district of Berlin
|85,885 (Dec 31, 2020)
|4714 inhabitants / km²
|Oct. 1, 1920
|12203, 12205, 12207, 12209, 14167
Lichterfelde is a district in the Berlin district of Steglitz-Zehlendorf . Lichterfelde borders in the northwest on Dahlem , in the northeast on Steglitz , in the west on Zehlendorf and in the east on Lankwitz and in the south on the state of Brandenburg . The villa colony of Lichterfelde was created in the second half of the 19th century on the field of the old villages and manors of Lichterfelde and Giesensdorf . The subdivision of the locations of Lichterfelde West, Lichterfelde Ost and Lichterfelde Süd refers to the stations on the Anhalter andPotsdam Railway .
The village of Lichtervelde , which was probably founded by Flemish settlers, emerged with the German East Settlement in the first half of the 13th century (probably around 1230) . Lichterfelde was laid out as a street tanger village with a village church on the Anger, which is considered to be the founding of the Templars . It probably consisted only of wood, because the processing of the field stone masonry of today's village church points to the first half of the 14th century. It was subsequently redesigned and expanded several times. The last major redesign took place between 1939 and 1941. The church was Romanized.
In 1289 an Arnoldus de Lichterfeld appeared in a document; In 1316 Lichtervelde was named as a village. Around 1375 the von Britzkes were mentioned as the owner of various rights (taxes, jurisdiction); their influence ended in 1692. Since then, the rulership of the estate has changed several times within a short period of time. In the land book of Karl IV. Lichterfelde was mentioned in 1375 with 39 hooves , of which the pastor had three. There was a Schulzen and a (water) mill, but the jug lay desolate . In 1450, 52 hooves were counted in Lichterfelde (presumably there was a re-measurement). The pastor still had three parish hooves and the jug was now full. In 1536, a document mentioned a Britzke family home and a windmill .
Foundation of the villa colony
The entrepreneur Johann Anton Wilhelm von Carstenn acquired the heavily indebted manors Giesensdorf and Lichterfelde in order to found the villa colony of Lichterfelde on these areas , where financially strong citizens , middle and senior civil servants and many officers of the Royal Prussian Principal Cadet Institute settled.
Rural community of Groß-Lichterfelde
In the years 1877/1878 the estate districts of Lichterfelde and Giesensdorf and the districts of Lichterfelde and Giesensdorf merged to form the district of Groß-Lichterfelde . The village church of Giesensdorf probably dates from around 1250. The church was badly damaged in the Second World War. During the reconstruction, the wooden bell tower was not rebuilt, but the bells were placed in a roof turret.
From 1878 to 1920, Lichterfelde was the seat of the Prussian main cadet institute . The world's first electric tram , which Werner Siemens referred to as the “electric train ”, went there from 1881 . In Lichterfelde Süd lies the Fliegeberg , from which the aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal started his first attempts at flight with self-made gliding devices in 1894. A Lilienthal memorial has been located there since 1932.
The neo-Gothic Nazareth Church in honor of the Holy Family was built in 1901. The Lichterfelder Dorfaue was the location of a well-known statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I , unveiled in 1898 , made by Ernst Wenck , which - due to the Second World War - is now in the Citadel Spandau is erected.
In 1912, Groß-Lichterfelde was renamed Berlin-Lichterfelde and has been part of Groß-Berlin since 1920 and was part of the then Steglitz district , which was part of the American sector during the division of Berlin .
In his research laboratory for electron physics in Lichterfelde Ost, Jungfernstieg 19, today's Villa Folke Bernadotte , the physicist Manfred von Ardenne succeeded in 1930 in the world's first electronic image decomposition and reproduction with line-by-line scanning via a photocell and reproduction on a cathode ray tube . The "world premiere of electronic television" was shown at the 8th Great German Radio Exhibition in 1931.
