summer and November 2018.

Technical education center in Pullach

Main gate to the BND site in Pullach

From the establishment of the BND on April 1, 1956 to the official opening of the Berlin headquarters on February 8, 2019, the BND had its headquarters on Heilmannstrasse in Pullach, south of Munich. Already on December 6, 1947, the BND forerunner Organization Gehlen moved into the premises. Today the BND calls the Pullach location the “Center for Technical Reconnaissance”. The 1,020 posts in Pullach mainly belong to the Technical Reconnaissance Department (TA).

Former guard barracks in Berlin-Lichterfelde

Entrance to the BND site in Berlin-Lichterfelde
Guard barracks

The property of the former guards rifle barracks in Berlin-Lichterfelde is one of the three main locations of the service, along with the headquarters on Berlin Chausseestrasse and the site in Pullach. Since September 2003, over 1000 employees have worked there (location: 52 ° 26 ′ 43.8 ″  N , 13 ° 18 ′ 16.6 ″  E ). The barracks, built in 1881 and used as Roosevelt barracks to accommodate US troops in Berlin during the Cold War , has been renovated. A three-storey location and information center was also added. Originally, the location in Lichterfelde was to be given up after the opening of the headquarters in Chausseestrasse. The district was already planning a cultural and social re-use. However, since the BND headquarters does not meet the future space requirements of the service, the property in Lichterfelde is to be used by the BND on a permanent basis.

Other branch offices

The BND maintains the following additional branch offices:

These branch offices were officially confirmed on June 6, 2014 as part of a “transparency offensive”.


The Federal Government has confirmed that the BND has appeared to third parties in the past under the name “Office for Foreign Issues” (AfA).

Departments still camouflaged (Germany)

Disguised agency names of the BND, Helene-Weber-Allee 23, Munich

Main Office for Questioning (HBW) / Central Office for Questioning: In around 13 of the central reception centers in the Federal Republic of Germany, all refugees and asylum seekers were questioned about conditions in their home countries, and occasionally also recruited as sources ( spies ). The main office for questioning, founded in 1958, was often disguised as an “internal control facility of the Federal Office for Foreigners' Questions”. In 2012, 52 people were employed at the main agency for surveys.

Office for Military Studies : Service to which members of the armed forces are officially transferred if they work for the BND. The AMK can be seen as a camouflage.

  • Bonn ("Scientific Department"). Here are high-performance computers, such. B. Cray , ciphers developed and broken. The Office for Military Studies was represented at the 2006 Cray User Group Conference. There is also administrative assistance for other authorities. A department of the Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) is located on the same site in Bonn-Mehlem as the AMK.
  • Pullach

Study office for questions abroad

  • Munich
    • Coordination office for defense technology
    • Observation command for monitoring own employees "QB 30" or "QC30". The observation command was at Schubertstrasse 12 in Munich until 1997. Since then, the observation command has been located at Dachauer Strasse 128 under the name "Technical Auditing Office of the Federal Transport Administration" as a subtenant of the MAD .
  • Berlin

Federal Agency for Telecommunications Statistics : The BND operates several listening stations in Germany under this cover name, with which communications can be recorded.

Institute for communications engineering

  • Hair “weaving mill” - School of the BND at Wasserburger Str. 43-47 (abandoned on January 14, 2019)

Other departments

  • The support service of the property management Pullach e. V. is a social work in the area of ​​a federal agency with responsibility for the Federal Intelligence Service. In 2012, the federal government spent a total of 41,530 euros on this social work. In the same year, two government employees were released from work in the social welfare organization for 50 percent of their regular working hours.
  • Claims Office
  • Zeman Flugtechnik und Logistik München GmbH (Munich Airport): The company is the official operator of the BND President's service aircraft (registration D-AZEM ), which is stationed at the General Aviation Terminal of Munich Airport
  • LCAS Logistics- Coordination & Assessment Service Hohenstein & Hagen GmbH (Priština, Kosovo; Ottobrunn). The company was dissolved in February 2009.
  • BVOE Management (Munich)
  • Thiele and Friedrichs (Munich) for payments to the informant Rafid al-J. , Alias Curveball , which claimed that Iraq was in possession of weapons of mass destruction and thereby provided the US with a reason for war.
  • BND department liaison office 61 (Mainz): The task of this department is z. B. the contact to the CIA branch in Wiesbaden. The head of the department was investigated in 2013 on suspicion of the formation of an armed group and violation of the weapons law. The investigations were discontinued in the same year for lack of sufficient suspicion, the person concerned is considered innocent.
  • Office 49F (previously unofficially BDU or Bund der Incapable ) for employees of the BND who are incapable of partial service. Civil servants were transferred to this office until retirement due to health reasons and the associated loss of safety notices or safety clearance certificates.


The BND has a total of around 6500 employees, of which around 4200 are male and 2300 are female. The largest status group is made up of employees in the public sector with around 3,600 people, followed by civil servants with around 2,150 people. 750 members of the BND are soldiers ( NCOs with porters and officers ) who are temporarily or permanently employed in the BND. The Bundeswehr officially transfers her to the Office for Military Studies (AMK). About 1250 people are of the category of higher service to approximately 2,250 of the higher service , about 2,750 of the middle service and about 200 of the simple service (or comparable eingruppierte workers / salaried soldiers). Long-term employees receive the St. George's Medal when they leave the BND .

Cooperation with other intelligence services

The BND maintains contacts with around 450 intelligence services in over 160 countries. There are also close links to institutions of the European Union and NATO . The NSA provides the BND with analysis tools for the BND's eavesdropping on foreign data streams passing through Germany. Edward Snowden's documents show that US intelligence agencies praise President Gerhard Schindler for influencing data protection legislation.

According to Snowden's documents, there was a data gathering meeting in April 2013, attended by 12 high-ranking BND officials and NSA specialists. Furthermore, the BND trains the employees of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution in the use of the XKeyscore spying software . The XKeyscore program has been used by the BND since 2007.

When the Iraq war was underway in Baghdad in April 2003 , the BND employees ( residents ) moved from the German embassy building to the French embassy building, which housed the employees of the friendly French foreign intelligence service DGSE .

The BND delivered a copy of its software "Mira4" and "Veras" to the NSA. NSA analysts have attested that these tools have capabilities that exceed the capabilities of the NSA for intelligence gathering.

The BND forwards connection data from phone calls , e-mails and SMS to the NSA via the telecommunications center , which is disguised as a Bundeswehr facility in the Mangfall barracks in Bad Aiblingen . In May 2015 Zeit Online reported that the BND sent far more metadata to the NSA than was known. Of the 6.6 billion metadata that the BND intercepts every month, up to 1.3 billion metadata is passed on to the NSA. These are allegedly filtered on the basis of Article 10 legislation , but those responsible in the committee of inquiry admitted that the filters do not work properly. With the help of this BND metadata, the NSA and CIA create targets for combat drones , among other things , which are used by Ramstein Air Base in Ramstein-Miesenbach as an interface for planning and controlling operations against suspected terrorists in Africa and the Middle East . The cooperation between the BND and the NSA in Bad Aibling is based on an agreement of April 28, 2002. Overall, the BND has been working with the NSA since around 1960.

The BND forwards suspects' cell phone numbers to international partner services.

From 1970 to 1993, the CIA and BND each owned half of the Swiss Crypto AG , which sold encryption devices worldwide. In the case of devices for selected customers, the encryption had been changed in such a way that diplomatic and military communications from over 100 countries could be read across the board. The joint operation was initially (at the BND) called "Thesaurus", later " Rubicon ".

The BND has been exchanging information on crypto procedures with the Danish and Dutch intelligence services since 1976 until today (as of April 2020). Sweden and France were added later. The cooperation is called Maximator after the strong beer of the same name from the Augustiner brewery .



1952 CIA report on the founding talks of the BND

The forerunner of the BND was the organization Gehlen , which was named after its long-time leader, the former major general of the Wehrmacht and head of the Foreign Army East Department (FHO) Reinhard Gehlen .

For the BND and its forerunner, the Gehlen Organization, the former Gestapo chief in Lyon Klaus Barbie , the former head of the secret field police Wilhelm Krichbaum , the former head of the "Judenreferat" of the Foreign Office, Franz Rademacher , were the inventors of the mobile gas truck Walther Rauff , the former officer in Einsatzkommando 9 of Einsatzgruppe  B Konrad Fiebig and the former chief of the Moscow advance command of Einsatzgruppe B Franz Alfred Six . Already in the first years of the Gehlen Organization , the Soviet KGB , Heinz Felfe, was able to place a mole in what would later become the BND, which was discovered in 1961. In the Felfe case, the KGB had used Felfe's involvement in Nazi crimes to recruit him before he joined the Gehlen organization in 1951.

As early as 1951, the discussion about the establishment of one or more intelligence services at the federal level began. According to a report by the CIA, the name Bundesnachrichtendienst was first used in August and September 1952 in discussions at the Chancellery . In addition to Hans Globke and Reinhard Gehlen, Gehlen employees Hans von Lossow, Horst Wendland and Werner Repenning also took part in the secret founding talks that took place in the office of the then Ministerial Councilor Karl Gumbel . With the German Treaty, the Federal Republic received the Allies' approval to have its own foreign intelligence service.

When asked whether the BND by federal law to build or whether if a sufficient organizational decree, argued Globke, a law was not necessary, because no jurisdiction to be transferred to the BND. In the following, the Federal Chancellery based its reasoning on a dissertation by Johannes Erasmus. However, this was a full-time employee of the Gehlen organization and the dissertation was a commissioned work in which Erasmus described the legal situation as Gehlen wanted it.

