Demographic change in Germany

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Projected age distribution for Germany in 2050

As demographic change in Germany various changes and tendencies of the summary population development called. The changes affect

  • the age structure of the population,
  • the quantitative ratio of men and women
  • the proportions of residents, foreigners and naturalized persons in the population,
  • the development of the birth and death rates,
  • Moving in and out.

The effects on the individual federal states and on the municipalities are different.


  • In Germany , the aging structure is characterized by the fact that the death rate ( mortality ) has been higher than the birth rate since 1972 (see also demographic transition ).
  • Due to the higher life expectancy of the population and the simultaneous decline in the birth rate, the proportion of older people is increasing compared to the proportion of younger people (see also age structure in Germany ).
  • The proportion of large families (three or more children) has fallen significantly and explains 68% of the total fall in births . A total of 26% can be attributed to increased childlessness .
  • The rate of new arrivals through migration has fallen steadily over the past two decades, but remains positive. Following the introduction of freedom of movement on the labor market in 2011 for workers from the states that have recently joined the European Union, an annual net migration of between 100,000 and 200,000 people is expected. The foreigners moving to Germany are on average younger than those who move away. This results in a “rejuvenation effect” for the population remaining in Germany, but this does not cancel out the aging of the population as a whole.
  • Emigration . Absolutely - that is, apart from the question of citizenship - 734,000 people emigrated from Germany in 2009. During the same period, 721,000 migrated to Germany. Of these, 606,000 were not German citizens.
  • Abortion . Federal Statistical Office: "In the 2016 reporting year, 98,721 abortions were reported to the Federal Statistical Office in Germany."


The effects of demographic change present legislators, municipalities, welfare institutions, businesses and citizens with new tasks. For example, (pre-) schools, especially primary schools, must be merged if the investment in education per pupil is not to increase. In addition, the growing proportion of older people means that mobility must be guaranteed for them. Care must also be provided. This can also be supported, for example, by converting old state institutions into old people's homes and / or “assisted living”.

retirement provision

The statutory pension insurance for blue-collar workers in Germany is basically organized according to the pay-as-you-go system . The costs associated with old age are also covered by state subsidies for pension insurance, company pensions and private provision measures. The demographic development with the so-called obsolescence or under-youth , with the same retirement age, means that a growing number of pensioners is facing a decreasing number of contributors to the statutory pension scheme, unless the number of employees subject to compulsory insurance within the population of the working population is increased. On this basis, reformers of old-age provision are calling for the retirement age to be raised, pensions to be cut and for more private provision to be made, for example through private insurance and shares.

However, the number of persons in employment subject to compulsory insurance and the amount of their total contribution is not a variable that depends solely on population development. That is why the trade unions in particular, but also individual academics such as Gerd Bosbach or political journalists such as Albrecht Müller, criticize political concepts that only focus on the factor of demographic development and ignore all others. In the opinion of the critics, these concepts primarily served to relieve the employer.

The critics of the “dramatization of the demographic development” show that the number of employees subject to compulsory insurance or the contribution that is decisive for the amount of pensions can also be increased by an increase in the number of people in full-time employment or the number of people in employment in general. In addition to raising the retirement age, the following factors play a role:

  • the increased (full) employment of women and underemployed men
  • reducing unemployment,
  • the mobilization of the silent reserve
  • the earlier start of employment,
  • the inclusion of civil servants and the self-employed in the group of contributors
  • the integration of immigrants into the labor market

The increase in the contribution is possible through an increase in the contribution rate

  • the exclusion of the financing of non-contributory third-party services
  • the increase in the proportionate insurance premiums due to an increase in gross income parallel to productivity development and economic growth
  • the increase in the proportional insurance premiums through more permanent positions, full-time contracts, fewer bogus self-employed, less precarious employment and more normal employment.

In addition, according to Gerd Bosbach , the decrease in the number of children and adolescents also results in cost savings, because in a population with a high proportion of children and adolescents, high expenditures have to be made for them too, which tend to decrease in the case of under youth. The burden on the employed is not only in the provision of old age, but also in the provision of children, adolescents and young adults in school, training and studies. When considering the burden, all areas must be included, not just retirement benefits.