The largest construction project of the 1930s, initially in Zehlendorf area west of the park cemetery between Osteweg and Goerzallee , was the Telefunkenwerk Zehlendorf , built from 1937 onwards . From 1938 to 1945 it was the main factory and headquarters of the (from 1941 sole) AEG subsidiary Telefunken Gesellschaft für wireless telegraphy . The building complex built according to plans by the architect Hans Hertlein until 1940 with 90,000 m² of floor space at the end (postal address at the time: Zehlendorf; Vierter Ring / Osteweg) at today's Platz des July 4th was supposed to bring together 37 Berlin Telefunken locations. The buildings confiscated by the American occupation forces after the end of the war were US barracks ( McNair Barracks ) until 1994 . The building ensemble is a listed building and has been converted into loft apartments .
The Berlin regional reform with effect from April 1, 1938 resulted in numerous straightening of the district boundaries as well as some major changes to the area. The eastern edge of the Zehlendorf district became a Lichterfeld area from the Dahlemer Weg.
From January 1941 to 1945 there was a satellite camp of Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Lichterfelde . The camp, designed for 1,500 prisoners, was located on Wismarer Strasse near the Teltow Canal , not far from the houses of SS officers of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler , whose barracks were the former cadet institute. At least 41 people died in Lichterfelde. A pillar of remembrance draws attention to this camp.
The Stalag III D prisoner-of-war camp was also located in Lichterfelde-Süd between 1940 and 1945 ; Before that, on the site south of Landweg and Reaumurstrasse, from 1938 there was a Deutsche Reichsbahn warehouse for Sudeten German workers. The area was used by the US Army as the Parks Range training area between 1953 and 1994 .
In the noble, with its high population long German national embossed Lichterfelde West met during the period of National Socialism the "Graf Club" of the resistance group Kreisau Circle to Peter Yorck von Wartenburg in his apartment in the Hortensienstraße 50th
Structure and development
The villa colony of Lichterfelde was founded in 1865 by the entrepreneur Johann Anton Wilhelm von Carstenn . He also had the Lichterfelde Ost (1868) and Lichterfelde West (1872) train stations built at his own expense . It is known as one of the oldest residential areas in Berlin. Stately villas in the style of historicism , large gardens, small avenues and cobbled streets characterize the district.
The villas in Lichterfelde are characterized by a wide variety of sometimes imaginative architectural styles , right through to Art Nouveau buildings that were built around 1900. After 1900, Dahlem developed as another residential area and joined Lichterfelde-West to the district of Grunewald .
Carstenn also financed the Prussian state's relocation of the Prussian Hauptkadettenanstalt to spacious buildings on what was then Zehlendorfer Strasse (Finckensteinallee since 1933). During the Nazi era , the 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler was housed there. After 1945 the US Army used the barracks under the name Andrews Barracks . A branch of the Federal Archives has been located there since the 1990s . From 1880 to 1920 the Guard Rifle Battalion was also located in Lichterfelde West in the new Guard Rifle Barracks , which now houses parts of the Federal Intelligence Service . After the move of the federal government to Berlin, Lichterfelde West recorded the highest rate of increase in real estate and rental prices in the former West Berlin . The historical structure that has been preserved is now largely a listed building . Since the fall of the Berlin Wall , the villa colony has again benefited from the direct S-Bahn connection to Berlin-Mitte and the government district ( line S1 ).
Lichterfelde Ost, which borders the Steglitz-Zehlendorfer district of Lankwitz in the east , is the older part of the villa colony, but suffered more severe damage in the Second World War. In particular, originally representative gardens around the Bäkefluss and the Teltowkanal fell victim to industrial areas. Nevertheless, there is also a considerable number of preserved Wilhelminian style villas in Lichterfelde Ost. The old avenues are largely intact. The other areas of Lichterfelde are characterized by single-family houses and rental buildings.