The John affair delayed the organization's takeover into federal service by about a year. On July 11, 1955, the organizational decree for the establishment of the BND was submitted to the Federal Cabinet. On December 20, 1955, the shop stewards committee, the forerunner of the parliamentary control committee , gave its approval for the establishment of the BND. The basis for the takeover was an expert opinion by the Federal Commissioner for Economic Efficiency in the Federal Administration, also President of the Federal Audit Office . The report was created in close cooperation with the Gehlen organization, but gave the impression of an independent expert report.

BND founded until reunification

On April 1, 1956 (the beginning of the 1956 financial year), the Gehlen organization, which had several thousand employees, and its head were officially taken over into the service of the Federal Republic of Germany and given the name Federal Intelligence Service . It was not until October 23, 1956 that the highest federal authorities and the state minister-presidents were officially informed about the establishment of the BND. For many employees, writing was considered the actual hour of birth of the service. The position of the BND within the federal administration was unclear in the early years. The service had a “sui generis” status. It was neither a supreme nor a superior federal authority and, in accordance with the organizational decree, was not subordinate to the Federal Chancellery, but affiliated. In practice, the BND performed both ministerial and higher authority tasks. The Federal Chancellery hardly exercised official supervision .

BND boss Gehlen feared that all of Germany would come under Soviet influence through an electoral alliance of social democrats and right-wing conservatives. That is why he proposed to the CIA in 1956 and again in late autumn 1959 the formation of a joint shadow government for this case and pursued plans similar to a coup d' état based on stay-behind structures . The actual political development, a deepening of the West's ties to the West , made the rudimentary precautions of the BND president obsolete.

With Alfred Spuhler and Gabriele Gast, the Ministry for State Security of the GDR had succeeded in establishing long-term and productive internal sources in the BND, which were only exposed after the fall of the Wall.

Mercker Commission

In 1968, a commission chaired by State Secretary Reinhold Mercker and with the participation of Ministerialrat Paul Raab and Lieutenant General a. D. Alfred Zerbel carried out an internal investigation by the BND. According to press reports, the Mercker report, which is still classified in parts as secret, uncovered management deficiencies , nepotism , corruption and misuse and misuse of budgetary funds. Furthermore, the BND is said to have used a significant part of its resources on spying on West German politicians.

Stay behind

According to information from the CIA, the BND (CIA code name CASCOPE ) employed 75 people (so-called sleepers ) as part of the stay-behind program in the 1980s .

Since German reunification

For a long time there was no legal basis for the BND. It was not until 1990 that a law for the Federal Intelligence Service was passed - triggered by the census ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1983 with the fundamental right to informational self-determination postulated therein .

After his tenure as Federal Chancellor, Helmut Kohl said of the BND: “Its benefit was almost zero. They knew nothing at all. ”The inefficient and mostly poorly run service stole his time with trivialities.

"Transparency offensive" from 2014

In 2014, the incumbent BND boss Gerhard Schindler announced a “transparency offensive” on the occasion of coming to terms with the NSA affairs . In the process, some cover names of various BND institutions and the false names of employees who work externally were abolished. In 2015 a journalist was allowed to visit the listening post for international telephone traffic of the BND in Rheinhausen , the Ionosphere Institute , where the BND u. a. operates a radome antenna .

Processing of the history of the BND

As a result of the scandal surrounding Heinz Felfe , a former SS-Obersturmführer and defector to the KGB , there was an internal investigation into the burden of former SS members through their involvement in SS crimes. According to Hans-Henning Crome's final report (file number 815/65) to Gehlen on February 1, 1965, 71 employees had been quietly forced out of service for "demonstrable participation in violent National Socialist crimes" - other SS people (an estimate by Peter Carstens, an editor the " Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung ", which researched the documents, is in the range of 130 other people). Ex-NSDAP functionaries, Wehrmacht soldiers or “pure members of the Waffen-SS” involved in other crimes were not recorded at all by the working group organizational unit 85 around Crome, provided they were employed on duty. The reappraisal of the National Socialist past of the service, announced in 2006 by BND President Ernst Uhrlau , a project for which the prominent historian Gregor Schöllgen was won, was initially not tackled for years - apparently not least because of the resistance from the Chancellery .

In 2010, a research and working group “History of the BND” was set up in the BND under the direction of Bodo Hechelhammer , intelligence officer and historian, in order to implement the project to process the history of the BND. Since the beginning of 2011, this has led to a new attempt to come to terms with the early history of the BND with the appointment of an independent commission of historians. The title of the commission is Independent Historians' Commission to Research the History of the Federal Intelligence Service, its predecessor organizations as well as its personnel and impact profile from 1945 to 1968 and how to deal with this past . It was occupied by the four professors Jost Dülffer ( University of Cologne ), Klaus-Dietmar Henke ( Technical University of Dresden ), Wolfgang Krieger ( Philipps University of Marburg ) and Rolf-Dieter Müller ( Humboldt University of Berlin ). Their work was originally limited to four years, was extended several times and ended in 2018. The historians should comprehensively review "the origins and early history as well as its personnel and impact profile from 1945 to 1968" and therefore have full access to all BND files, including the "secret" and "top secret" stamped papers. The exact focus of their work should be left to the scientists; However, the service explicitly reserved the right to veto the publication of the research results for reasons of confidentiality. The research results have been published in monographic studies since 2016. 11 volumes have been published so far (as of April 2020).

“In 2007, the Federal Intelligence Service destroyed numerous documents which, according to experts, were of great historical importance. Historians of the independent commission for research into the history of the service and the alleged involvement of its employees in Nazi crimes criticize a total of 250 personnel files relating to the Nazi era. "

- Tagesschau, November 29, 2011

In a statement of its own, the Federal Intelligence Service stated in December 2011 that an internal investigation had shown that the destruction "took place at the time in accordance with the current archive regulations". "A total of 45 out of 253 people, approx. 17 percent, have so far been found to be exposed to ' NS pollution'."


The first important operation of the organization for the Americans was the radio reconnaissance of the Soviet Air Force during the Berlin Airlift . Between 1948 and 1952, the Gehlen organization supported a group in Poland (WIN) that appeared to be campaigning for an armed overthrow of the communist regime. In 1952, however, it became public that this was a Soviet front organization which had been built up with the money from the "Organization Gehlen".

Overall, the Gehlen organization smuggled numerous spies into the state structures of the GDR and other Eastern European states in the early 1950s, but they were largely unsuccessful. Especially in the GDR, the opposing secret services launched a successful counter-espionage campaign in 1953, numerous agents were exposed, arrested and convicted. According to more recent results from the Birthler authority , around 90 percent of all East sources of the BND at the time were managed by the Stasi and thus were double agents .

As can be seen from a response by the Federal Government to a request from the left-wing parliamentary group in the Bundestag, the Federal Intelligence Service and its predecessor organization, Gehlen, collected information on approximately 26,000 people between 1946 and April 1990 “on officials and elected officials in the state and party apparatus in the Soviet occupation zone and later in the GDR . ”According to publications from August 2011, the BND was informed about the planned closure of the Berlin sector borders. This closure preceded the construction of the Berlin Wall .

From 1981 the BND was in action as part of " Operation Summer Rain " for the purpose of gathering information about the equipment of the Red Army in the war in Afghanistan .

In the early 1990s, the BND received a worldwide reputation for non-secret service after it had neither foreseen the fall of the Wall , the collapse of the Soviet Union nor German reunification , or incorrectly assessed the events that had led to it. Overall, the BND was and is often said to have deficits in the use of spies and informants ( human intelligence ). In contrast, the technical reconnaissance, in particular the eavesdropping on radio traffic in Eastern Europe, is said to have worked comparatively efficiently.

However, the activities of the BND are generally confidential; therefore, little has been known about it since 1956. According to media reports, the BND has been recruiting foreign agents in Hamburg's Islamist milieu since 1996 . This could possibly have been the actual background for the refusal of foreign secret services of friendly states to pass on information to the BND or to the German courts in the Hamburg trial against the Moroccan student Mounir al Motassadeq . Mounir al Motassadeq was suspected of supporting the attacks in the USA on " September 11th " and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment by the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court in Hamburg. In this matter, the BND helped clear up Motassadeq's Saudi contacts.

At the end of 2007, the BND purchased a DVD from Heinrich Kieber , a former employee of the Liechtenstein LGT Bank, for 5 million euros with the customer data of people who had invested assets in Liechtenstein with the aim of tax evasion . He passed it on to the Wuppertal tax investigation department by way of administrative assistance , which then, together with the Bochum public prosecutor, initiated investigations against several hundred suspects ( tax affair in Germany 2008 ). On February 14, 2008, a raid was carried out on the then CEO of Deutsche Post AG , Klaus Zumwinkel , on suspicion of evading taxes in the millions, which led to Zumwinkel's resignation the following day. In the period that followed, there were further searches in several major German cities.

As the only foreign intelligence service in Germany, the BND has the task of collecting and evaluating information that is necessary to gain knowledge about foreign countries that are of importance to the Federal Republic of Germany in terms of foreign and security policy (Section 1 BNDG ). This information is sent to the federal government and covers many subject areas: politics, economy, military, science or technology. To obtain this information, the BND has many intelligence gathering methods at its disposal; a large part, however, comes from studying open sources such as newspapers, radio and television or even the Internet, known as “OSINT” . In addition, the BND also uses secret service methods, such as the recruiting and management of agents abroad (operational procurement) or radio-electronic reconnaissance (technical procurement). This happens on many levels, including telephone surveillance as well as secret video and audio recordings or internet surveillance.

