The security policy is part of the overall organic policy. It includes the generally binding, interest-based design (creation, maintenance, strengthening) of the internal and external security of individuals and communities, organizations, institutions in and for communities.
The security policy encompasses all considerations, planning, decisions on contractual or legislative design and the political action of organizational units at the municipal , federal , state and intergovernmental level with regard to the security of the community.
The basic elements of security policy are determined by the respective state authorities , depending on the form of government , and appear in civil society, in the organs of internal security (public security), in the armed forces and in the other organs of national defense of a state or a military coalition.
In most states, these security policy goals and the tasks derived from them are incorporated into a national security strategy / strategy of national security, military doctrine or defense policy guidelines, etc. a. composed and concretized in practical policy in close cooperation with foreign policy.
Change of terms and delimitations
Origin and use in foreign policy
The term “security policy” came into political parlance in relation to external security. In foreign policy and international relations, security policy refers to the creation and maintenance of secure external (state) borders through military measures, the establishment of collective security systems (e.g. treaties, alliances), and mutual trust-building measures (e.g. recognition of borders, renouncing unilateral demands) and international exchange.
This assignment of meaning was also common in international political parlance:
- The term “ grand strategy ”, which is used in particular in the United States of America , focuses on the security-political aspects of the foreign policy of nations and confederations of states, especially with regard to the preparability, operationalization and feasibility of war.
- Likewise, the English terms military policy (cf. German defense policy ) and military strategy (German military strategy ) describe only individual, derived aspects of security policy from an even more restrictive point of view, namely the military planning and executive perspective.
External security policy includes the areas of traditional military policy , the creation of systems of collective and / or cooperative security, peacekeeping and conflict prevention, crisis management and the prevention of war between state, pseudo-state and non-state actors.
In the past, the security policy debates were shaped by an understanding of classic external security (until the end of the 1980s, only with military means, without internal security), by comprehensive security (since the 1990s, with military and non-military means, including internal security) and through the current expanded security concept , which describes networked security .
In a broad sense, security policy includes - especially in the case of states - the guarantee of political, military, economic, social, legal, cultural, ecological, technical, etc. a. Collateral in itself. It is closely linked to domestic and foreign policy , and is therefore also related to foreign trade policy and international cultural relations .
The international system is in a state of upheaval and international politics is characterized by high volatility, uncertainty and uncertainties, to which the effects of accelerated digitization and digital networking also contribute. They are expressed in phenomena such as hybrid threats, cybersecurity problems and robotics. The field of security policy must constantly face new challenges, e.g. B. also in economic development, the world of work, mobility and integration of society.
Definition of terms
The German term security policy should not be confused with the following terms:
- The technical term from the literal translation of the English term security policy is security policy and is codified and standardized action or behavior instructions of an organizational entity regarding the availability, integrity, confidentiality and authenticity of its associated systems and processes.
- The term security policy , adopted from the Anglo-American language area and also used in German, refers to technical and content-related methods of preventing and defending against threats and damage to the confidentiality, availability and integrity of data processing systems (see information security ).
Examples of security policy concepts
US security policy concepts
The American concept of national security can best be compared with the concept of security policy, even if the concrete forms of the former are more closely related than is the case with the German-language term.
Security policy concepts of Russia
A state strategic concept which, in the interests of enhanced security, brings together internal, external and military policy areas across the board, did not emerge in Russia until 1996/97.
The culmination point so far is the national security strategy of December 2015, which brings together long-term national interests and strategic priorities with regard to foreign, security and domestic policy.
The termination of the INF contract (August 2019) and the vacant extension of the New START contract are seen in Russia as signs of a fundamental change in the military-strategic landscape. The security policy discourse on the formation of a multilateral strategic stability between the nuclear powers is in full swing among (foreign) politicians, the military and scientists in Russia.
Importance of security policy
Security is no longer the sole responsibility of the police, intelligence services and the military. Many other federal and state authorities ensure that security in freedom is guaranteed in Germany. The prerequisite for this is that the work of the responsible government agencies complement each other, but also with actors from business and civil society. Better networking, intensive dialogue, comprehensive security - that is the focus of the security policy debates.
In the international arena, security policy is dominated by states yesterday as today; nationally, security policy discourses still take place primarily in specialist forums and between elites. Nonetheless, the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Prohibition Treaty or the 1997 Ottawa Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Mines show how transnational, non-governmental organizations are increasingly influencing security policy discourses. These surprisingly powerful initiatives include the International Campaigns for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) and for the ban on landmines, which have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Security policy is a topic of daily political events; it is the subject of media reporting, political discourse, research and education.
As a scientific subject, it is particularly important in the field of international relations , in peace and conflict research , in strategic studies and in international law . The active discourse on the topic traditionally takes place in specialist print publications, but also on corresponding platforms on the Internet.
As general educational content , aspects of security policy are discussed in the secondary level in the subjects of social studies , geography , history and politics . In the field of adult education, knowledge of security policy is passed on through relevant associations and clubs as well as government agencies.
- Portal: politics
- Society for Defense and Security Policy (Germany)
- Federal Association for Security Policy at Universities (Germany)
- Aurel Croissant , David Kühn: Military and civil politics. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-486-58705-0 .
- Dieter Farwick , Gerhard Hubatschek: The strategic blackmail. A security policy analysis . With a foreword by Manfred Wörner . Verlag für Wehrwissenschaft, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-8219-0003-2 .
- Claus Heinrich Gattermann : The New Old World. Essays on the security policy of the Federal Republic of Germany (= Universitätsdrucke Göttingen ). Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-86395-091-0 .
- Thomas Jäger : The Complexity of Wars - Global Society and International Relations. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-531-17311-5 .
- Thomas Jäger: Handbook of War Theories. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-531-17933-9 .
- Ernst-Christoph Meier Andreas Hannemann, Rainer Meyer to the field (Hrsg.): Dictionary for security policy. Germany in a changed international environment . 8th, revised edition. Mittler, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8132-0933-4 .
- Herfried Münkler: The Change of War: From Symmetry to Asymmetry. Velbrück Wissenschaftsverlag, Weilerswist-Metternich 2006, ISBN 3-938808-09-8 .
- Angela Marciniak: Political Security. On the story of a controversial concept . Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2015, ISBN 978-3-593-50313-4 .
- Herfried Münkler : The New Wars. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek 2004, ISBN 3-499-61653-X .
- Johannes Varwick : Security Policy. An introduction. Wochenschau-Verlag, Schwalbach / Taunus 2009, ISBN 978-3-89974-481-1 .
- Kersten Lahl / Johannes Varwick: Understanding Security Policy. Fields of action, controversies and possible solutions. Wochenschau-Verlag, Schwalbach / Taunus 2018. ISBN 978-3-7344-0735-2
- Herfried Münkler: Elements of a new security architecture. In: IP - International Politics. Issue 5/2007, pp. 6-14. German Society for Foreign Policy V., Berlin, 2007. ISSN 1430-175X
- Website of the Federal Academy for Security Policy (www.baks.bund.de) - an independent department of the Federal Minister of Defense of the Federal Republic of Germany
- The Austrian Security Policy , Bundeskanzleramt.gv.at
- The Swiss Security Policy , Admin.ch
Overviews and Research:
- German-language list of international research institutions with a focus on security policy , Rüdiger Voigt, 2015
- Website of the Institute for Security Policy at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (ispk.org)
- ↑ a b c See: See Manfred G. Schmidt: Dictionary for politics. 3rd, revised and updated edition, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-520-40403-9 , p. 717.
- ^ Klaus Schubert / Martina Klein: Das Politiklexikon. Concepts, facts, connections. Federal Agency for Civic Education (Ed.), 5th, updated and expanded edition, Bonn 2011, ISBN 978-3-8389-0174-9 , p. 267.
- ↑ See Science and Politics Foundation (SWP): Orientation Framework for Research. URL: https://www.swp-berlin.org/ueber-uns/orientierungsrahmen/ Accessed October 17, 2019.
- ↑ See National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation (2015). Confirmed by Decree No. 68 of the President of the Russian Federation of December 31, 2015. Translation from Russian by Rainer Böhme. In: Dresdener Studiengemeinschaft Sicherheitsppolitik (DSS) i. L. (Ed.), DSS working papers, Dresden 2016, special edition June, 54 pp. Urn : nbn: de: bsz: 14-qucosa2-78763 . Soot. Original from URL: kremlin.ru , accessed on August 15, 2019.
- ↑ See Multilateral Strategic Stability Between Nuclear Powers - Realistic? Limitation and Reduction of Armaments in Discourse. Anthology, translation from Russian and English by Rainer Böhme and Jörg-Uwe Laasch. In: (Ed.) Rainer Böhme: dgksp-discussion papers, Dresden 2019, November, 40 pp. Urn : nbn: de: bsz: 14-qucosa2-361357 .
- ↑ See flyer: The Federal Academy for Security Policy e. V. under URL: Accessed October 17, 2019. https://www.baks.bund.de/sites/baks010/files/flyer_baks_2019_online.pdf
- ↑ See Julia Strasheim, Meik Woyke: Déjà-vu of the security policy? In: (Ed.) Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, IPG-Journal, October 27, 2019. Access URL: https://www.ipg-journal.de/rubriken/aussen-und-sicherheitspektiven/artikel/deja-vu- the-security-policy-3827 /