Villa Holzhüter on Curtiusstrasse
“Today, Lichterfelde is still full of odd houses of all kinds: castles, miniature palazzi, Swiss cottages, brick castles, in whose high, somewhat gloomy rooms old colonels, state secretaries, private scholars drove their lives, fostered memories: collections, memoirs [...] The Houses even have a smell that the connoisseur remembers as 'light fields'. "
In addition to the villa colony, the best-known attraction in Lichterfelde is the Berlin Botanical Garden with the Botanical Museum. With an area of over 43 hectares and around 22,000 different plant species, the Botanical Garden is one of the largest and most important botanical gardens in the world and the largest in Europe. The park cemetery at Lichterfelde on Thuner Platz, which was created after a garden architecture competition from 1908 to 1911 based on a design by Friedrich Bauer and developed into a celebrity cemetery as early as the 1920s, is also worth a visit . The former manor house of the villa colony founder of Carstenn with a small green area is located on Hindenburgdamm (the Carstenn-Schlösschen ) and has been used for social purposes for the last few decades. The original interior has been destroyed, parts of the gardens have been preserved and can be visited (Schlosspark Lichterfelde).
There are numerous Berlin student associations with their own houses in Lichterfelde .
The thermometer settlement built between 1968 and 1974 is located in Lichterfelde Süd . This is a large housing estate with high-rise buildings in the characteristic linear architecture of post-war modernism . As a result, the settlement is characterized by an imposing skyline from afar . The residential area between Osdorfer Straße and the Berlin – Halle railway line differs significantly in its population structure from the other areas of the Steglitz-Zehlendorf district and is considered a social hotspot .
Waters in the district
Only a few of the original watercourses and bodies of water have remained due to the development.
- Oak pond in the botanical garden ( )
- Carp pond ( ) at the Königsgraben in the Lilienthalpark.
- Johann-Baptist-Gradl-Grünzug ( )
- Schwatlograben ( )
- Lime pond ( )
- Schilfluchgraben ( )
- Stangenpfuhl (water retention basin) and Stangenpfuhlgraben ( )
- Südpfuhl ( )
From May 16, 1881, the world's first electric tram ran from the Hauptkadettenanstalt in Lichterfelde West to the Anhalter Bahn station in Groß Lichterfelde Ost . The 'Electric Railway' constructed by Werner Siemens and Johann Georg Halske initially ran in trial operation on the route used to build the main cadet institute, and later went into regular operation. The entrepreneur Carstenn supported the undertaking, but he promised himself publicity for the villa colonies and better marketing of the land through the revolutionary development. Carstenn had previously financed the Lichterfelde Ost and 1882 Lichterfelde West stations , as explained above.
Local public transport has been handled by suburban trains and buses since the late 1990s . Lichterfelde is cut through by the Wannseebahn and the Anhalter Bahn and is therefore well connected to Berlin's city center . There are five S-Bahn stations: Lichterfelde West (line S1), Botanischer Garten (S1), Lichterfelde Ost (S25, S26 and regional traffic ), Osdorfer Straße (S25 and S26) and Lichterfelde Süd (S25 and S26).
The planned rapid cycle connection Teltow Canal Route is to lead through Berlin-Lichterfelde, among other things.
Thermal power station
- Goethe grammar school , grammar school on Drakestrasse
- Lilienthal-Gymnasium , Gymnasium on the Ringstrasse
- Parkfriedhof Lichterfelde , a listed state cemetery on Thuner Platz
- Lichterfelde cemetery , a listed state cemetery in Moltkestrasse
- Paulus cemetery around the village church of Lichterfelde
- Lichterfelde-Giesensdorf cemetery around the village church of Giesensdorf
Orders and congregations
Lichterfelde is the administrative seat of the Protestant Order of St. John ( Balley Brandenburg of the Knightly Order of St. John from the Hospital in Jerusalem) and the meeting place for the order's coming . The Order of Malta also maintains extensive properties in Lichterfelde. In the promenade street is the Berlin Mennonite -Gemeinde addition to the Mennonite Peace Center .