The information obtained is analyzed and evaluated in the BND in order to create situational pictures and reports that are important for decisions by the federal government. Increasingly, the BND sees its task as policy advice. In addition to the core tasks of foreign intelligence, the BND is increasingly taking on tasks in the observation of internationally operating organized crime, especially in the areas of arms and technology transfers (proliferation), money laundering, human trafficking and drug smuggling. In addition, the investigation of international terrorism has become even more important recently.

Since the mid-1990s, the BND agent Gerhard Conrad has been negotiating several prisoner exchanges between Israel and Hezbollah , which were implemented in 1996, 2004 and 2008. In 2004, the then secret service coordinator in the Federal Chancellery and later BND President Ernst Uhrlau was also involved. Conrad, who speaks fluent Arabic, French and English, was BND resident in Syria, Beirut and Jerusalem for many years, and then also acted as a mediator in the 2011 prisoner exchange between Israel and Hamas in the Gilad Shalit case .



At the head of the BND is a president . The following list shows the presidents since 1956:

President of the Federal Intelligence Service
Surname Life dates Beginning of the term of office Term expires
01 Reinhard Gehlen 1902-1979 Apr 1, 1956 Apr 30, 1968
02 Gerhard Wessel 1913-2002 May 1, 1968 Dec. 31, 1978
03 Klaus Kinkel 1936-2019 Jan. 1, 1979 Dec. 26, 1982
04th Eberhard Blum 1919-2003 Dec. 27, 1982 July 31, 1985
05 Heribert Hellenbroich ( CDU ) 1937-2014 Aug 1, 1985 Aug 27, 1985
06th Hans-Georg Wieck * 1928 4th Sep 1985 Oct 2, 1990
07th Konrad Porzner ( SPD ) * 1935 Oct 3, 1990 March 31, 1996
08th Gerhard Güllich (SPD), (acting) * 1938 Apr 1, 1996 June 4th 1996
09 Hansjörg Geiger * 1942 June 4th 1996 Dec 17, 1998
10 August Hanning * 1946 Dec 17, 1998 Nov 30, 2005
11 Ernst Uhrlau (SPD) * 1946 Dec 1, 2005 Dec 31, 2011
12 Gerhard Schindler (FDP) * 1952 Jan. 1, 2012 June 30, 2016
13 Bruno Kahl (CDU) * 1962 July 1, 2016


The president of the BND has three vice-presidents, one of whom acts as his representative: a vice-president for central tasks, one for military affairs (since October 2003) and one without a specific name. From 1957 to 2003 there was only one vice president. The following list shows the Vice Presidents since 1957:

Vice President of the Federal Intelligence Service, possibly special area of ​​responsibility
Surname Life dates Beginning of the term of office Term expires
01 Hans-Heinrich Worgitzky 1907-1969 May 24, 1957 1967
02 Horst Wendland 1912-1968 1967 Oct 8, 1968 (suicide)
03 Dieter Blötz 1931-1987 May 4th 1970 Aug 1979
04th Norbert Klusak 1936-1986 Apr 1, 1980 Feb. 27, 1986
05 Paul Münstermann 1932-2010 March 1986 Aug 27, 1994
06th Gerhard Güllich (acting) * 1938 Sep 1994 June 17, 1996
07th Rainer Keßelring 1934-2013 June 18, 1996 Sep 1998
08th Siegfried Barth * 1935/36 Sep 10 1998 July 2001
09 Rudolf Adam * 1948 July 2001 March 31, 2004
010 Werner Schowe , Vice President mil. * 1944 Oct 15, 2003 Sep 30 2005
11 Rüdiger von Fritsch * 1953 May 1, 2004 2007
12 Georg Freiherr von Brandis , Vice President mil. * 1948 Oct 4, 2005 Feb 2008
13 Arndt Freiherr Freytag von Loringhoven * 1956 2007 2010
14th Armin Hasenpusch , Vice President for Military Affairs 1948-2014 2008 2010
15th Werner Ober , Vice President for Central Tasks and Modernization * 1948 2008 2013
16 Géza Andreas von Geyr , Vice President * 1962 2010 2014
17th Michael Klor-Berchtold , Vice President * 1962 2014 2016
18th Ole Diehl , Vice President * 1964 2016 June 30, 2019
19th Norbert Stier , Vice President for Military Affairs * 1953 2010 2015
20th Werner Sczesny , Vice President for Military Affairs * around 1960 2016
21st Guido Müller , Vice President for Central Tasks and Modernization * 1966 2013 Oct. 2018
22nd Michael Baumann , Vice President for Central Tasks and President's Representative * 1956 Jan. 2019
23 Tania Freiin von Uslar-Gleichen , Vice President 1st July 2019
24 Wolfgang Wien , Vice President for Military Affairs Jan. 1, 2021 (designated)


An investigation of affairs takes place (e) in the secret parliamentary control body or in a parliamentary committee of inquiry .

Adolf Eichmann

After research by the American professor Christopher Simpson, the BND informed the CIA in March 1958 about the whereabouts of numerous wanted Nazi war criminals. Third place on the list was Adolf Eichmann . The code name Clement, a slightly different variant of the name Ricardo Klement, under whom Eichmann actually lived in Buenos Aires , was also transmitted. Eichmann's code name and his stay in Argentina were known to the German intelligence service six years earlier. The German scientist Bettina Stangneth , who evaluated the released parts of the BND Eichmann file, has proven the accuracy of the information. Stangneth attributes this to the existence of an informant who helped Eichmann's family to leave the country in 1952. The Simon Wiesenthal Center and numerous other " investigators " knew Klemens' spelling from 1954 . Knowledge of Eichmann's whereabouts did not lead to any persecution measures, but was only reported to the CIA in 1958. The consequences of this information are not known. It was suspected early on that this general inaction should also serve to protect former National Socialists in the German government, for example in the case of State Secretary Hans Globke in the Federal Chancellery under Konrad Adenauer . Globke had justified the Nuremberg race laws in a legal commentary and, according to a report in the CIA files, was involved in the deportation of 20,000 Jews from northern Greece to extermination camps in Germany-occupied Poland.

Spiegel Affair 1962

The Federal Intelligence Service is said to have observed the editorial staff of the Spiegel for years and tried to influence its work. Even fifty years later, the investigative editors of Spiegel were refused access to the files from that time.

Wiretapping affair from Stammheim

In 1975, the head of the Chancellery, Manfred Schüler , approved the illegal installation of wiretapping systems during the Stammheim trial , which subsequently led to the Stammheim wiretapping affair .

Tank Affair 1991

Plutonium affair

In 1995, the so-called plutonium affair caused bad press. The BND had initiated a smuggling of plutonium from Moscow to Munich.

Norbert Juretzko

The former captain and BND agent Norbert Juretzko , b. 1953, has been involved in a number of lawsuits with his former agency since 2003. From Juretzko's point of view, the trigger for this is the "Rübezahl affair": At the end of the 1990s, he collected clear evidence of an alleged double agent activity of the former "First Director" at the BND and head of the procurement department at the BND, Volker Foertsch , and the then President of the BND, Hansjörg Geiger , presented (with the accusation - roughly - of having coordinated agent activities in cooperation with Russian secret services and with their approval, as well as his original task, the intelligence service East reconnaissance, carried out on behalf of the BND) . Allegedly under pressure from Bernd Schmidbauer , secret service coordinator in the Federal Chancellery under Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl , the public prosecutor's investigations against Volker Foertsch were suppressed at the beginning of 1998; Foertsch was rehabilitated and retired in 1999.

In 2002 Norbert Juretzko was sentenced to eleven months' imprisonment on probation for manipulating files and stealing money from agents amounting to half a million DM. Juretzko resigned after 15 years of service from the BND, but retained his pension entitlement . According to the convicted person, the proceedings were an action specifically initiated by the BND to discredit the “ key witness ” of the “Rübezahl affair”.

Juretzko made his view of things public in the book "Conditionally dienstready" (2004), in which other (alleged) BND breakdowns were discussed. He wrote the work together with the freelance journalist and secret service expert Wilhelm Dietl , who himself had worked for the BND from 1982 to 1992. Juretzko interpreted the proceedings brought against him by the Hanover Public Prosecutor's Office in 2005 for embezzlement of official documents as an inconclusive act of revenge on the part of the BND, because he had no longer had access to such papers since he left the BND in 1999; However, the BND did not notice the alleged disappearance of these service documents until after six years.

In May 2006 Norbert Juretzko and Wilhelm Dietl published a second disclosure book about the BND. Numerous other mishaps and alleged embarrassments from the secret service milieu were made public under the title “Im Visier”. Months before the publication of this book, there was a new charge before the Berlin Regional Court , this time for betrayal of secrets in connection with "conditionally ready for service": Juretzko had increased the risk of BND employees being exposed by naming internal labels; he also revealed the real names of agents. This turned out to be a false allegation by the prosecution. Juretzko was acquitted of the allegations in June 2006 after a five-week trial at the joint request of the public prosecutor and the defense by the Berlin Regional Court.

In connection with a civil procedure initiated by the BND against Juretzko for alleged embezzlement of around 200,000 euros from agents' money, a unique event in the history of the secret services took place at the beginning of June 2006: In order to substantiate the claims of the BND, the foreign intelligence service handed over files with the to the Federal Administrative Court of Leipzig The unredacted real names of some sources obtained in the course of Operation Giraffe in 1990. In doing so, the BND accepted the possibility of revealing BND operations that were previously unknown to the Russian domestic intelligence service, the FSB . While security experts spoke of a "catastrophic event", the BND justified its extraordinary approach with a "weighing of interests" by pointing out that the BND assessed the operational damage as less than the loss of money, because the BND was leaving it from the fact that the BND informers in their Russian homeland are no longer threatened with legal prosecution.

