from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The pension , also called retirement pension , is an income that is regularly paid out to a person , which (mostly) serves as a pension . Until well into the 19th century , it also referred to a regular, mostly annual payment to people who were close to a noble court.


The pension schemes for civil servants , judges and soldiers are sui generis pension schemes . In addition, there are statutory pensions , supplementary public service provision (ZÖD), company pension schemes , private provision ( Riester systems) and others.

The pension scheme for civil servants is regulated in Germany in the law on the pension for civil servants and federal judges (BeamtVG). In autumn 2006, the related legislative power was in the context of federalism reform decentralized so that federal and countries now have to regulate it the pensions of their respective officials for their area. Some of the countries have made use of this competence and passed new supply laws for their countries. Some federal states have adopted the provisions of the BeamtVG in full or in part by law. The period of service provision for professional soldiers is regulated in the Act on Provision for Former Bundeswehr Soldiers and Their Survivors (SVG). The basic structures of the civil service provision shown below are largely identical in content to the military service. The most important differences arise in the retirement age (for professional soldiers the age limits apply according to § 45 Soldiers Act (SG)), which is lower for the majority of professional soldiers and the resulting pension rate. On January 1, 2018, there were 1,665,940 pension recipients under civil service and soldiers pension law in Germany (destatis, Fachserie 14, Reihe 6.1).


The pension is a retirement pension and is paid in Germany to civil servants, judges and professional soldiers as well as pastors , church officials and other persons who are employed under public law when they have reached retirement age. A retirement civil servant who meets the requirements of Section 4 (1) BeamtVG receives a pension .

According to Section 4 (1) BeamtVG, at least one of two cases that entitle you to receive a pension must exist:

Only retirees are included. Whose civil service does not end with retirement, but by dismissal, does not receive a pension, but will nachversichert in the GRV, the exception is the newly introduced for the federal government and some states age money . However, retirement is also temporary retirement, into which political officials can be transferred at any time. The requirements for retirement are part of the civil service status law and are therefore only regulated in the civil service status law.

Pension amount

The pension amounts to 1.79375 percent of the pensionable salary for each year of pensionable service, up to a maximum of 71.75 percent. ( Section 14 (1) sentence 1 BeamtVG ). Depending on the respective legal regulation, this percentage is further reduced for some employers, for example the value at the federal government is multiplied by the factor 0.9901. ( § 5 Abs. 1 Hs. 2 BeamtVG) The maximum amount is reached after 40 years of service.

Remuneration eligible for retirement is essentially the base salary (table value from the salary group , the level of experience) and the family allowance ( Section 50 (1) BeamtVG) of level 1. ( Section 5 (1) BeamtVG). In addition, there is a whole range of allowances and adjustment surcharges, almost all of which result from previous reforms and are to be regarded as expiring.

The side effect that a promotion shortly before retirement inappropriately increases the retirement pension is intended to counteract the fact that the higher-paid office according to Section 5 (3) BeamtVG must be held for at least two years. The introduction of a three-year period by the German Bundestag has the Federal Constitutional Court rejected. In the case of civil servants in partial retirement in the block model, according to the case law of numerous administrative courts , the transport ban should be moved forward to the point in time two years before entry into the release phase.

If you only work part-time , the annual rate of 1.79375 is reduced by the corresponding part-time factor. For this, periods of employment in the public service that were not performed as a civil servant can be recognized when calculating the factor. There are also additional periods if an official is unable to work before the age of 60 (two thirds of the remaining time).

If a civil servant without incapacity for work is at his own request before reaching the intended age limit (depending on the employer, currently at the end of the month in which the 65th or 67th year of life is reached, exceptions apply to officers in the aviation service of the Bundeswehr (in part) and for Law enforcement officers and, in some cases, the severely disabled) are retired, their entitlements are reduced by 0.3% per month (3.6% per year) of early departure. In some cases, however, there is - also analogous to the statutory pension insurance - the possibility of early retirement at your own request without any deductions if you have reached the age of 65 and have worked for 45 years. In the case of a civil servant who is retired due to incapacity (but not due to an accident at work), the pension is reduced by 3.6% for each year before the age of 63, but by a maximum of 10.8% (in North Rhine-Westphalia 14.4%).