Sons and daughters of the district
- Georg Arms , actor
- Nikolaus von Béguelin (also: Nicolas von Lichterfelde ), owner of the Lichterfelde estate
- Waltari Bergmann , educator, local researcher and writer
- Maximilian Beyer , Catholic pastor
- Hasso von Boehmer , Lieutenant Colonel in the General Staff, murdered resistance fighter on July 20, 1944
- Klaus Borrmann , forester
- Bully Buhlan , singer
- Johann Albrecht von Bülow , General
- Dellé (civil: Frank Allessa Dellé ), musician
- Fler , rapper
- Peter Fox , musician
- Wolfgang Gern , Chairman of the Board of Diakonie Hessen
- Götz George , actor
- Bass Sultan Hengzt , rapper
- Peter Huchel , writer
- Jalil , rapper
- Rolf Johannesson , Rear Admiral of the German Navy
- Max Kaus , painter and graphic artist
- Linde von Keyserlingk , family therapist and author
- Erich Kips , painter
- Otto Kühne , Lieutenant General
- Hans-Joachim Meyer-Rienecker , neurologist and university professor
- Walther Oehler , Rear Admiral
- Alexander Ott (civil: Georg Julius Schmidt ), writer and songwriter
- Julius Posener , architectural historian
- Inge von der Ropp , architecture photographer
- Samra , rapper
- Nils Seethaler , cultural anthropologist
- Gerd Tellenbach , historian
- Klaus Tellenbach , lawyer
- Bettina Wegner , songwriter and poet
- Julius Nicolaus Weisfert , pseudonym Tintophonius , journalist and editor
Celebrities at the Parkfriedhof Lichterfelde
The following personalities were buried in the Lichterfelde park cemetery , along with many others:
- Drafi German , singer and composer
- Otto Dibelius , bishop
- Walter de Gruyter , publisher
- Sebastian Haffner , historian and publicist
- Emil Hundrieser , sculptor
- Robert Koldewey , archaeologist
- Gustav Lilienthal , architect
- Renate Müller , actress
- Reinhold Poss , aviation pioneer
- Kurt von Schleicher , Chancellor of the Reich
- Arthur Werner , first Lord Mayor of Berlin after the Second World War
- Bruno Wille , writer and co-founder of the Freie Volksbühne
- Hedwig Thöne , educator and politician
- List of streets and squares in Berlin-Lichterfelde
- List of cultural monuments in Berlin-Lichterfelde
- List of stumbling blocks in Berlin-Lichterfelde
- Swiss quarter
- TuS Lichterfelde Berlin
- TuS Lichterfelde Basketball
- FC Viktoria 1889 Berlin
- Christian Simon: Lichterfelde / Giesensdorf - a historical overview . Edited by Gabriele Schuster, Heimatverein Steglitz, Berlin 2014.
- Literature from and about Berlin-Lichterfelde in the catalog of the German National Library
- Local history of Lichterfelde on the website of the Heimatverein Steglitz e. V.
- Images of Lichterfelde West and Lichterfelde Ost as well as images and information about Lichterfelde Süd
- Data and facts on the history of the Lichterfelde satellite camp on the website of the initiative KZ-Außenlager Lichterfelde e. V.
- Jutta Goedicke: A walk through the neighborhood through Boothstrasse. In: Kiezmagazin Ferdinandmarkt. Jutta Goedicke, February 2017, accessed December 10, 2018 .
- The "nominal" Greater Berlin 1909 - 1912. Accessed on May 6, 2021 .
- Finally television! From: DRadio Wissen , December 14, 2014, accessed on December 14, 2014.
- District commemorates concentration campwith a stele
- Initiative for a historical place of learning in Lichterfelde Süd
- Parkfriedhof Lichterfelde - Worth knowing. At: Berlin.de , accessed on January 6, 2013.
- Balley Brandenburg - middle of the order. Retrieved November 11, 2009 .