Interviews in US prisoner camps

BND employees are said to have questioned an Iraqi Kurd in a northern Iraqi prison in Sulaymania in 2004. The BND officials had heard the man because of alleged contacts with a terrorist group.

Khaled al-Masri , a German citizen of Lebanese origin who was abducted by the US secret services, is said to have been interrogated by a BND employee ("Sam") in Afghanistan . A member of the BND had known about the kidnapping since January 2004 through an indiscretion in a Macedonian canteen, but did not report it.

Journalists affair

In 2005, as part of the so-called "journalist scandal", it became known that the BND monitored several German journalists from 1993 to at least 1998, with the knowledge and approval of its then President Konrad Porzner . In Weilheim (near Munich) the “Research Institute for Peace Policy e. V. ”is monitored by the“ QC30 ”command of Department 8 of the BND, as the journalist Erich Schmidt-Eenboom worked here, who in 1993 published a disclosure book about the BND entitled Snoopers without a Nose . Since the book contained inside information from the BND, they wanted to expose “leaks” in their own ranks. The institute was then observed from across the street for years, even with cameras hidden in the sun visor of a car. With up to 15 BND employees at times, the publicist was monitored down to his private life (such as going to the sauna) in order to expose BND employees who gave Eenboom information. Until 2003, the institute's waste paper was removed from the street by the BND on a monthly basis, exchanged for other bags and examined by the intelligence service for information. As far as is publicly known, however, none of these monitoring measures provided any useful information.

In May 2006, according to a report by the special investigator and former chairman of the BGH, Gerhard Schäfer, it became known that the BND had been collecting internal information through the media through informers for years . According to the BND, the aim was to expose possible secret service employees who, among other things , would have passed on insider knowledge in the plutonium affair , and, according to the investigating committee member Michael Hartmann, generally to gain knowledge of the media. The Berliner Zeitung reported that even telephones were tapped by journalists. Journalist Jo Angerer, who works for the TV magazine Monitor , was also monitored. For several years the BND observed the freelance journalist Wilhelm Dietl , who, however, also worked for the BND himself, who, together with Norbert Juretzko , who left the BND, published books on foreign service in 2004 and 2006.

In some cases, the BND did not use its own personnel for surveillance. Several journalists had offered the secret service, some in return for money, to pass on information about investigative journalists. This emerged from the expert report of the Bundestag control committee and confirmed the testimony of BND director Volker Foertsch on February 12, 2009 before the BND investigative committee. According to Michael Hartmann, a member of the BND investigative committee, it was about "information up to and including the betrayal of sources or the betrayal of the sources of other journalists" . Foertsch's notes on information passed on by the Focus editor Josef Hufelschulte (BND code name: Jerez) even comprise 219 pages. The Focus editor was also monitored as a source of information by the BND itself.

It is currently still unclear whether Porzner's successors in office were informed about the action, which is said to have lasted until at least 1998. In addition to the responsible parliamentary control body, the federal government is said to have not been informed over the years. According to Foertsch's statement in February 2009, however, at least Bernd Schmidbauer, who was then Minister of State in the Chancellery, had been informed. In the meantime, the Federal Chancellery has officially ordered the Federal Intelligence Service not to use journalists for investigative activities in Germany.

Furthermore, it became known in April 2008 that the BND also read e-mails from the Spiegel reporter Susanne Koelbl between June and November 2006 as part of the surveillance of the Afghan Minister of Commerce, Amin Farhang . Koelbl had emailed excerpts from a draft book on Afghanistan to Farhang for proofreading. As far as the PKG was aware , the responsible department head neither interrupted the monitoring nor informed the BND leadership when it became known that mails from a German journalist were being monitored and saved. The BND management only found out about the incident a year later, but failed to inform the PKG of the incident.

Iraq war

In January 2006, the " snail plan " caused a political affair. The Snail Plan was an alleged Saddam Hussein defense plan for Baghdad. According to the New York Times , it was said to have been handed over to the Americans in March 2003 by a BND employee.

Even if these were presumably not attacked, BND employees clarified targets in the Iraq war and passed this information on to the US military (without any security regarding the use). The Federal Chancellery and the Federal Intelligence Service initially only confirmed that information about the destination of objects that should not be destroyed (hospitals, embassies, etc.) was passed on.

According to Spiegel Online of December 13, 2008, the US General a. D., James Marks, who headed the reconnaissance staff of the ground forces, described the contributions of the Germans as "extremely important and valuable" and as "detailed and reliable". Agents of the BND are said to have provided detailed information about the lighting of oil wells and reported at regular intervals about movements of Iraqi troops, which were of the utmost importance to the US military leadership. In a later questioning, the former BND President August Hanning testified that in addition to information on the location of hospitals and embassies, positions on the positions of the Iraqi armed forces were also passed on. Among other things, the information from the BND led to several plans of the US military being changed. While the red-green government under Gerhard Schröder had officially opposed the war, the information from the BND contributed to the success of the US military's operations.

Libya affair

Kosovo affair

In November 2008 the three undercover agents Robert Z., Andreas B. and Andreas J. were suspected by the Kosovar authorities of an explosive attack on the building of the International Civilian Office / EU Special Representative in Pristina , Kosovo to have committed. The men were officially employees of the BND cover company "LCAS Logistic Coordination Assessments Service Hohenstein & Hagen GmbH" from Ottobrunn , allegedly an "investment advisor for German companies in Kosovo". According to further information, the three BND agents were even employees of the rule of law mission of the European Union in Kosovo ( EULEX ) and were "on the road as information gatherers [...]." On November 27, the previously unknown group "Army of the Republic" confessed Kosovo ”on the attack.

In the course of the investigation by the Federal Prosecutor's Office against one of the three BND employees in 2009, his relationship with his interpreter Murat A. became known, whereupon the Federal Prosecutor's Office filed a lawsuit against both men for treason, disclosure of state and official secrets and fraud . At this point in time there was a suspicion that Murat A. had gained insight into top secret documents of the Federal Republic of Germany through his partner and passed them on to third parties - organized crime in the Balkans was suspected. In the course of the trial before the Munich Higher Regional Court , however, the suspicion of treason and the disclosure of state secrets could not be substantiated, so that the now ex-BND employee was sentenced to two years and three months ' imprisonment - among other things for fraud in 21 cases - was issued. Murat A. was sentenced to one year and two months' imprisonment for fraud, but was suspended on probation .

The clarification hoped for by many observers as to the extent to which there is a connection between the three German BND employees and the bomb attack on an EU building could not be provided by the court proceedings either. However, it seems to be proven that they collected information on terrorist activities and organized crime on behalf of the Federal Intelligence Service. There is a widespread opinion among journalists that the three men were deliberately accused by the Kosovar government in order to be able to expel them with justified suspicion, since the BND uncovered links between the political elites of Kosovo and organized crime in a confidential report as early as 2005 .

Kremer affair

In April 2007 two employees of the Federal Intelligence Service visited the entrepreneur Klaus Kremer, who appeared under the names "Meißner" and "Daniels". Kremer, who worked for a long time in the armaments industry and with his company Applied Radar & Sonar Technologies (arsTech GmbH) manufactures radar and sonar systems, maintains business contacts in the Middle East and should be encouraged to cooperate with "benefits, including financial ones". Kremer refused to cooperate.

Afterwards, his company was involved in suspicious government agency activities that could never be officially related to the Federal Intelligence Service and are formally legitimate. After audits by the trade inspectorate and customs , Kremer was accused of exporting armaments without a permit. Kremer's relationships with customers in Pakistan suffered as a result of the investigation, as his business partners were also questioned by customs. He lost the job and ran into financial difficulties.

The investigation against Kremer was stopped on May 19, 2008 by the Bremen Public Prosecutor's Office due to a lack of suspicion and on July 10, 2008 the Bremen District Court recognized the "Fundamental Compensation Obligation of the State Treasury" for the losses resulting from the investigation activities.

On October 17, 2008, the investigation was resumed by the Bremen Public Prosecutor's Office on suspicion of a violation of the Foreign Trade Act. Kremer was informed by the public prosecutor by mail and by telephone that he would either waive his claims for damages or that charges would be brought, whereby a discontinuation of the proceedings after the charges were brought would no longer be considered.

BND NSA surveillance

The global surveillance and espionage affair , which began in June 2013 with the revelations of Edward Snowden , has since been dealt with by the NSA investigative committee of the German Bundestag. In addition to the NSA and the GCHQ , the BND has also reached the goal of the educational work . One of the Snowden documents states:

"The BND has been working to influence the German Government to relax interpretation of the privacy laws over the long term to provide greater opportunity for intelligence sharing."

"The BND has actively influenced the German government to soften the laws on privacy in the long term so that there are better opportunities for the exchange of intelligence information."

- NSA : Snowden Documents

Foschepoth outlined the close links between the German and American secret services through the G 10 law and the two-plus-four treaty :

“The then head of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Hubert Schrübbers , said during the wiretapping affair in 1963 that German and American secret services were a unified organism. It is important to finally understand this: the NSA affair is not a purely American, but a Janus-faced German-American affair. "

- Josef Foschepoth in the Tagesschau on July 7, 2014

The BND is also said to have wiretapped Hillary Clinton and John Kerry's phone calls as so-called bycatch. According to the “job profile of the federal government”, the BND has been enlightening Turkey since 2009.

