Retirement age

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Average retirement age in Germany 1960–2015

The retirement age , including retirement age , describes in the Federal Republic of Germany , the age at which a person is an insurance pension from the statutory pension insurance (GRV) actually refers to. This can be a retirement pension , a pension due to reduced earning capacity and a pension due to death ( Section 33 SGB ​​VI ).

For the occupational pension ( pension funds ) and for the private pension similar rules apply.

The retirement age , on the other hand, denotes the age from which an insured person has a legal right to a pension due to old age or a pension . Retirement age and retirement age do not have to be identical.

The retirement age as a statistical variable

The statistical retirement age is calculated as the average of the first time withdrawal of all new pensioners in one year. This group of newcomers is made up of people from different years. Subgroups for men and women, white-collar workers and blue-collar workers or regional groups can be viewed separately.

The average retirement age takes into account pensions due to old age and pensions due to reduced earning capacity, which on average start many years earlier than old-age pensions.

Average retirement age in Germany by type of pension and gender
year Pensions because of Total pensions
Reduced earning capacity Age
Men Women Men Women Men Women
1995 52.7 50.9 62.3 62.5 59.8 60.5
2000 52.2 50.3 62.2 62.3 59.8 60.5
2005 50.5 49.2 63.1 63.2 60.7 61
2010 50.9 49.8 63.8 63.3 60.7 60.7
2015 * 52.1 51.2 63.9 64.9 61.9 62.7
2017 52.4 51.4 64.0 64.1 61.7 61.9
* Including special effect due to the additional child-rearing periods for children born before 1992

Individual retirement age

The individual retirement age has an impact on the amount of the pension: If you claim a pension before reaching the statutory retirement age, your pension is reduced by 0.3% for each early month. Since 2012, it has been possible to take early retirement with a discount for reasons of age, but only from the age of 63 for pensioners who are still in employment and to whom no special provisions apply. If you only claim a pension after it has been completed despite the waiting period , your old-age pension increases (without a time limit) by 0.5% for each calendar month of the later claim.

These pension discounts or surcharges are caused by the fact that the access factor in the formula for calculating the pension is correspondingly lower or higher than 1.0 ( Section 77 SGB ​​VI). Discounts are intended to compensate for the higher costs that the pension insurance system incurs due to the longer pension withdrawal period if old-age pensions are drawn early. Achieving this goal requires that the actuarial deductions for early retirement have a close correlation with the average remaining life expectancy after retirement.

From the point of view of the recipient, early retirement has the effect that his monthly pension payments are reduced because he has paid less pension insurance contributions for a few months or years and has thus lost earnings points or portions of earnings points. Whether the total amount that he receives from the pension insurance until his death is lower or higher than if he did not retire early depends on the number of years he will still live after retirement and the amount of the deduction from the Old-age pension that he would receive if he retired later.

Conversely, from the perspective of the community of insured persons at the time of retirement it is unclear whether the pension insurance pays more or less for a certain applicant for an old-age pension if he leaves working life prematurely. With a steady increase in life expectancy, the incentive to retire early decreases, as the likelihood that early retirement will in the long term become a "loss-making business" for the person concerned increases.

Legal policy

The legislature aims to gradually increase the standard retirement age (from 65 years for insured persons born before 1947 to 67 years for insured persons born after 1964) and the age limits for other old-age pensions , such as the “old-age pensions for (particularly) long-term insured persons” and “old-age pensions for the severely disabled People "to reduce the retirement periods due to the higher life expectancy in order to reduce the expenditure of the pension insurance. The retirement age has been rising since the early 2000s, especially since it is no longer possible to retire before the age of 63.

In 2014, the age limit for the pension for particularly long-term employees for those born before 1953 was reduced to 63 years. Starting in 1953, the age limit increases by two months per year and is 65 years from 1964.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. German Federal Pension Insurance : Pension Insurance in Time Series October 2018, p. 138