The fact that employees who are subject to compulsory insurance have to provide for an increasing number of inactive people who are entitled to a pension is not a new phenomenon:

  • From 1900 to 1990 the proportion of the population over 65 years of age tripled steadily from 4.9 to 14.9%,
  • while the proportion of those under 20 was halved.
  • The life expectancy rose from 45 years for men to 76 in 2002,
  • the retirement age fell from 70 to 65 years (from 1911).
  • The number of people in employment doubled between 1955 and 2014 due to increased employment of women and growing precarious employment.
  • GDP tripled in real terms from 1960 to 2005.
  • Overall economic labor productivity per employed person rose by 22.7% from 1991 to 2011, according to the Federal Statistical Office in Germany. Labor productivity per hour worked rose by 34.48%. This reflects the simultaneous decrease in the average hours worked per employed person by 7.5%.

These extreme changes were mastered without changing the pension insurance system; the pension was even dynamically adjusted to the increase in income and the pension entitlements of all employees in the former GDR and the immigrant repatriates and ethnic repatriates were taken over ( Foreign Pension Act ).

In addition, critics point out that predictions were never possible over long periods of time.

The negative prognosis also implies that all current and all possible family policy measures to increase the number of births or all measures to integrate immigrants are doomed to failure from the outset, prerequisites which, however, are not discussed, critically reflected and also not justified. As far as generative behavior is concerned, the example of France, with its significant increase in the birth rate, shows that the reasons for low birth rates are not valid simply because of the modernity of society. Decisive factors include job security, a normal employment relationship and a child-friendly social environment that values ​​family life and children highly.

In 2016, the criticism of the “demographic myths” was also presented by Thomas Straubhaar , where he particularly criticized what he believed to be erroneous ideas about the lack of skilled workers , child poverty and immigration benefits.


As with pension insurance, demographic changes are expected to have a negative impact in the current (as of 2020) German health care system . On the one hand, this applies to long-term care insurance , which has to adapt to an increasing number of very old people in need of care , while the number of employees working in care is falling. On the other hand, health insurance expenses will also increase considerably, because the per capita health care costs for a person over the working age are several times that of an average young person or employed person. The problem of health and long-term care insurance corresponds in principle to that of pension insurance.

The lack of medical care in rural areas is likely to increase as 42 percent of general practitioners will retire by 2021 and young doctors prefer a practice in the city.

Real estate prices

Real estate prices are based on both supply / demand and the possible rental yield that can be achieved , which also depends on supply and demand. If the vacancy rate rises , real estate prices will also fall in the long term. The big cities could benefit in the medium term. On two thirds of the country's area, particularly in rural areas with constant migration such as the Elbe-Elster district, prices are likely to fall further in the event of a demographic shrinkage. This would lead to a further spread in real estate prices. Since many people rely on real estate (directly or indirectly via real estate funds), this also has an impact on retirement provision , again for better and for worse.

State infrastructure

Demographic change means that the state infrastructure is adapted to the changed demand. In the area of ​​kindergartens and schools there is already a clear decline in the number of pupils. Smaller classes lead in the longer term to the need to downsize and merge schools and kindergartens, on the other hand this results in higher costs for fewer taxpayers.

Conversely, there is a need for additional facilities and capacities in work with the elderly and care for the elderly.

In terms of urban planning, the declining number of inhabitants results in the need to reduce the construction of new properties and the demolition of districts or the abandonment of entire settlements.


Population growth is a major driver of economic growth . Hence, a reduction in population leads to lower rates of economic growth. This applies to both the absolute numbers and the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. A study published in 2019 by the Institute for Economic Research Vienna (WIFO) on behalf of the Bertelsmann Foundation assumes your per capita income will be reduced by 3700 euros by 2040 .

The purchasing behavior is largely determined by the age of consumers. A growing number of older consumers are shifting their purchasing behavior towards products and services that are of interest to this group. For the years after 2020, the baby boomer generation will retire and determine purchasing and travel behavior.