One result of inquiry was the law to foreign-foreign-communications intelligence the Federal Intelligence Service of the end of December 2016. It created a clarified legal basis for foreign-Ausland- communications intelligence of the BND, established the Independent Committee and introduced new control rights one.

Operation Eikonal 2014/2015

Domestic espionage at DE-CIX for the NSA

The ZDF reported in the program Frontal21 on July 15, 2014 on the statement of an insider that the BND and an undisclosed telecommunications company have completely "doubled" and most likely have been "doubling" the entire Internet traffic of the world's largest network node DE-CIX in Frankfurt am Main since 2009 the NSA would forward. The BND is in breach of the Basic Law by the unreasonable, area-wide surveillance of all German Internet traffic. The German Telekom said on request, she could "no information on possible control measures give". On October 4, 2014, a research team from Süddeutscher Zeitung, NDR and WDR published a report on the now known Operation Eikonal . Secret files of the Chancellery and the BND show how exactly the cooperation between the BND and the NSA worked between 2004 and 2008.

The files show that telephone and Internet data in Frankfurt at the fiber optic network node DE-CIX were recorded by filters under the name Operation Eikonal in order to flow over a Deutsche Telekom line to the BND headquarters in Pullach. The BND and Telekom had signed a contract, according to which the company provided the BND with access to its servers - and received 6,000 euros a month for it. From Pullach, the data was forwarded to Bad Aibling in the Mangfall barracks to the so-called telecommunications center of the Federal Intelligence Service , where NSA and BND sit together (Special US Liaison Activity Germany).

The incoming telephone traffic in Frankfurt was monitored from 2004, in November 2005 the Internet monitoring followed. A filter called “Dafis” was supposed to filter out the data of German citizens; However, this never worked properly and it is assumed that at most 95% of all data protected by fundamental rights was filtered out. Note on the size comparison: In November 2006 the DE-CIX had a peak throughput of 90 Gbit / s; 5% of 90 Gbit / s corresponds to a peak throughput of 4.5 Gbit / s of illegal data or ~ 1.9 terabytes per hour (minus overhead).

In a balance sheet of Operation Eikonal , it is said that “an 'absolute and error-free' separation between German and foreign telecommunications was not possible until the very end .” In 2005, the BND noticed that the NSA was after information about “ EADS ”, “ Eurocopter ” ( for industrial espionage purposes ) or for French authorities. According to the research network, however, the BND continued for a long time. One note states that only with the help of the NSA can he learn "to be able to deal with and clear up mass data from the Internet earlier."

The former head of the Chancellery, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, was responsible for the operation, which ended in 2008 . According to the information from Bundestag member Christian Flisek , Eikonal ended because the BND allegedly used such strong data filters that the remaining material was of little interest to the NSA.

The witness "WK", sub-department head of the technical intelligence department in the BND, confirmed the continuation of the method on November 13, 2014 in the 22nd meeting of the NSA investigation committee:

Eikonal included selective recording of international-international transit traffic. Don't forget time: Afghanistan, terrorism reconnaissance. Selected data was recorded and automatically forwarded. More precise only non-public (Lower Austria), we are still doing the methodology. "

- Live blog from the 22nd session of the NSA Committee of Inquiry

Klaus landing field, Advisory Board of DE-CIX Management GmbH, confirmed on 26 March 2015, NSA investigation committee from the continuation of the monitoring practice of the BND at the DE-CIX since 2009. In addition to the Federal Chancellery complained several times and both the G-10 Commission , as also prevented the Federal Network Agency from investigating the wiretapping.

Landefeld also stated that the BND is not only interested in lines outside of Germany, such as in the Arab region, but also in lines within Germany, on which over 90 percent of traffic is protected by fundamental rights . One could “absolutely not selectively” decide what “is German or not” on the Internet. The 20 percent rule, according to which secret services are allowed to divert one fifth of the line capacity, would not actually be practiced, Landefeld said. The providers lay out their lines in such a way that they are usually only used to 30 or 40 percent. With the 20 percent rule, you end up with 50 to 60 percent of the transported traffic, which is not in accordance with the law.

Development since April 2015

On April 23, 2015, media reported the extent of Operation Eikonal. On the basis of an application for evidence by the parliamentary groups, it was investigated how many of the 800,000 selectors ( IP addresses , email addresses, telephone numbers, geographic coordinates , MAC addresses ) were directed against German and European interests. These selectors were automatically assigned to the BND by the NSA over the course of 10 years; several times a day a BND server connected to an NSA server and downloaded new selectors. The knowledge gained was then passed on to the NSA.

As early as 2013, after the Snowden documents were published, the BND compiled a list of all potentially problematic selectors. It comprised 2,000 illegal selectors that were used and not sorted out. In the course of the new investigations from March to May 2015, another 459,000 such selectors were found. B. European politicians and companies. Of these, only 400 were sorted out. At the moment (as of May 2015) it is unclear how many of these selectors were rejected or executed by the BND, whether there are more and what exactly they are. Der Spiegel reported on May 15, 2015 that over half of the 40,000 selectors that were found in March 2015 were also active, i.e. H. have actually been used to research government, business and other destinations in Europe.

The BND facilities in Bad Aibling, Bavaria, were used to spy on high-ranking officials from the French Foreign Ministry , the Presidential Staff and the EU Commission . Companies such as B. Airbus are mainly affected because the USA allegedly looked for evidence of illegal export transactions. In 2002–2013, the US had 690,000 phone numbers and 7.8 million IP search terms as selectors.

The Focus reported on April 27, 2015, “that the allegations specifically concern at least two documents that the BND sent to the Chancellery in 2008 and 2010. In both cases, the Chancellery should be prepared for high-level discussions with US intelligence officials. ”It was about the preparation of a trip to the United States by Thomas de Maizière , the head of the Chancellery at the time , who was“ very likely ”informed. In any case, today's (as of April 2015) BND Vice Guido Müller and Günter Heiss , who is still responsible for secret services in the Chancellery , were inaugurated . Furthermore, the Focus calls the year 2010 "since the Chancellery knew at the latest that many of these goals violated German interests, but nothing was done." The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) also reported on April 27, 2015 that documents that before the NSA investigative committee, clearly prove that the Chancellery was informed and apparently tolerated the NSA's espionage activities. The "Bild" newspaper quotes a participant with the following statement: "Back then it was said: We need the information from the Americans, that's how it works, we don't want to jeopardize our cooperation." The Chancellery knew that the NSA wanted to spy on Germans and Europeans and let it happen, according to the FAZ.

The NSA spied out German and European targets until at least 2013. This was confirmed by the federal government on May 4, 2015 in a classified document. Accordingly, the BND found on August 26, 2013 that the NSA was reading current e-mail addresses of European politicians, ministries of European member states, EU institutions, but also representatives of German companies. The paper admitted that American data collection practices were contrary to German interests.

Mole 2014/2015

On July 2, 2014, the then BND employee Markus R. was arrested by the federal prosecutor's office on suspicion of being an agent of the secret service. The 31-year-old German was suspected of spying on the NSA investigative committee on behalf of a US secret service. The BND employee is said to have been questioned several times by the US secret service and to have reported at least once about the activities of the NSA committee of inquiry in the USA. After his arrest, the United States Ambassador to Germany, John B. Emerson , was asked to speak to the Foreign Office.

According to his own statement, the BND employee had acquired a total of 218 secret BND papers since 2012 and sold them to US services on USB sticks at conspiratorial meetings for a total of 25,000 euros. At least three documents were related to the NSA committee. This employee is said to have given around 3,500  real names of German agents to the US secret service CIA . The head of the CIA in Germany then had to leave Germany.

NetBotz Affair 2016

On September 27, 2016, the television magazine FAKT reported that the BND investigated a camera surveillance system from the US manufacturer NetBotz in 2005 on the basis of a tip and discovered a backdoor function: The system tried to covertly establish a connection with an American military server . Apparently it was designed to transmit data to American intelligence agencies from the high-security areas in which it was used. Furthermore, the BND found that NetBotz was working hard at the time to win over authorities such as the Foreign Office and companies in the high-tech and armaments sector as customers. The systems were apparently offered below value, and at the same time inquiries from a retail chain that had promised more sales were rejected. According to the internal report that was available to FAKT, the BND decided at the time not to forward this information to the Office for the Protection of the Constitution and other state organs because of the feared political effects. Die Zeit writes : "In plain language: For fear that the US secret services could end their cooperation with the BND, the big brother was allowed to do the espionage in Germany." Matter.

One of the findings that the BND did not pass on in 2005 is that NetBotz was specifically aiming for a takeover by a German company, which was apparently intended to conceal the American origins of the technology and to facilitate access to European customers in security-relevant areas. Today NetBotz is part of the French Schneider Electric group , which continues to offer the systems under the name NetBotz . In September 2016, at the request of FAKT, he stated that he had not been informed about the events surrounding NetBotz by either the German or French authorities. He later announced that he had checked the devices in question and could not understand the allegations. The French cyber defense authority ANSSI stated that it had no knowledge of backdoor functions in NetBotz devices. After further research by FAKT, these devices were still in operation at the end of December 2016 in many companies, some of which are security-relevant, and in large corporations such as Volkswagen and Deutsche Bank in Germany. The Federal Chancellery , the BND, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and the Federal Ministry of the Interior were not ready to respond to FAKT's inquiries. The office of the French Prime Minister stated on request that the matter was subject to "the highest level of national secrecy".