In the case of part-time work in the form of partial retirement, the reduction in the annual rate by the corresponding part-time factor does not apply. During this time, for each year spent in partial retirement, instead of the usual 100%, only 90% of the pensionable period of service can be taken into account. Individual state regulations must be observed. In the case of partial retirement starting from June 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 according to the state law of North Rhine-Westphalia, z. B. the times can only be credited to 80%. However, both regulations are more favorable in many cases, as a partial retirement factor would usually amount to 60% or 50%.

Minimum supply

In order to meet the duty of alimentation and thus also to support the independence of the civil servant, the Civil Servant Welfare Act provides for an accident pension and a minimum pension. In the event of an accident at work that leads to premature incapacity for work, the minimum pension rate is increased to at least 66.67% with special consideration of the imputed periods, but the maximum value of the achievable pension may not be exceeded ( Section 36 BeamtVG). In the case of a qualified work accident in which the civil servant put his life in danger, a more favorable calculation is made.

In addition, there is an office-independent and an office-dependent minimum pension that takes effect if an incapacity for work occurs without an accident at work (for example due to illness); the higher amount is granted. The office-independent minimum pension is 65% of the relevant remuneration from salary group A4, the office-dependent minimum pension is 35% of the relevant remuneration from the pensionable salary group ( Section 14 , Paragraph 4 BeamtVG).

Maximum pension rate

The maximum pension rate is 71.75 percent. It was 75 percent in 2001 and was gradually reduced by the 2001 Supply Change Act. Retired civil servants are also affected by the cuts. The Federal Constitutional Court has dismissed claims against the lowering of pensions as unfounded. From 2011 to 2017, the salary adjustments to build up a pension reserve should be 0.2 percent lower annually. This regulation, which has been in force since 1999, was suspended until 2011. The lowering of the salary adjustments results in a permanent salary cut of 2.0 percent.

If a civil servant has additional entitlements to a pension from the statutory pension insurance , this is fully or partially offset against the pension in order to prevent over-provision. Income from work that a pension recipient earns is also taken into account if a certain maximum limit is exceeded. Roughly speaking, additional earnings and additional pensions are not taken into account as long as the maximum pension rate is not exceeded.

Survivors' pension

The surviving dependents of a deceased civil servant receive widow's or widower's allowance, children are paid orphan's allowance. For widows or widowers, the corresponding benefit amounts to 60%, for those born after December 31, 1961 only 55% of the pension, whereby the child-related parts of the family allowance are retained in full. Surviving life partners as federal civil servants and in most federal states such as Berlin , Brandenburg , Bremen , Hamburg , Hesse , Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland receive a survivor's pension. For half- orphans the orphan's allowance is 12% of the pension, for full orphans it is 20%.

If the surviving dependents have their own income, this is partially offset; in the case of widows and orphans, this can also lead to a complete suspension of payments. Orphans receive the orphans' allowance up to the age of 27 if they have no income of their own, after that only if they are not able to work independently to cover their livelihood.

If the marriage or civil partnership existed for less than a year at the time of the death of the beneficiary or was only concluded after the beneficiary's 65th birthday and has remained childless, according to the current legal situation, a care marriage is regularly assumed, which leads to the refusal of a benefit to the Widow or widower leads. In exceptional cases, however, a so-called maintenance contribution (usually in the amount of the survivors' benefits) can be granted.

Retirement benefit

In Germany, old-age benefit is an alternative old-age insurance on the legal basis of the old-age benefit law for civil servants who voluntarily leave their employment relationship for life , professional judges for life and professional soldiers in the service of the federal government .

Comparison between old-age pension and pension

A direct comparison between old-age pensions and pensions is difficult due to the different calculation bases and only permitted to a limited extent due to different legal objectives (see minimum pension). Different types of income, taxation and costs must be taken into account when calculating net income. An Income and Consumption Sample (EVS) from the Federal Statistical Office last carried out in 2013 determined a net household income in pensioner households of EUR 2206 compared to a net household income of a pensioner household of EUR 4404. In 2017, 19.5 percent of all persons from pensioner households were considered to be at risk of poverty. however, only 0.9 percent from retired households.