Working world

Over the next few decades, the working-age population will not only age, but also increasingly shrink. The future development of the world of work will be determined by the following characteristics:

  • “Traditionally” through the departure of employees, which means the loss of know-how potential of the company
  • by extending the time spent in the world of work for employees, e.g. B. by increasing the statutory retirement age or by changes in the employment histories of women
  • The robotization of (initially mainly physical) work processes can counteract the loss of manpower, while at the same time reducing the demand for low-skilled workers .
  • The working worlds are determined by ever faster business and process handling. On the other hand, there is the phenomenon known as the “half-life of knowledge” as an expression of the loss of subject-specific knowledge: the value of personnel qualifications once achieved declines more quickly.
  • The ability to learn in old age is still assumed to be lower or weaker in companies. The relevant sciences have refuted this. The company culture of recognition of experience and knowledge is - if at all - only slightly developed. The development or maintenance of competent employees will become synonymous with the transfer of knowledge about the generations of employees.
  • The work processes and roles will increasingly have to be questioned about their feasibility in old age.

Integration challenges

Although the number of immigrants has fallen in recent years, the annual number of immigrants is greater than the number of children born in Germany. As a consequence, the share of the resident population is permanently shrinking, while the number of immigrants continues to grow, also due to their more positive birth balance. In many large cities, the proportion of migrants is now above the 50% threshold, which is not visible in official statistics due to the new citizenship law of January 2000, since children born in Germany to foreign parents also receive German citizenship. Growing challenges for society in Germany are justified with lower average educational requirements, twice as high unemployment and three times as high social benefits quota for immigrants.


So far, politics has mainly reacted with measures that affect the effects of demographic change. There are hardly any measures aimed at increasing the low birth rate.

The following are discussed as possible instruments of a cause-oriented policy to promote families:

  • Ending the disadvantage of families with children in the social security systems, implementation of the case law of the Federal Constitutional Court on this problem
  • Comprehensive care of children of preschool age in day-care centers by well-trained specialists
  • Extension of the tax spouse splitting to a family splitting , similar to France
  • Exercise of the active right to vote by the parents for their children who are not yet eligible to vote, in order to give the children a weight in political decisions
  • Expansion of the promotion of women through the introduction of mothers' quotas
  • Abolition of the strict separation between private life and work
  • Family-friendly working hours and working conditions
  • Creating a child-friendly environment in public and private institutions and establishments
  • Child-friendly traffic planning, child-friendly building regulations
  • Leisure and recreational opportunities suitable for children

Local demographic policy

Cities and municipalities are starting to develop strategic concepts and politically coordinated goals for the potential consequences of demographic change. The balance between the generations is to be maintained by means of activities of local family policy . Municipal infrastructure must take account of the increasing proportion of older people.

In 2004, the city ​​of Bielefeld was the first federal German municipality to set up a demographic development planning department in the mayor's department so that population development is taken into account in all urban planning. The task of the demography officer Susanne Tatje is u. a. to point out the aspect of demographic development across departments in future decisions and to develop and update a concept for the city.

The city of Langenfeld has been controlling the effects of demographic development since 2002. In the past 12 years, the council of the city of Langenfeld, at the instigation of the 1st deputy and demography officer Marion Prell, made three fundamental decisions with the control-relevant effects of demographic development in Langenfeld: 2003, 2007 and 2010. While at the beginning the activities primarily related to older and old fellow citizens (establishment of the “senior citizen-friendly town hall” in 2004, establishment of the senior citizens network in 2004, establishment of the dementia network in 2005, institutions of a volunteer agency under municipal sponsorship in 2005, establishment of a seniors' fair in 2006 etc.), the control mechanisms have been developed and implemented on an interdisciplinary and intergenerational basis since 2007. The strict division into departments has been abandoned in the area of ​​demography-related matters. All administrative and political areas are bundled, coordinated and controlled by a coordination office. The fields of action range from urban development, construction, transport, mobility, culture, education to the business fields: children / youth // family / school / sport to the actual social and senior affairs. As part of the “Junge ... Alternative” project, almost 100 alliance partners are developing cross-generational offers. Since 2013, the focus has been on the development of the six districts under the heading of “district development”. Following the desire to stay in the familiar living environment as long as possible, which is evident from several population surveys, the principle “outpatient before inpatient” should be filled with life.