Side view of the D-AZEM
Interior view of the cabin of the BND jet

Service jet

The BND owns its own Falcon 900EX aircraft (registration year 2003, registration: D-AZEM), which is mainly used by the President of the BND. In the spring of 2006, two German hostages were transported with him from Iraq to Germany. Officially, the jet belongs to the company Zeman Flugtechnik und Logistik München GmbH (commercial register: Munich HRB 148243), possibly a cover company of the BND. The flight movements of the jet can be called up via planespotter databases on the Internet and smartphone apps. The flight movements of the jet are particularly noticeable due to the regular flights from Munich to Berlin (the two BND locations) before and after international flights. Home position of the jet is the General Aviation Terminal of the Munich airport . In the 1980s, the BND owned a Falcon Mystère 50 with the aircraft registration D-BIRD. In 2006 this license plate was given to a Dornier 328 owned by Private Wings .

Staff representation

The headquarters and the branch offices of the BND as well as the headquarters have staff representatives in accordance with the Federal Personnel Representation Act (BPersVG), whereby the staff council of the headquarters is the level representation for the staff councils of the branch offices. In the meantime, however, the BND also has a general staff council.

For the BND there are restrictions according to § 86 BPersVG. In addition, trade unions and interest groups for BND employees are represented.


In 2002, the BND published an international cookbook with the title Top (f) Secret: The “Secret Recipes ” by the Federal Intelligence Service under the motto Food, Suspense and Spies . In addition to recipes, it also contains information about the country and, according to the publisher, “amusing stories with intelligence Background ”contains.

Participation in the HiROS satellite project

In early January 2011, a WikiLeaks revelation announced that six satellites were to be built, disguised as an environmental project. The BND is to receive control over parts of the satellites. However, the technical data show that HiROS is not very high-resolution and therefore hardly suitable as a spy satellite. In addition, the project is said to have been rejected in summer 2010. The project was partly the subject of a small request from politicians on the left to the federal government.

Subsidy from the federal budget

For the year 2021, the budget estimate for the BND was 1,021,818,000 euros for the first time above the billion mark. The subsidy from the federal budget (target values) was estimated at 977.883 million euros for 2020, with 966.482 million euros for 2019, around 925.4 million euros in 2018, and around 832.8 million euros for 2017. For 2016 with around 723.8 million euros and 2015 with around 615.6 million euros.

Less funds are regularly spent than budgeted. For 2019, the actual expenditure was EUR 954.811 million, the target expenditure from the Federal Budget Act for that year was EUR 977.883 million, which is EUR 23.072 million lower. In 2018, the actual expenditure of EUR 813.435 million was EUR 111.965 million (approx. 12 percent) below the target expenditure. The actual expenditure in 2017 was 733.755 million euros and thus around 59 million (approx. 7 percent) below the target expenditure for that year.

Internet surveillance

The BND fears falling behind Italian and Spanish secret services and would like to research social networks and fiber optic cables abroad in real time for a variety of reasons, and they would also like to search the data streams for " malware ". Around 300 million euros are to be estimated by 2020.

Privilege selected journalists

In 2017, the BND refused a journalist information from and about background discussions with other journalists. The daily newspaper editor appealed to the Federal Administrative Court. It decided in 2019 that press representatives, on the basis of the constitutional right to information of the press under Art. 5 I 2 GG, can request the BND to receive certain information about confidential background discussions that BND representatives have with selected journalists. The court rejected the right to information on a specific question.

See also


  • Reinhard Gehlen : The service - memories 1942-1971 . v. Hase & Koehler Verlag, Mainz, Wiesbaden 1971, ISBN 3-920324-01-3 .
  • Hermann Zolling , Heinz Höhne : Pullach internally - General Gehlen and the history of the Federal Intelligence Service . Verlag Hoffmann and Campe , Hamburg 1971, ISBN 3-455-08760-4 .
  • Erich Schmidt-Eenboom : The BND - the uncanny power in the state: Snoopers without a nose . Econ Verlag , Düsseldorf / Vienna / New York / Moscow 1993, ISBN 3-430-18004-X .
  • Waldemar Markwardt: Experienced BND - Critical plea from an insider . Anita Tykve Verlag, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-925434-87-9 .
  • Erich Schmidt-Eenboom: Undercover - how the BND controls the German media . Verlag Droemer Knaur , Munich 1999, ISBN 3-426-77464-X .
  • Helmut Wagner : Greetings from Pullach - BND operations against the GDR . edition ost Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-360-01020-5 .
  • Federal Intelligence Service: Top (f) Secret - The “secret recipes” of the Federal Intelligence Service . Varus Verlag, Bonn 2002, ISBN 3-928475-60-6 .
  • Peter F. Müller, Michael Mueller: Against friend and foe - the BND, secret politics and dirty business. 1st edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-498-04481-8 .
  • James H. Critchfield : Order Pullach - The Organization Gehlen 1948-1956 . ES Mittler & Sohn Verlag, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-8132-0848-6 .
  • Norbert Juretzko with Wilhelm Dietl : Conditionally ready - in the heart of the BND - the settlement of a dropout . Ullstein Verlag , Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-548-36795-X .
  • Erich Schmidt-Eenboom , Rudolf Lambrecht: BND - The German Secret Service in the Middle East . Herbig , Munich 2006, ISBN 3-7766-8010-5 .
  • Norbert Juretzko, Wilhelm Dietl: In sight - an ex-agent reveals the machinations of the BND. Heyne Verlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-453-12037-X .
  • Andreas Magdanz: BND - Location Pullach DuMont Buchverlag , Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-8321-7680-2 .
  • Wilhelm Dietl. Code name Dali - A BND agent unpacks . Eichborn Verlag , Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-8218-5670-4 .
  • Armin Wagner and Matthias Uhl . Published by the Military History Research Office: BND contra Soviet Army - West German military espionage in the GDR . Verlag Ch. Links, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-86153-461-7 .
  • Helmut Erhardt: Africa began in Pullach - for the BND on the Black Continent - from 1958 to 2000 . Ed. Leyhausen, Schwetzingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-00-028558-5 .
  • Martin Schlüter: The spies sleep at night - last views of the BND in Pullach . Sieveking Verlag, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-944874-03-6 .
  • Bodo Hechelhammer and Susanne Meinl : Secret Object Pullach. From the NS model estate to the headquarters of the BND . Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-86153-792-2 .
  • Armin Müller: Wellenkrieg - agent radio and radio reconnaissance of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Ed .: Jost Dülffer et al. (=  Publications of the Independent Historical Commission for Research into the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 5 ). Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-86153-947-6 .
  • Jost Dülffer : Secret Service in Crisis - The BND in the 1960s . Ed .: Jost Dülffer et al. (=  Publications of the Independent Historical Commission for Research into the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 8 ). Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-005-6 .
  • Christian Hadan: The strategic telecommunications surveillance of the Federal Intelligence Service - basics, historical legal framework and relevance to fundamental rights of (purely foreign-related) telecommunications surveillance . Hamburg 2018 ( full text (PDF) - dissertation).
  • Dominic Hörauf: The Democratic Control of the Federal Intelligence Service - A Legal Comparison Before and After 9/11 . Publishing house Dr. Kovač , Hamburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8300-5729-1 .
  • Thomas Wolf: The creation of the BND. Construction, financing, control . Ed .: Jost Dülffer et al. (=  Publications of the Independent Historical Commission for Research into the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 9 ). Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 .
  • Ronny Heidenreich: The GDR espionage of the BND - From the beginnings to the construction of the Wall (=  publications of the Independent Commission of Historians for Researching the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 11 ). Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-96289-024-7 .
  • Bodo V. Hechelhammer: Spy without borders. Heinz Felfe - agent in seven secret services . Piper, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-492-05793-6 .


Web links

Commons : Federal Intelligence Service  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Bundesnachrichtendienst  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

General links

To the BND committee of inquiry of the Bundestag (appointed on April 7, 2006)