For the retirement of employee households, the Federal Statistical Office calculates a decline in income on the OECD scale of 44% and 13% for that of a pensioner. Long-term insured employees who retired from work in 2003 when they reached the age limit received an average pension of € 1,227 per month after deduction of the health and long-term care insurance (old federal states), 1% of all employees in the old federal states received a pension over 1,800 €. The average amount paid by the German pension insurance for old-age and disability pensions after deducting health and long-term care insurance contributions as of December 31, 2017 was EUR 866. The average pensions in January 2018 were EUR 2,930 per month [p. 109].

While the relative figures (such as the drop in income) show that civil servants are significantly better off than salaried employees in old age, the absolute levels of the salaries are only comparable to a very limited extent: 78% of civil servants are in higher or higher service, i.e. usually with University or technical college degree. This rate is clear for white-collar workers, and much lower for blue-collar workers. Differences in educational attainment lead to differences in income and thus affect pensions. However, this does not mean that salaried academics will automatically receive a higher pension than employees with vocational training. Rather, many salaried academics are threatened with old-age poverty, as they usually enter professional life later, complete various poorly paid internships and, unlike civil servants, can also become unemployed.

The point system of the statutory pension insurance takes into account the average income achieved during professional life and does not, in contrast to civil servant pensions, refer to the significantly higher final income. In addition, the income threshold in pension insurance distorts the picture. Even with a large proportion of senior civil servants in the senior service and almost entirely among civil servants in the higher service, the gross salary is above the income threshold, but the pension is regularly calculated from the last (full) salary. If, on the other hand, the salary of an employee who is subject to pension insurance exceeds the assessment ceiling, no contributions are due for the excess amount; this accordingly does not generate any earnings points and therefore does not increase the pension.

Another problem with the comparability are the different employment histories: The corner pensioner with his 45 years of work actually hardly exists anymore, because an average of 10% unemployment for pensioners inevitably means that of the 40 - 50 years between school leaving and retirement there are about four years Unemployment reduced contributions are paid.

The so-called corner pensioner , who has worked 45 years with average earnings of a German employee and will retire at 67 in 2030, will not reach the poverty line of € 938. Such a development has not yet emerged for civil servants due to the alimentation principle.

There are numerous differences between old-age pensions and pensions:

  • After reaching the age limit, the retiree receives up to 71.75 percent multiplied by 0.9901, i.e. 71.04 percent, of his last earnings as a retirement pension (based on the gross salary, as of 2019). This full entitlement is achieved after 40 years of service. The pensions are calculated according to the pensionable period of service ( Section 6 BeamtVG) and the pensionable salary ( Section 5 BeamtVG). The lowering of the maximum pension rate from originally 75% to 71.75% was viewed by the BVerfG as "still" constitutional. From a legal point of view, "a further reduction in pension payments ... will be rejected by the BVerfG as inadmissible". (P. 114).
  • The retirement pension depends on the contribution amount and the contribution period. It is based on the pension contributions made, which - with the exception of low -wage earners - have to be paid 50% by the employee and 50% by the employer. With an employee's average monthly salary of € 3304, the pension formula results in a pension entitlement of € 35 per year. The old-age pension of the “ corner pensioner ” averages 48% of the last gross income. The old-age pensions are expected to drop by up to 40%. The sustainability factor makes it possible to reduce the pension from year to year depending on the ratio of pensioners / contributors. The legal basis for the pension level before taxes - officially "Security level before taxes" can be found in Section 154 (3) sentence 1 number 2.
  • Pensioners are entitled to a minimum pension, which follows from the alimentation principle , which is intended to secure the civil servant in such a way that the desired independent administration by the civil servant is guaranteed at all times. Single civil servants receive € 1,499.95 (gross) (as of 2014). The basis for calculating the minimum pension is 65% of the last level of grade A4. Old-age pensions are dependent on the pension contributions made ( earnings points / pension formula ) and in principle are not limited below, but other state benefits such as basic security, housing benefit or supplementary social assistance can be drawn - this is exactly what pensioners should be spared, so that they can also use them during active times Can lead office independently.
  • Pensioners receive between 50% and 80% (depending on marital status and children) of their health and care costs as allowance from their employer, but - as with statutory health insurance - not all expenses are eligible. Civil servants (and thus also retirees) were not required to take out insurance until January 1, 2009, but if they did not want to bear the unpredictable risk of the rest of the cost themselves, they had to take out private health and long-term care insurance for the rest. Due to the contribution structure of such insurances, which depends on many different factors (age of entry, number of insured persons, etc.) as well as the scope of benefits, the contributions are very different and can, as there is no contribution-free co-insurance for spouses and children and the contribution does not depend on the individual Income-oriented, be from around 3% to around 25% of the pension. However, it is also possible for them to be insured in the basic tariff. As a rule, the maximum contribution from statutory health insurance applies to the basic tariff (only a proportional percentage of this due to the entitlement to benefits). Civil servants who are insured in statutory health insurance also have the option of retaining their membership, but they then have to pay for the employer's share themselves, so that this choice is usually not worthwhile; A civil servant who has left the statutory health insurance is usually not allowed to become a member again. In contrast, old-age pensioners pay half the contribution rate for health insurance (14.6%: 2 = 7.3%) and half the additional contribution of the relevant health insurance company (2020: average 1.1%: 2 = 0.55%). In addition, pensioners pay full long-term care insurance (2020: 3.05% of the pension and, if applicable, 0.25% additional contribution in the event of childlessness ). Spouses and, if applicable, children are also insured free of charge, provided they do not have their own income that is subject to social insurance .
  • Retirees pay income tax on the total pension income net of care allowance , pensions were subject by the end of 2004, the income tax only with the return portion, which depended on the retirement age and year. In 2005, old-age pensions were subject to 50% assessment base, income tax. Until 2020, the assessment basis will increase in 2% steps to 80%, until 2040 in 1% steps to 100% ( Retirement Income Act ). However, due to the basic tax-free allowance , single corner pensioners will only be affected in 2011 (west) or 2013 (east), provided this amount of around € 639 (2008) is not increased by then.
  • Some of the retirees (depending on the employer) receive a special payment ( Christmas bonus ) once a year ; some of the special payments are also made monthly. This entitlement has been reduced several times in the past few years or has been partially canceled. Pensioners only receive a corresponding increase in their monthly pension for Christmas bonuses earned in their active working life or other additional benefits such as vacation bonus if these benefits were subject to pension insurance (i.e. income including Christmas bonus below the contribution assessment limit ) and have thus been taken into account in the pension calculation. Current cuts in Christmas and vacation pay for employees who are in working life no longer affect employees who have already retired, while worsening civil servants' salaries are almost always implemented for retirees.
  • Occupational pensions are in a variety of larger companies and for workers in the public service pay. A total of 16% of all employees receive such a supplementary pension averaging € 325 (2002), while retirees do not receive such benefits or are credited as with statutory pensions (see next point).
  • Pensioners who previously acquired pension entitlements as employees or workers receive a pension in addition to the pension. This pension is, however, fully or partially deducted from the pension in accordance with § 55 BeamtVG, i.e. the civil servant's pension is reduced (at the beginning of the month for the pension only paid at the end of the month). Survivors' pensions are also largely taken into account.
  • Pensioners with a spouse or entitlement to child benefit are paid the corresponding portion of the family- related part of their gross income as part of their pension as long as they are married or entitled to child benefit.
  • The retirement pension is based on a contract between the pensioner and the pension insurer; the employer is not involved here. Civil servants remain civil servants for life; retirement merely means the exemption from the obligation to work. Civil servants can also be removed from civil servant status after retirement (e.g. for committing a capital crime); they then lose their pension entitlement regardless of previous service. However, when they leave the civil service they are retroactively insured in the statutory insurance and they are then entitled to benefits from the statutory pension insurance, which, however, is significantly lower due to the fundamental differences between the two systems.

Civil service pensions and social security pensions are difficult to compare; A simple comparison of the above percentages does not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the actual level of care for an individual. According to a study by the University of Freiburg, the average pension of a civil servant is 2,570 euros, that of a pensioner is 984 euros. It should be noted, however, that almost 80% of the civil servants have completed a degree.

Sustainable financing of supply

The legislature has responded to the demographic development of the pension funds with the partial transition from the pay-as-you-go system to a funded pension ( Riester pension ) . By limiting expenditure on pension subsidies, the federal budget should be relieved of a total of 1,800 billion euros over a generation and the sustainability gap in pension insurance should be closed.

Civil servants , judges and professional soldiers do not pay their own pension contributions. "The ... lower basic salaries of civil servants compared to the basic salaries of employees are ... viewed as contributions made by civil servants for their provision". Similarly, the Federal Constitutional Court in its judgment of March 2002.

The pensions represent a considerable burden for the public budget. As Bernd Raffelhüschen u. a. Calculated in a 2005 study, the present values ​​of the federal states' pension burdens amount to € 1,797 billion and are thus greater than the total debt of the public budgets. For Austria, the cost of pension insurance increased by 42.7% in the years 2008–18, while the GDP only increased by 31.4%. The discrepancy between pensions and GDP increases particularly sharply in poor economic years. In various federal states, efforts are being made to secure pension expenditure by setting up pension funds for newly hired civil servants. A relief for the households can only be expected when the newly appointed civil servants retire. The pension tax rate will rise from 2001 (approx. 10%) in many federal states to over 20% in 2020, in the city-state of Hamburg even every fourth euro of income will be used to finance pensions. This is mainly due to the fact that the Hanseatic city has not paid into the civil service pension fund since the beginning of the eighties and has therefore not formed any reserves. The pensions therefore have to be financed through loans, which increases the costs.

Rhineland-Palatinate set up a pension fund as early as 1996 to cover future pension and benefit payments. Between 27.7% and 38.8% of the salary expenditure for newly recruited civil servants is additionally allocated to a capital-covered fund; for older, newly recruited civil servants, the percentage increases by 50% or 100% from the age of 45 or 50. Until 2004, the future expenses of 20% of the state civil servants are covered by the pension fund.

However, per capita debt has increased over the same period. The additional funds had to be raised through new borrowing and initially do not represent any lasting relief for the budget. This shows that, especially for the federal states with their high number of civil servants, the sustainable financing of care is in question.

Current legislation

The German Bundestag on 30 June 2006 with the necessary 2/3 majority the Constitution changes to implement the federalism reform approved. This means that in future the federal states will be responsible for salary, pension and career law for state and local civil servants.

The reorganization of the legislative competences means that the federal states are given the right to make independent regulations on salaries , careers and pensions. Uniform federal provisions can be made on status rights and status obligations. For a transitional period, the nationwide regulations on salaries, careers and benefits will continue to apply, and the previous federal regulations will continue to apply as long as the new competence is not used. As a result, the development of current salaries and, as a result, pensions between the federal government and the federal states, as well as within the federal states, has now in some cases significantly varied. There are also considerable differences in the payment of special allowances (better known under the popular term Christmas bonus ) to beneficiaries and in the offsetting of other income towards the pension.

The then Federal Minister of the Interior, Wolfgang Schäuble ( CDU ), spoke out on August 14, 2007 for a reform of the civil service pension and an increase in the retirement age to also 67 years: “The civil servants, soldiers and judges of the federal government will also have to accept restrictions on their pension that The state of Hesse, for example, has already implemented this in its 2011 reform of the Civil Service Pension Act. The regulation from the area of ​​pension insurance was adopted (also in North Rhine-Westphalia), according to which long-term civil servants with at least 45 years of service continue to apply on their own request at the end of the month in which they reach the age of 65, without deductions in the pension can be retired. Other federal states have also reorganized the supply law for their state and municipal officials, such as Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hamburg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saarland and Schleswig-Holstein (as of March 1, 2014).

In order to regulate the pension burdens in the case of a change of employer across federal and state levels, the State Treaty on the distribution of pension burdens in the case of changes of employers across federal and state levels (State Agreement on Supply Burden Sharing - VersStaatsV) of December 16, 2009 and January 26, 2010 was concluded between the federal government and the federal states.

On July 1, 2013, the pension rate rose in Germany. Pensioners from the new federal states receive 3.29% more pension, pensioners from the old federal states receive only 0.25% more. On July 1, 2014, the pension will be increased by 1.67% (old) and 2.53% (new federal states). In the period from 2000 to 2018, statutory pensions rose by 27.7% and pensions by 31.7%.


The churches and all other organizations with the statute of a public corporation with employer capacity are entitled to make civil servants. In their service and supply law, they are usually based on the law of the federal state in which their headquarters are located. The respective state and federal regulations are largely adopted accordingly.

To provide for their pastors and church officials, such as employees with special administrative tasks or teachers in the church service, the churches have long set up pension funds to which the employer has to make new annual payments.


In Austria , pensioners used to be (pensioners are residents of old people's homes / old people's homes) who were only former civil servants , while pensioners previously worked in the private sector . Today all former employees receive pensions, which, however, are not based on the same calculation bases, e.g. B. calculation times are subject. Today pension recipients are consistently referred to as retirees .

The word pension for a permanent benefit from the pension insurance was introduced in Austria by amendments to the law in 1962 - previously the General Social Insurance Act (ASVG) also referred to pension insurance benefits as pensions. This linguistic imprecision is promoted to this day by the fact that in Germany those benefits for which the word pension is used in Austria are still referred to as pensions. The law of the European Union also uses the word pension for benefits from pension insurance. In Austria, permanent benefits from statutory accident insurance are referred to as pensions .

Austrian civil servants receive a retirement benefit as a pension , not a pension. The rest enjoyment is provided by the former service authorities. There is no pension insurance for civil servants in the Austrian social insurance system . Nonetheless, civil servants make a pension contribution, which was increased to 12.55% in the 1990s to align civil servants and employees. De facto, however, this is only "optics", since this amount is not paid to any fund, but is retained by the office and the gross salary is lower by this co-payment.

Despite the so-called pension harmonization on January 1, 2005, the Austrian pension system still distinguishes between the largely standardized statutory pension insurance (includes employees, farmers and self-employed) and the various civil servant pension systems.

Starting age

For public employees with civil servant status , the starting age was 60 years, which was raised to 65 years for both men and women with the pension reform 2003 to 2017. For contract employees and employees in the private sector, the starting age is 60 for women and 65 for men. Starting in 2024, the starting age for women is to be raised to that for men by 2033. At the beginning of 1993, an adjustment of the starting age for women to that of men was raised to constitutional rank and thus withdrawn from the control of the Constitutional Court, which had recognized the different starting age as unconstitutional.

An early increase has been discussed since the end of 2011. A contribution payment that is 5 years lower is used as a (co-) cause for the gender-specific lower earned and pension income, cf. Gender wage gap . Politically, the unequal starting age is sometimes used as a "pledge" for other equality measures.

Due to the earlier retirement on the one hand, the significantly higher life expectancy on the other hand and the resulting longer pension period, the average Austrian woman can expect around € 87,000 more pension benefits than the average man, despite the lower monthly pension.


Retirement provision in Switzerland is based on the three-pillar principle . In the three -pillar principle of old-age provision, AHV and IV together form the first or state pillar. The pension benefits of these two insurances are intended to secure subsistence needs. If the requirements are met, the additional benefits ( supplementary benefits ( EL) from the federal government and / or allowance (BH) from the canton and / or community grant (GZ) only for the city of Basel and the city of Zurich) help to finance the necessary living requirements .