Degree programs on demographic change

The University of Rostock offers a master’s degree in demography as well as a doctoral degree in Demographic Change in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research . Students of the master’s degree in demography, sociology and economics have the option of taking courses from the doctoral degree program during their master’s degree and having the master’s thesis credited as an exposé for their planned dissertation (integrated doctorate path).

The Integrated Gerontology course has existed at the University of Stuttgart since 2009 , which explicitly deals with all facets of demographic change. The part-time master’s course combines gerontological issues with engineering, social and behavioral science content. With the help of this advanced training program, which is funded by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry for Science, Research and the Arts , the University of Stuttgart tries to tackle the problem of demographic change at an early stage. The interdisciplinarity created through the participation of numerous institutes and the Robert Bosch Hospital ensures that the graduates can provide holistic solution strategies for the most varied of areas from politics to administration, tourism, media, retail or human resource management.

School project in Bavaria

In around a quarter of the 71 Bavarian rural districts, the project “Population development in my community”, which investigates demographic change at community level, has gained a foothold. Pupils from all types of schools are integrated into the project. Under supervision, the students create population forecasts for their own community over the next 25 years and present them to the community. The municipality results and the district result as the sum of the municipality results are then displayed on the district's homepage. The district of Hof was the first district to post the results on its homepage.

Working world

With financial support from the European Social Fund (ESF), the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs and several federal states, numerous company demography projects have been developed since 2005. Demography consultants have been trained and networked to advise companies on the implementation of demography-sensitive personnel development. At the same time, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research is researching, in particular, the consequences of demographic change for work design and entrepreneurial innovation with its own funding focus.

Studies and surveys, such as those on behalf of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce , have shown that many HR managers see demographic change as a particular challenge for their companies.

Numerous companies in Germany founded a demography network as a non-profit association in 2006 to promote the ability to work and employability of aging employees.