On the "Iraq Affair" 2006

To come to terms with history

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e § 1 BND law
  2. a b c d e f g The management of the BND - The President and the Vice-Presidents introduce themselves. In: http://www.bnd.bund.de/ . Federal Intelligence Service, accessed on March 18, 2020 .
  3. a b c The departments. Federal Intelligence Service, accessed on January 25, 2020 .
  4. a b Federal budget for the budget year 2021. (PDF) September 25, 2020, accessed on December 14, 2020 (p. 262).
  5. Organization plan of the Federal Chancellery. (PDF) In: http://www.bundesregierung.de/ . Federal Government, October 25, 2018, accessed on December 17, 2018 .
  6. § 2
  7. § 33
  8. What counts for us - our product: information. In: http://www.bnd.bund.de/ . Federal Intelligence Service, accessed on January 19, 2019 .
  9. Süddeutsche Zeitung online , accessed on May 3, 2015 and the print edition of Süddeutsche Zeitung on March 2/3. May 2015, p. 6: The surveillance factory .
  10. a b c New BND headquarters: This is how the secret move to www.morgenpost.de went, November 29, 2018, accessed on December 1, 2018.
  11. taz of April 1, 2014 .
  12. ^ BND - locations. In: https://www.bnd.bund.de/ . BND, accessed November 7, 2019 .
  13. ^ The foreign intelligence service of Germany. The Federal Intelligence Service introduces itself.BND brochure, April 2013 ( Memento from March 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  14. Ulrich Paul: The Federal Intelligence Service moves to Lichterfelde - and uses sophisticated technology to protect itself from uninvited guests: admission only after a face check. In: Berliner Zeitung. March 14, 2003.
  15. BZ: The old BND location will remain , November 9, 2018.
  16. BT-Drs. 14/6667
  17. Jack Dawson: The BND's Headquarters for Surveying and its British Partner. In: Journal for Intelligence, Propaganda and Security Studies. Vol. 4, Issue 1 (2010), pp. 140-144.
  18. ^ Dawson: The BND's Headquarters for Surveying and its British Partner. Pp. 140-144; Keith R. Allen: Interview, Review, Control. The acceptance of GDR refugees in West Berlin until 1961 . Christoph Links Verlag, Berlin 2013, pp. 187–188.
  19. Sandra Dassler: Occupation of the Iraqi Embassy: Are there backers? In: Der Tagesspiegel . August 23, 2002, accessed August 19, 2016 .
  20. a b Answer of the Federal Government to the small question of the BÜNDNIS 90 / DIE GRÜNEN parliamentary group, activities of the main agency for questioning of the Federal Intelligence Service , printed matter 17/11597, November 21, 2012, p. 2. (PDF; 149 kB)
  21. tagesschau.de : "That has nothing to do with double standards" - Steinmeier defends BND operation in Iraq January 13, 2006. "That has nothing to do with double standards" (January 13, 2006) (tagesschau.de archive)
  22. ^ Scaling to new heights - CUG 2006 program. (PDF; 1.9 MB) Cray User Group, accessed on August 19, 2016 (English).
  23. According to this source ( gavagai.de or the edition of the Spiegel cited there, Helmuth Hans Danz was an employee of the BND. According to his own statement on his homepage ( kunst-danz.de) he worked at the study office for foreign issues .
  24. ^ Norbert Juretzko, Wilhelm Dietl: Conditionally ready for service . Ullstein, 2004, ISBN 3-550-07605-3 .
  25. Dominik Cziesche u. a .: cloudy soup . In: Der Spiegel . No. 21 , 2006, p. 26 ( online ).
  26. Information on QB 30 ; Details about the contribution to QB 30 by the author Klaus Wiendl at Report Munich can be ordered under BR-Online recordings .
  27. ^ Bernhard Lohr: Secret move - spies now study elsewhere. In: https://www.sueddeutsche.de/ . Süddeutsche Zeitung, January 7, 2019, accessed on August 14, 2019 .
  28. ^ Bernhard Lohr: BND confirms move. In: https://www.sueddeutsche.de/ . Süddeutsche Zeitung, January 1, 2019, accessed on August 14, 2019 .
  29. BT-Drs. 17/10326
  30. Almost thousands: BND employees supposedly sell the most secret data of their office and use professional contacts for private business . In: Der Spiegel . No. 2 , 1997 ( online ).
  31. Stephen Gray, Hans-Martin Tillack: What is the BND doing in Kazakhstan? stern.de, January 16, 2007, accessed on March 24, 2013 .
  32. secret: The sad men of 11A . In: Der Spiegel . No. 49 , 2008 ( online ).
  33. bundesanzeiger.de
  34. Author No. 0023 and 0042: WTF is BVOE? In: The data thrower . No. 93 , 2008, p. 9–15 ( ds.ccc.de [PDF]).
  35. ^ War lie: BND paid Iraqi fraudsters. (No longer available online.) Panorama in Das Erste , December 2, 2010, archived from the original on December 11, 2010 ; Retrieved December 11, 2010 .
  36. Printed matter 17/12598, investigations against a BND employee (PDF) on bundestag.de
  37. Erich Schmidt-Eenboom: The BND - the uncanny power in the state: Snoopers without a nose. Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf / Vienna / New York / Moscow 1993, ISBN 3-430-18004-X , p. 327 f.
  38. Personal details of the BND ( Memento from January 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  39. Cooperations: represented globally. In: BND. Retrieved February 23, 2020 .
  40. Spiegel Online from July 7, 2013: Interview with Edward Snowden: NSA supplies BND with tools for eavesdropping
  41. Spiegel Online from July 20, 2013: XKeyscore sniffing software: German secret services use US spyware
  42. a b Secret service cooperation: BND has been forwarding data to the NSA since 2007 In: Spiegel Online . August 8, 2013, accessed January 16, 2017.
  43. The BND in Iraq: "Schöne Gruesze" from the war. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . September 9, 2008.
  44. Surveillance: BND forwards massive amounts of metadata to the NSA. In: Spiegel Online . 3rd August 2013.
  45. Surveillance: BND forwards massive amounts of metadata to the NSA. In: Spiegel Online . 3rd August 2013.
  46. BND delivers 1.3 billion metadata to NSA every month. Zeit Online, May 12, 2015, accessed May 12, 2015 .
  47. BND stores 220 million phone data - every day. Zeit Online, February 6, 2015, accessed May 12, 2015 .
  48. ^ Cooperation with the BND: Union and Left attack Steinmeier in NSA affair. In: Spiegel Online . August 8, 2013, accessed January 16, 2017.
  49. Spähaffäre: BND are mobile numbers at other intelligence on. In: Spiegel Online . August 9, 2013, accessed May 16, 2015 .
  50. Elmar Theveßen , Peter F. Müller, Ulrich Stoll: "Operation 'Rubikon'" - #Cryptoleaks: How BND and CIA deceived everyone. In: ZDF . February 11, 2020, accessed February 12, 2020 .
  51. ^ Fiona Endres, Nicole Vögele: Worldwide espionage operation with Swiss company uncovered. In: Swiss radio and television . February 11, 2020, accessed February 12, 2020 .
  52. ^ Greg Miller: "The intelligence coup of the century" - For decades, the CIA read the encrypted communications of allies and adversaries. In: The Washington Post . February 11, 2020, accessed on February 12, 2020 .
  53. Detlef Borchers: Secret Service Cooperation "Maximator": The Five Eyes of Europe? In: heise online. April 8, 2020, accessed April 20, 2020 .
  54. Bart Jacobs: Maximator: European signals intelligence cooperation, from a Dutch perspective . In: Intelligence and National Security . 2020, doi : 10.1080 / 02684527.2020.1743538 .
  55. Peter Hammerschmidt: The fact that V-43 118 was SS-Hauptsturmführer does not preclude using it as a source. The BND and its agent Klaus Barbie. In: Journal of History. 59 (2011), No. 4, pp. 333-348.
  56. a b Former Nazis in the BND. MDR , September 9, 2012, accessed August 19, 2016 .
  57. Axel Frohn, Klaus Wiegrefe: Contemporary history: On Pullach's wage list . In: Der Spiegel . No. 41 , 2011 ( online ).
  58. Walther Rauff: Former SS officer worked for the BND for years. In: Focus Online . September 25, 2011, accessed May 16, 2015 .
  59. Stefanie Waske: More liaison than control: The control of the BND by parliament and government 1955–1978 . VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-531-16347-5 , p. 91. ( limited preview in Google book search)
  60. ^ Future Federal Military Security and Intelligence Agencies. (No longer available online.) Central Intelligence Agency , Nov. 12, 1951, archived from the original on July 13, 2012 ; Retrieved April 18, 2010 .
  61. Federal Intelligence Service. (No longer available online.) Central Intelligence Agency , September 12, 1952, archived from the original July 13, 2012 ; Retrieved April 18, 2010 .
  62. Thomas Wolf: The emergence of the BND. Structure, financing, control (= Jost Dülffer, Klaus-Dietmar Henke, Wolfgang Krieger, Rolf-Dieter Müller [eds.]: Publications of the Independent Commission of Historians for Researching the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 9 ). 1st edition. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 , pp. 300 .
  63. Johannes Erasmus: The secret intelligence service . 1st edition. Musterschmidt, Göttingen 1952.
  64. Thomas Wolf: The emergence of the BND. Structure, financing, control (= Jost Dülffer, Klaus-Dietmar Henke, Wolfgang Krieger, Rolf-Dieter Müller [eds.]: Publications of the Independent Commission of Historians for Researching the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 9 ). 1st edition. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 , pp. 307 ff .
  65. Thomas Wolf: The emergence of the BND. Structure, financing, control (= Jost Dülffer, Klaus-Dietmar Henke, Wolfgang Krieger, Rolf-Dieter Müller [eds.]: Publications of the Independent Commission of Historians for Researching the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 9 ). 1st edition. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 , pp. 316 .
  66. Thomas Wolf: The emergence of the BND. Structure, financing, control (= Jost Dülffer, Klaus-Dietmar Henke, Wolfgang Krieger, Rolf-Dieter Müller [eds.]: Publications of the Independent Commission of Historians for Researching the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 9 ). 1st edition. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 , pp. 355 .
  67. Thomas Wolf: The emergence of the BND. Structure, financing, control (= Jost Dülffer, Klaus-Dietmar Henke, Wolfgang Krieger, Rolf-Dieter Müller [eds.]: Publications of the Independent Commission of Historians for Researching the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 9 ). 1st edition. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 , pp. 325 ff .
  68. Jerry Richardson: James H. Critchfield played key roles both in hot and cold war. (No longer available online.) NDSUmagazine, 2003, archived from the original on September 26, 2011 ; Retrieved October 29, 2011 .