The first pillar is supplemented by the pension fund (2nd pillar), the occupational old-age, survivors' and disability benefits (BVG). These two pillars secure at least 60% of the last salary received, if there are no payment gaps; the second pillar, together with the third pillar (private provision), is intended to enable people to continue their accustomed lifestyle. The first pillar is compulsory for everyone, i.e. also for the self-employed and those who are not employed - e.g. B. for mothers or fathers who run the household and look after children. Only employees have to join the second pillar. The third pillar - self-provision to cover additional needs - is voluntary, but in contrast to ordinary saving, it is partially tax-privileged (pillar 3a).

These three pillars together form the three-pillar concept that has been anchored in the Federal Constitution since 1972. It should cover the individual needs in retirement age.

The AHV is the most important branch in the Swiss social security system. There are mainly two pensions: one for retirees, the other for survivors and disabled people. The old-age pension enables a financially largely independent withdrawal from professional life. The survivor's pension aims to prevent the suffering that the death of a parent or spouse brings with it from being combined with financial hardship.

The normal retirement age in Switzerland is 65 for men and 64 for women. It is possible to take early retirement. A pension from the second pillar can be drawn from the second pillar at the earliest from the age of 58, before the capital is paid out to a blocked account. With the AHV as well as with the pension fund, the pension is reduced if you want to retire before the normal retirement age.

The disability insurance (IV) was created for the professionally active population 12 years after the AHV came into force in 1948. It grants benefits if the ability to work is severely restricted or impossible for health reasons and aims at integration into a self-determined professional and social life.


  • Christoph Birnbaum: The pension lie. Why the state cannot keep its commitments for civil servants and why it concerns us all . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-423-24926-3 .
  • Gerhard Ebinger: New models of company pension schemes. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2001, ISBN 3-631-38041-0 .
  • D. Greiling: Retirement. In: E. Gaugler, WA Oechsler, W. Weber (Hrsg.): Handwortbuch des Personalwesens. 3. Edition. Stuttgart 2004, Col. 1335-1343.
  • R. Kronberger: Financing of pension systems. In: Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter. 4/2001, Österreichischer Wirtschaftsverlag, Vienna 2001.
  • Horst Marburger: The supply of civil servants and other employees in the public service. Pension - annuity - additional benefits . 3. Edition. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-503-12952-2 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Pension  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: retirement  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Grimm's dictionary , Lemma Pension
  2. a b Public Sector - Beneficiaries on destatis, Fachserie 14, Reihe 6.1
  3. BVerfG, decision of March 20, 2007, Az. 2 BvL 11/04, full text
  4. BVerfG, judgment of September 27, 2005, Az. 2 BvR 1387/02, full text .
  5. BT-Drs. 17/6359 : Marriage-related regulations are to be transferred to civil partnerships.
  6. ^ LSVD: Status of the legal equality of life partners and spouses. ( Memento from March 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  7. ^ Income structure of pensioner and pensioner households Federal Agency for Civic Education November 16, 2016, accessed on August 2, 2019
  8. Pensioners more affected by old-age poverty than expected Süddeutsche Zeitung of February 21, 2019, accessed on August 2, 2019
  9. German Federal Pension Insurance : Pension Access
  10. Statistics of the German Pension Insurance, key figures 2018
  11. Pension: many academics are threatened with old age poverty on
  12. ^ Reforms in statutory pension insurance and civil service provision in Germany since 1990 , German University of Administrative Sciences, April 1, 2016
  13. Federal Statistical Office, as of 2003
  14. Average pension 984 euros per month , Frankfurter Rundschau from August 6, 2009 on
  15. official (Germany) #Laufbahngruppen
  16. ^ Officials or employees series of publications by the Federal Commissioner for Economic Efficiency in Administration Volume 6, Chapter 4.2.3, Cologne 1996, accessed on August 15, 2019
  17. ^ Federal Constitutional Court, judgment of the Second Senate of March 6, 2002 - 2 BvL 17/99 - Item 183, accessed on August 15, 2019
  18. The pension burdens of the federal states in comparison: status quo and future development (PDF; 618 kB)
  19. Pension expenditure is growing faster. In: August 21, 2019, accessed on September 6, 2019 (German).
  20. ^ Draft reform. Schäuble wants to cut civil servants' pensions on
  21. ^ State treaty on the sharing of supply burdens
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  23. Federal constitutional law on different age limits for male and female social insured persons. RIS , January 1, 1993, accessed December 1, 2011 .
  24. XVIII. Legislative period Monday, November 30th and Tuesday, December 1st, 1992. (PDF, 5MB) In: Stenographic minutes of the 90th session of the National Council of the Republic of Austria. Parliament , December 1, 1992, pp. 9986 ff. , Accessed on December 1, 2011 .
  25. VfGH collection number 12568. RIS , December 6, 1990, accessed on December 1, 2011 : “Repeal of regulations on different retirement ages for men and women due to violation of the principle of equality; no adequate compensation for the double burden and any increased physical strain on the woman; no justification by biological reasons; however, admissibility of differentiated pension regulations as compensation for increased physical or psychological stress on certain groups of people; special significance of the protection of legitimate expectations in pension law; no immediate equation of the retirement age of women and men "
  26. Brigitte Pechar: Women, do you want to work longer? Wiener Zeitung , November 17, 2011, accessed on December 1, 2011 : "Minister of Social Affairs Hundstorfer breaks SPÖ taboo and wants to talk about a higher retirement age for women"
  27. ^ ÖVP: Women should retire later from 2016/17. Die Presse , November 20, 2011, accessed December 1, 2011 .
  28. Thomas Prior: Mitterlehner: "We should raise the retirement age for women". Die Presse , November 23, 2011, accessed on December 1, 2011 : “I cannot speak of gender justice and ignore this area. Alignment would also be in the interests of women: If you consider that there are many career steps in the final years of the job, the earlier retirement age is one of the reasons for the income gap. "
  29. Herwig Kainz: The pledge in the hand of women - a boomerang? Austrian Trade Association , March 21, 2002, accessed on December 1, 2011 : “SP women's spokeswoman Barbara Prammer told us - when asked by a woman - that the pension discrimination cemented for decades was“ a pledge in the hands of women ”. In a constitutional state a strange argument that could come from the ABGB from 1811. The current journal reports in particular show that women, especially after divorce, even use children as collateral. "
  30. ^ ORF report - Pensions. ORF , March 19, 2002, accessed on December 1, 2011 : “These five years are a pledge in the hands of women, and this pledge is very, very valuable and precious and it was in the past and it will be in the past be the future. That means, women still have the option here: "You in politics, you or you dear society still owe us a lot and then when you have done these tasks, so to speak, then we talk about the statutory retirement age". "
  31. Benedikt Narodoslawsky, Rosa Winkler-Hermaden: "Hundstorfer is a driven man"., November 24, 2011, accessed on December 1, 2011 : " ÖGB- Frauenchefin Ruprecht: Why older women are privileged when they retire and why poor men can be neglected"
  32. Nina Weißensteiner: Women's pensions: ÖVP senior women outraged about ÖGB. Der Standard , November 28, 2011, accessed on December 1, 2011 : "Seniors' unionists accuse women union leader Brigitte Ruprecht of" age and women discrimination ""
  33. Lukas Kapeller: "Now you are 60! I'll get a younger one"., November 29, 2011, accessed on December 1, 2011 : "Why the Greens Judith Schwentner doesn't want women to retire as late as men - at least for the time being"
  34. OECD complaint for the pension reform. Wiener Zeitung , June 7, 2007, accessed on December 16, 2011 : “Interesting inner Austrian detail: With a fictitious calculation of a one-off payment of the entire pension, women get far better - probably because of higher life expectancy and earlier retirement. The average woman can earn 407,755 euros in pension income in her life, the average man only 320,432 euros. "
  35. OECD (Ed.): Pensions at a Glance 2007 . State policy in a comparison of OECD countries. OECD Publishing, Paris 2007, ISBN 978-92-64-03438-9 , doi : 10.1787 / 9789264034396-de (English: Pensions at a Glance 2007 - Public Policies across OECD Countries .).