See also


  • Eva-Maria Antz, Julia Franz, Norbert Frieters, Annette Scheunpflug , Markus Tolksdorf: Generations learn together - theory and practice of intergenerational education. W. Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2009, ISBN 978-3-7639-3882-7 .
  • Sascha Armutat: Life Event-Oriented Personnel Management , W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2009, ISBN 978-3-7639-3388-4 .
  • Bertelsmann Stiftung (Ed.): Guide to Demographic Change 2020. Analyzes and action plans for cities and municipalities , Bertelsmann Stiftung publishing house, Gütersloh 2006, ISBN 3-89204-875-4 .
  • Gerd Bosbach : Demographic Development: Reality and Media Dramatization. In: Kai Biehl & Norbert Templ: Europe is aging - so what? Vienna Chamber of Labor, 2007, pp. 28–32, (PDF).
  • Gerd Bosbach, Klaus Bingler: The myth of the cost explosion in health care. In: Social Security . 9/2007
  • Gerd Bosbach: Statistics: The pension scheme . In: Der Tagesspiegel . December 20, 2007
  • Gerd Bosbach, Klaus Bingler: Is there a threat of a cost avalanche in the healthcare system? Fallacies and facts about the consequences of an aging society. In: Social Security. 1/2008, pp. 5–12 (PDF).
  • Gerd Bosbach: Demographic model calculations. Facts and scope for interpretation. In: Reinhold Popp & Elmar Schüll (eds.): Future research and shaping the future. Contributions from science and practice. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-78563-7 , pp. 523-538
  • Gerd Bosbach: population development. In: Gabriele Gillen , Walter van Rossum (Ed.): Black Book Germany. The Missing Information Manual. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2009, ISBN 978-3-498-02504-5 .
  • Thomas Bryant: From the "aging of the national body" to "demographic change in society". History and present of the German discourse on aging in the 20th century. In: Tel Aviver yearbook for German history. Vol. XXXV (Demography - Democracy - History. Germany and Israel), Göttingen 2007, pp. 110–127.
  • DGFP e. V .: Personnel development for older employees. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2004, ISBN 3-7639-3192-9 .
  • Silvia Gerisch, Kornelius Knapp, Karin Töpsch: Personnel policy with demographics in care for the elderly. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2010, ISBN 978-3-7639-4442-2 .
  • Mario Gottwald, Heidemarie Hofmann: Integrating further education and health promotion. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2009, ISBN 978-3-7639-4636-5 .
  • Karl Otto Hondrich : Less is more: Why the decline in the birth rate is a godsend for our society. Frankfurt a. M. / New York, Campus, 2007, ISBN 978-3-593-38270-8 .
  • Hagen Kühn: Demographic Change and Demographic Dizziness , On the Debate about German Health Insurance, published in Blätter für German and international politics No. 6 2004
  • Steffen Kröhnert, Nienke van Olst, Reiner Klingholz: Germany 2020. The demographic future of the nation. Berlin Institute, Berlin 2004.
  • Theo W. Length, Barbara Menke (Ed.): Generation 40plus. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-7639-4505-4 .
  • Yves-Marie Laulan : Allemagne: Chronique d'une mort annoncée (Germany. Chronicle of a death announced). Paris 2004, ISBN 2-86839-959-2 .
  • Herbert Loebe, Eckart Severing (ed.): Demographic change and further education. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-7639-4486-6 .
  • Herbert Loebe, Eckart Severing (ed.): Integration of older unemployed people. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 978-3-7639-4582-5 .
  • Anne Meuer-Willuweit (Ed.): Generation Gold 50plus. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 978-3-7639-4548-1 .
  • Elisabeth Niejahr: Only the others are old. This is how we will live, love and work . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-596-15941-5 .
  • OECD (Ed.): Pensions at a Glance 2009. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2010, ISBN 978-92-64-07572-6 .
  • Götz Richter (ed.): Generations together in the company - individual flexibility through demanding regulations. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2009, ISBN 978-3-7639-4571-9 .
  • Ulrich Reinhardt , Wolfgang Schuster: Generational contract instead of generational betrayal. Freiburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-451-33276-0
  • Susanne Tatje , demography officer in cities and municipalities. Results of an investigation, in: Unser Thema (5), May 2016.
  • Susanne Tatje , City of Bielefeld, Demography Report 2014 - City. Room. Number. In: Future City - Demographic Change in Bielefeld. Issue 10.
  • Susanne Tatje, City of Bielefeld, Demography Report 2008 - A balance sheet with perspective . In: Future City - Demographic Change in Bielefeld. Issue 5.
  • Susanne Tatje (Ed.), Our Future - My City. A book about demographic change for young people from 10 to 100. KunstSinn-Verlag, Bielefeld 2012, ISBN 978-3-939264-07-1 .
  • Sven Voelpel , M. Leibold, JD. Not fruit: the challenge of 50+, concepts for managing the aging workforce: the answer to the demographic dilemma. Verlag Wiley, 2007, ISBN 978-3-89578-291-6 .
  • Hannes Weber: The demographic change. Myth - Illusion - Reality , Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2019, ISBN 978-3-17-033144-0
  • Rainer Wehrhahn; Verena Sandner Le Gall: Population geography. WBG (Scientific Book Society), Darmstadt 2011, ISBN 978-3-534-15628-3 , pp. 48-67.