  69. Thomas Wolf: The emergence of the BND. Structure, financing, control (= Jost Dülffer, Klaus-Dietmar Henke, Wolfgang Krieger, Rolf-Dieter Müller [eds.]: Publications of the Independent Commission of Historians for Researching the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 9 ). 1st edition. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 , pp. 361 .
  70. Thomas Wolf: The emergence of the BND. Structure, financing, control (= Jost Dülffer, Klaus-Dietmar Henke, Wolfgang Krieger, Rolf-Dieter Müller [eds.]: Publications of the Independent Commission of Historians for Researching the History of the Federal Intelligence Service 1945–1968 . Volume 9 ). 1st edition. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 , pp. 356 ff .
  71. Markus Kompa: Erich Schmidt-Eenboom and Ulrich Stoll on the secret stay-behind organizations. October 25, 2015, accessed January 20, 2016 .
  72. Printed matter 7/3083 - Information from the Federal Government: Excerpt from the 2nd part of the report of the so-called Mercker Commission of July 24, 1969, which deals with the situation of the Federal Intelligence Service before 1969. (PDF) German Bundestag , 1975, accessed on January 19, 2014 .
  73. Pullach internally: The history of the Federal Intelligence Service . In: Der Spiegel . No. 24 , 1971 ( online ).
  74. Printed matter 7/3246 - Report and application of the 2nd committee of inquiry on the application of the parliamentary group of the CDU / CSU regarding the establishment of a committee of inquiry - printed matter 7/2193. (PDF) German Bundestag , February 19, 1975, accessed on January 19, 2014 .
  75. "CASCOPE". (PDF; 665 kB) Central Intelligence Agency , October 3, 1974, accessed on September 8, 2013 .
  76. CPC Support to SACEUR. (PDF; 459 kB) Central Intelligence Agency , September 6, 1984, accessed on September 8, 2013 .
  77. Heribert Schwan , Tilman Jens : Legacy. The cabbage logs . 2nd Edition. Heyne, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-453-20077-7 , pp. 188 .
  78. BND abolishes cover names. ( Memento from June 29, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) on www.moz.de, January 20, 2016.
  79. Patrik Müller: BND listening post in Rheinhausen allows insights for the first time. Badische Zeitung , February 11, 2015.
  80. Hans Michael Kloth: How the BND hunted down its own Nazis . In spiegel.de of March 18, 2010.
    The CIA had also created files on the Nazis in the early BND ("Record Group 263") and released them (US National Archives)
  81. In the swamp of the brown past. The Stasi was researching West German secret service agents who had been exposed to the Nazis - some files have now been released . From Constanze von Bullion. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. No. 158 of July 13, 2010, p. 5.
  82. Thomas Wolf: The origins of the BND and “official history” in Germany. Methods, topics and new sources in contemporary research on the German Foreign Intelligence Service . In: Selected lectures by the DHI Moscow . tape 2020 , no. 1 ( perspectivia.net ).
  83. Hans Leyendecker: BND opens archive for historians: Journey to another galaxy . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . January 14, 2011 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed August 19, 2016]).
  84. Federal Intelligence Service - a transparent secret. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , January 13, 2011, accessed on January 14, 2011 .
  85. ^ Research and working group "History of the BND" ( Memento from August 24, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
  86. On the problem of the source situation: Gregor Schöllgen: Emergency in Pullach: There are limits to the planned processing of the history of the Federal Intelligence Service. (PDF) In: https://www.gregorschoellgen.de/ . Süddeutsche Zeitung, February 9, 2011, accessed on March 10, 2019 .
  87. Klaus Wiegrefe: Historians at the BND: Secret Service can look into the files. In: Spiegel Online . January 13, 2011, accessed May 16, 2015 .
  88. Publications. Retrieved April 4, 2020 .
  89. ^ BND destroys documents. 250 files related to the Nazi regime are gone. (No longer available online.) In: tagesschau.de. November 29, 2011, archived from the original on November 30, 2011 ; Retrieved August 19, 2016 .
  90. ^ Klaus Wiegrefe: Historians' Commission: BND destroyed personal files of former SS people. In: Spiegel Online . November 29, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2016 .
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  92. ^ BND had thousands of spies in the GDR . ( Memento from May 21, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Netzeitung.de September 24, 2007.
  93. ^ BND spied on at least 71,500 GDR citizens , Neues Deutschland, January 17, 2015.
  94. Berlin crisis 1958 and closure of the sector borders in Berlin on August 13, 1961 in the files of the Federal Intelligence Service. ( Memento from August 19, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: MFGBND . 2011, No. 1, ISBN 978-3-943549-00-3 .
  95. Matthias Gebauer: The shuttle diplomacy of the "Mr. Hezbollah ” . Spiegel online, July 16, 2008.
  96. Norbert Stier's curriculum vitae on the BND website. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 20, 2012 ; Retrieved December 29, 2010 .
  97. ^ General Wien becomes BND vice-president for military affairs. In: dpa. DBwV, December 17, 2020, accessed on December 18, 2020 .
  98. ^ Scott Shane: CIA Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show. In: New York Times. June 7, 2006.
  99. Bettina Stangneth: Eichmann before Jerusalem. The undisturbed life of a mass murderer. Zurich 2011.
  100. E EICHMANN TRIAL. (No longer available online.) Central Intelligence Agency , April 6, 1961, archived from the original on July 13, 2012 ; Retrieved April 18, 2010 .
  101. Georg Bönisch, Gunther Latsch and Klaus Wiegrefe: Inglorious role . In: Der Spiegel . No. 38 , 2012 ( online - September 17, 2012 ).
  102. Andreas Förster: Secret service handed over documents with clear names of former spies to the Federal Administrative Court: New BND breakdown endangers agents in Russia. In: Berliner Zeitung . June 8, 2006, accessed December 23, 2019 .
  103. a b c Bundestag.de: Foertsch: Journalist contacts should uncover BND leaks. February 12, 2009.
  104. ^ A b NDR: Embarrassing details - journalists provide information to BND. ( Memento of March 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) February 25, 2009.
  105. At the service of the BND. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung February 12, 2009.
  106. BND Iraq affair: Did German agents spy for the USA? In: stern.de. January 14, 2006, accessed December 13, 2010 .
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  110. ^ BND Kosovo scandal: Ex-BND man sentenced to imprisonment. (No longer available online.) Balkanforum Balkanblog.org - Balkan information, May 26, 2010, archived from the original on October 28, 2010 ; Retrieved October 28, 2010 .
  111. The BND in Kosovo: Background to a strange affair. In: stern.de. November 25, 2008, accessed December 13, 2010 .
  112. Justice: The man who didn't want to be a spy. Spiegel Online, July 7, 2009, accessed August 22, 2009 .
  113. Fight against authorities: How the entrepreneur Kremer fell under the customs officers. Spiegel Online, May 1, 2008, accessed August 22, 2009 .
  114. Information Paper. (PDF) In: spiegel.de , accessed on January 16, 2017 (PDF; 515 kB).
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  116. ^ Secret services: BND has been monitoring NATO partner Turkey for years. at: spiegel.de , accessed on August 17, 2014.
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  149. Christian Kerl: "Mole" in the secret service - espionage scandal shakes the BND. In: derwesten.de. January 14, 2015, accessed May 16, 2015 .
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  151. The NSA is watching through the back door. ZEIT Online , September 27, 2016.
  152. a b c d BND scandal: NetBotz apparently builds back doors in its cameras. Der Spiegel , September 27, 2016.
  153. a b c German corporations apparently affected by US espionage. FAKT exclusive, December 13, 2016.
  154. No investigations into BND backdoor scandal - Attorney General cites statute of limitations. FAKT exclusive, October 5th, 2016.
  155. ↑ Flight movements: What is the BND doing in Kazakhstan? - Politics, stern.de
  156. flightradar24.com
  157. Gabriele Gast: Scout of Peace. 17 years top spy in the GDR with the BND . Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-8218-0522-6 , p. 230.
  158. Registration Details for D-BIRD (Private Wings Flugcharter) Dornier 328 JET-310
  159. Chair of the staff council only for group spokespersons. Retrieved October 17, 2020 .
  160. ^ Federal Intelligence Service: Top (f) Secret: The secret recipes of the Federal Intelligence Service. 1st edition. Varus, 2002, ISBN 3-928475-60-6 .
  161. WikiLeaks revelations: USA and Germany plan scouts in space. Spiegel Online , January 3, 2011, accessed January 4, 2011 .
  162. HiROS project: Wikileaks documents published on German spy satellites. Zeit Online , January 3, 2011, accessed January 4, 2011 .
  163. HiROS: Neither high-resolution nor planned. (No longer available online.) Authorities Spiegel , January 10, 2011, formerly in the original ; Retrieved January 10, 2011 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.behoerden-spiegel.de
  164. (Details about the) HIgh Resolution Optical System (HiROS). (No longer available online.) Wikileaks, May 14, 2009, archived from the original on August 20, 2011 ; Retrieved August 28, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / wikileaks.org
  165. (More details about the) HIgh Resolution Optical System (HiROS). (No longer available online.) Wikileaks, September 10, 2009, archived from the original on August 20, 2011 ; Retrieved August 28, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / wikileaks.org
  166. ^ German Bundestag: Brief question to the Federal Government; Printed matter 17/4997 and 17/5281
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  169. Budget volume in 2018
  170. Budget volume in 2017
  171. Budget volume in 2016
  172. Budget volume in 2015
  173. Digital upgrade: BND wants to research social networks in real time. In: Spiegel Online . May 30, 2014, accessed January 16, 2017.
  174. Federal Intelligence Service: 300 million for an early warning system against cyber attacks. In: Spiegel Online . May 16, 2014, accessed January 16, 2017.
  175. Press release of the BVerwG. Federal Administrative Court, September 18, 2019, accessed on October 8, 2019 .

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