  • Hildegard Zimmermann: Further training in later working life. W.Bertelsmann Verlag, Bielefeld 2009, ISBN 978-3-7639-4415-6 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Federal Statistical Office: 11. Coordinated population projection. Assumptions and results. Wiesbaden 2006, p. 28 (PDF).
  2. More emigrants than immigrants. In: Frankfurter Rundschau , May 26, 2010.
  3. Federal Statistical Office: Health Abortions. (PDF) In: Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), March 9, 2017, accessed on February 3, 2018 .
  4. Demographic development - don't dramatize! In: Union monthly journal . February 2004, pp. 98-105, (PDF; 126 kB).
  5. Albrecht Müller: The reform lie. 40 misconceptions, myths and legends with which politics and business ruin Germany. Droemer 2004, excerpt (PDF)
  6. Gerd Bosbach: population development. In: Gabriele Gillen , Walter van Rossum (Ed.): Black Book Germany. The Missing Information Manual. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2009, ISBN 978-3-498-02504-5 .
  7. Gerd Bosbach, Klaus Bingler: Demography as a scapegoat: How bills are made without the landlord. Website of the Federal Agency for Civic Education. March 23, 2011.
  8. Federal Statistical Office Germany ( Memento of the original from March 21, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed April 30, 2008. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  9. a b Gerd Bosbach, Jens Jürgen Korff : Lies with numbers. How we are manipulated with statistics. Heyne, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-453-17391-0 ; ibid. 2012, ISBN 978-3-453-60248-9 . ( Lies with Numbers , blog about the book; Lies with Numbers - the authors Bosbach and Korff in conversation with Carsten Schmidt, website of Lexikus Verlag, May 8, 2013).
  10. Albrecht Müller: The reform lie. 40 mistakes in reasoning, myths and legends with which politics and economy ruin Germany, Droemer 2004. (PDF).
  11. a b Thomas Straubhaar: The downfall is canceled. Against the myths of demographic change. edition Körber Foundation 2016. ISBN 978-3-89684-174-2 . ( Memento of the original from April 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. Disease classes and age in euros per inhabitant of the respective age group Federal Statistical Office, accessed on May 22, 2020.
  13. Christopher Piltz: The doctor is coming soon., July 2, 2014, accessed on July 2, 2014.
  14. Michael Psotta: The downside of the German real estate boom., July 10, 2014, accessed July 11, 2014.
  15. Forecast: Prosperity in Germany will decline. In: Handelsblatt. December 12, 2019, accessed January 31, 2020 .
  16. ^ Matthias Muskat: Demographic change in leisure and work . University of Paderborn ( ).
  17. ^ Daniel Eckert: Germany is threatened with high prosperity losses. In: Welt Online. December 12, 2019, accessed January 31, 2020 .
  18. ^ Information on political education 282, population development. Published by: Federal Agency for Civic Education, November 2011. ISSN  0046-9408 (online) .
  19. Information on political education No. 282/2011 of the Federal Agency for Political Education
  20. Family suffrage
  21. Herwig Birg: Sober look into a difficult future. Bielefeld University.
  22. ^ Project Demographic Development . Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved December 10, 2010. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  23. The concept "Demographic change as an opportunity?", Which aims at a long-term strategy, was unanimously adopted in August 2006 in the city council of Bielefeld. It contains u. a. six demographic policy goals for Bielefeld on the following topics: integration of immigrants, education, family policy, housing, health and economy. In addition, a procedure is presented how these goals can be processed in administration and politics. In 2006, Susanne Tatje received the innovation award of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia for this concept. ("Demographic change as an opportunity?" - The Bielefeld concept; in: Zukunft Stadt , Heft 3, Ed .: Stadt Bielefeld, Bielefeld 2007).
  24. Information on the concept of the city of Langenfeld , accessed on July 11, 2014
  25. Examination and study regulations for the Master’s degree in Demography Official announcement of the University of Rostock, September 17, 2013 (PDF)
  26. Doctoral programs at the University of Rostock
  27. -occupational training program Master: Online Integrated M.Sc Gerontology . Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved December 10, 2010. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  28. University of Stuttgart ( Memento of the original from July 24, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  29. ^ Project description: Journal of the Bayerischer Gemeindetag , February 2009 edition (PDF), p. 44 ff.
  30. Population projection until 2030
  31. Research and presentation of company demography projects
  32. Demographic advisor: So that the workforce does not age, March 2, 2009
  33. ↑ Funding focus for innovation in the face of demographic change
  34. Demographic change and labor supply: Perspectives and options for action for Hamburg companies Study by the HWWI in cooperation with the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce, 2009 (PDF)
  35. See Demographic Change in Hamburg: Need for Action from the Point of View of our Chamber of Commerce Hamburg Chamber of Commerce, July 2009 (PDF)
  36. 10 Golden Rules for Companies to Cope with Demographic Change ( Memento of the original from March 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /