The S-Bahn Berlin is a railway system for local public transport in Berlin and the surrounding area of the city . 16 lines that serve 166 stations operate on a route network of 327.4 kilometers , of which around 74 kilometers and 33 stations are in the state of Brandenburg . Operation and maintenance of the vehicles are from the Deutsche Bahn belonging to S-Bahn Berlin GmbH is responsible. The S-Bahn Berlin is the first city express train to be referred to as the S-Bahn and, along with the Hamburg S-Bahn, the only one in Germany that is operated with direct current from a power rail attached to the side .
Lines and mesh
The owner of the S-Bahn network is DB Netz AG , which also manages the routes. The track network of the Berlin S-Bahn is operationally largely separated from the rest of the railway network. In this way, operation independent of the rest of the train traffic can be guaranteed. The trains run on standard gauge tracks (1435 mm). In contrast to what is usual at Deutsche Bahn, the Berlin S-Bahn is operated with 750 volts DC voltage from a side busbar . The polarity of the power rail is negative, that of the running rails is positive. The Berlin S-Bahn differs from the Hamburg S-Bahn (1200 volts), which is also operated with direct current , in that the conductor rail is always painted from below, in Hamburg from the side. In Berlin, however, there are also side-painted busbars on bridges with a restricted clearance profile ("bridge guide rails"). Originally, these were also present in the narrow arches of the north-south tunnel . The traction current is provided by almost 90 rectifier substations . By 2025, 28 additional substations are to be built for 168 million euros in order to be able to serve the higher electricity requirements of the new construction vehicles (series 483/484).
The network of the Berlin S-Bahn can be divided into three different areas. The tram crosses the city center in an east-west direction . In the west ( Westkreuz station ) it divides into the lines to Spandau and Potsdam (via Wannsee). In the east ( Ostkreuz station ) it branches off in the directions Erkner and Strausberg Nord with further branches to Ahrensfelde and Wartenberg .
The north-south tunnel , built especially for S-Bahn traffic, runs in a north-south direction . The north-south line connects to the north with the north line (towards Oranienburg) with branches towards Bernau and Hennigsdorf . At the southern end, the Wannseebahn and the Dresdener Bahn (towards Blankenfelde) continue with the junction towards Teltow Stadt . There is a cross connection between the northbound routes between Blankenburg and Hohen Neuendorf via the Berlin outer ring .
The Ringbahn encloses the inner city area. From here, the Görlitzer Bahn branches off at Treptower Park station with routes to Königs Wusterhausen, Spindlersfeld and Berlin-Schönefeld Airport. It is also connected to the southern ring line via the Baumschulenweg – Neukölln connection . The Siemensbahn branches off to the west at Jungfernheide station and leads to Gartenfeld station. The line has been out of service since 1980, but is to be reactivated.
There is an operational connection between the Stadtbahn and the Ringbahn via the Südringkurve (Halensee - Charlottenburg). The connection between the two lines in the Ostkreuz area was closed for several years in 2009 due to construction work. The Ringbahn is connected to the north-south routes in Gesundbrunnen station and via a curve (Schönhauser Allee - Bornholmer Straße). There is a connection between the east-west and north-south routes at Wannsee station .
For the most part, the S-Bahn network has two tracks. There are only a few single-track sections of the route that can be found mainly in the outdoor areas. The platforms in Birkenwerder on the Nordbahn and Karow on the Stettiner Bahn are used jointly by S-Bahn and regional trains. S and long-distance trains shared part of the tracks at Strausberg station on the Ostbahn until 2017 . On the 12.6 kilometer long Marienfelde - Blankenfelde section of the Dresdener Bahn there are no separate systems for S-Bahn and long-distance trains up to Mahlow, but only a few additional freight trains run there. Only in Birkenwerder is there an electrical joint operation with AC overhead contact lines and DC voltage rails.
The Wuhletal station on the Ostbahn is a special feature of the Berlin S-Bahn network. S-Bahn and U-Bahn trains stop here at shared directional platforms . It has two directional platforms lying parallel to one another , the outer tracks of which are used by the S-Bahn. One platform is maintained by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) and the other by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH. Only the Konstablerwache station in Frankfurt am Main has a similar two-sided system. At the Munich-Neuperlach Süd train station , the S-Bahn shares a platform with the Munich U-Bahn , and at the Cologne-Chorweiler train station with the Cologne subway .
The S-Bahn connects all of Berlin's long-distance train stations as well as Potsdam Central Station . Almost all regional train stations in Berlin (exceptions: Albrechtshof and Staaken) and a number of regional train stations in Brandenburg are served by the S-Bahn. The transition to Berlin's second rapid transit system, the U-Bahn, is possible at 27 S-Bahn stations.
The Berlin S-Bahn runs according to a fixed schedule . The trains run from around 4 a.m. to around 1 a.m. Most lines run every ten minutes during the day. During the nights on Saturday, Sunday and public holidays, most routes are served every half hour. On these nights, every quarter of an hour is offered on the Ringbahn. By superimposing several lines, the tram runs every quarter of an hour and the north-south line runs every ten minutes. The external route of the S5 line (Mahlsdorf - Strausberg Nord) is served every hour. Only on the section Hohen Neuendorf - Berlin-Blankenburg no night traffic is offered.
Internally, the train service has been divided into train groups since the late 1930s , which are designated with letters (sometimes also with Roman numerals). Each group of trains serves a specific route every twenty minutes. By adding a "special train group" to the "main train group", the twenty-minute intervals during the day are usually shortened to ten minutes. Only the train groups of the Ringbahn generally run every ten minutes.
For passenger service, line numbers with a prefixed "S" were introduced on January 9, 1984 in the western part of the city - with the takeover of the company by the BVG. The lines at that time were designated S1, S2 and S3. After German reunification , this line number system was extended to the entire network on June 2, 1991 and formed the basic structure that is still valid today. In the meantime, the lines S6 (Warschauer Straße - Zeuthen) and S10 (Oranienburg - Spindlersfeld) operated in the 1990s, these numbers were not reassigned afterwards. In December 2017 the line number S26 was added - already briefly assigned in the 1990s and in 2001.
There are now 16 S-Bahn lines (as of December 10, 2017), with each direction on the Ringbahn having its own line number (clockwise: S41, counterclockwise: S42). Often several train groups running at the same time are bundled into one line, so that on many lines the most popular sections are served every ten minutes (sometimes more often). In addition, several lines overlap on a number of sections, for example on the city railway (four lines), the southern ring railway (three to five lines), the eastern ring railway (four to five lines) and in the north-south tunnel (four lines) . This means that cycle sequences of two to five minutes are achieved on these sections.
|Overview of the S-Bahn lines and train groups (as of December 15, 2019)|
Train group (radio name)
|route||Hold||km||Travel time||Routes traveled||comment|
|Stations (italic = train station in Brandenburg)|
|P (Paula)||Oranienburg - Wannsee||35||51.7||81 min||Northern Railway , Szczecin Railway , North-South Tunnel , Wannsee Railway|
|PI (panther)||Frohnau - Wannsee||30th||37.7||64 min||Northern Railway, Szczecin Railway, North-South Tunnel, Wannsee Railway|
|P II (pastor)||Potsdamer Platz - Zehlendorf||12||12.7||22 min||North-south tunnel, Wannseebahn||only peak hours , not during the holidays|
|Oranienburg - Lehnitz - Borgsdorf - Birkenwerder - Hohen Neuendorf - Frohnau - Hermsdorf - Waidmannslust - Wittenau (U8) - Wilhelmsruh - Schönholz - Wollankstraße - Bornholmer Straße - Gesundbrunnen (U8) - Humboldthain - Nordbahnhof - Oranienburger Straße - Friedrichstraße (U6) - Brandenburg Gate (U55) - Potsdamer Platz (U2) - Anhalter Bahnhof - Yorckstraße (Großgörschenstraße) (U7) - Julius-Leber-Brücke - Schöneberg - Friedenau - Feuerbachstraße - Rathaus Steglitz (U9) - Botanical Garden - Lichterfelde West - Sundgauer Straße - Zehlendorf - Mexikoplatz - Schlachtensee - Nikolassee - Wannsee|
|W (Wulf)||Bernau - Blankenfelde (Kr Teltow-Fläming)||28||46.6||70 min||Szczecin Railway , North-South Tunnel , Dresden Railway|
|WI (wasp)||Book - Lichtenrade||22nd||32.5||51 min||Szczecin Railway, North-South Tunnel, Dresden Railway|
|Bernau - Bernau-Friedenstal - Zepernick - Röntgen - Buch - Karow - Blankenburg - Pankow-Heinersdorf - Pankow (U2) - Bornholmer Straße - Gesundbrunnen (U8) - Humboldthain - Nordbahnhof - Oranienburger Straße - Friedrichstraße (U6) - Brandenburg Gate (U55) - Potsdamer Platz (U2) - Anhalter Bahnhof - Yorckstraße (U7) - Südkreuz - Priesterweg - Attilastraße - Marienfelde - Buckower Chaussee - Schichauweg - Lichtenrade - Mahlow - Blankenfelde|
|V (Viktor)||Hennigsdorf (b Berlin) - Teltow city||27||39.9||63 min||Kremmener Bahn , Northern Railway , Szczecin Railway , North-South Tunnel , Anhalter suburban railway||only 6 car trains due to the length of the platform in Hennigsdorf|
|Hennigsdorf - Heiligensee - Schulzendorf - Tegel - Eichborndamm - Karl-Bonhoeffer-Nervenklinik (U8) - Alt-Reinickendorf - Schönholz - Wollankstraße - Bornholmer Straße - Gesundbrunnen (U8) - Humboldthain - Nordbahnhof - Oranienburger Straße - Friedrichstraße (U6) - Brandenburg Gate ( U55) - Potsdamer Platz (U2) - Anhalter Bahnhof - Yorckstraße (U7) - Südkreuz - Priesterweg - Südende - Lankwitz - Lichterfelde Ost - Osdorfer Straße - Lichterfelde Süd - Teltow Stadt|
|VI (vampire)||( Waidmannslust -) Potsdamer Platz - Teltow city||23
|Northern Railway , Szczecin Railway , North-South Tunnel , Anhalter suburban railway||to Waidmannslust only Mon – Fri|
|Waidmannslust - Wittenau (U8) - Wilhelmsruh - Schönholz - Wollankstraße - Bornholmer Straße - Gesundbrunnen (U8) - Humboldthain - Nordbahnhof - Oranienburger Straße - Friedrichstraße (U6) - Brandenburger Tor (U55) - Potsdamer Platz (U2) - Anhalter Bahnhof - Yorckstraße ( U7) - Südkreuz - Priesterweg - Südende - Lankwitz - Lichterfelde Ost - Osdorfer Straße - Lichterfelde Süd - Teltow Stadt|
|B (Berta)||Spandau - Erkner||30th||44.6||74 min||Spandau suburban railway , Wetzlar railway , light rail , Silesian railway|
|BI (buzzard)||Ostbahnhof - Friedrichshagen (- Erkner )||13
|Silesian Railway||to Erkner only peak hours and in the summer schedule|
|B II (Benno)||Ostbahnhof - Friedrichshagen||6th||14.6||19 min||Silesian Railway||HVZ only, express trains (no stop in Rummelsburg, depot Rummelsburg, Wuhlheide and Hirschgarten), not during the holidays|
|Spandau (U7) - Stresow - Pichelsberg - Olympiastadion - Heerstraße - Messe Süd - Westkreuz - Charlottenburg (U7) - Savignyplatz - Zoologischer Garten (U2, U9) - Tiergarten - Bellevue - Central Station (U55) - Friedrichstraße (U6) - Hackescher Markt - Alexanderplatz (U2, U5, U8) - Jannowitzbrücke (U8) - Ostbahnhof - Warschauer Straße (U1, U3) - Ostkreuz - Rummelsburg - Rummelsburg depot - Karlshorst - Wuhlheide - Köpenick - Hirschgarten - Friedrichshagen - Rahnsdorf - Wilhelmshagen - Erkner|
|↻||A (Anton)||Gesundbrunnen - Gesundbrunnen||28||36.8||60 min||Ringbahn (clockwise)||10-minute intervals|
|AI (eagle)||Gesundbrunnen - Gesundbrunnen||28||36.8||60 min||Ringbahn (clockwise)||10-minute intervals, only peak hours|
|Gesundbrunnen (U8) - Schönhauser Allee (U2) - Prenzlauer Allee - Greifswalder Straße - Landsberger Allee - Storkower Straße - Frankfurter Allee (U5) - Ostkreuz - Treptower Park - Sonnenallee - Neukölln (U7) - Hermannstraße (U8) - Tempelhof (U6) - Südkreuz - Schöneberg - Innsbrucker Platz (U4) - Bundesplatz (U9) - Heidelberger Platz (U3) - Hohenzollerndamm - Halensee - Westkreuz - Messe Nord / ICC - Westend - Jungfernheide (U7) - Beusselstraße - Westhafen (U9) - Wedding (U6 ) - Gesundbrunnen (U8)|
|↺||R (Richard)||Gesundbrunnen - Gesundbrunnen||28||36.8||60 min||Ringbahn (counterclockwise)||10-minute intervals|
|RI (heron)||Gesundbrunnen - Gesundbrunnen||28||36.8||60 min||Ringbahn (counterclockwise)||10-minute intervals, only peak hours|
|Opposite direction to S41|
|U (Ulrich)||Südkreuz - Berlin-Schönefeld Airport||12||21.8||32 min||Ringbahn , connecting railway Baumschulenweg – Neukölln , Görlitzer Bahn , Güteraußenring|
|Südkreuz - Tempelhof (U6) - Hermannstrasse (U8) - Neukölln (U7) - Köllnische Heide - Baumschulenweg - Schöneweide - Schöneweide depot - Adlershof - Altglienicke - Grünbergallee - Berlin-Schönefeld Airport|
|D (Dora)||(Gesundbrunnen (U8) -) Westend - Königs Wusterhausen||28||40.6||58 min||Ringbahn , connecting railway Baumschulenweg – Neukölln , Görlitzer Bahn||to Gesundbrunnen only on Saturday and Sunday afternoons|
|(Gesundbrunnen (U8) - Wedding (U6) - Westhafen (U9) - Beusselstraße - Jungfernheide (U7) -) Westend - Messe Nord / ICC - Westkreuz - Halensee - Hohenzollerndamm - Heidelberger Platz (U3) - Bundesplatz (U9) - Innsbrucker Platz (U4) - Schöneberg - Südkreuz - Tempelhof (U6) - Hermannstraße (U8) - Neukölln (U7) - Köllnische Heide - Baumschulenweg - Schöneweide - Schöneweide depot - Adlershof - Grünau - Eichwalde - Zeuthen - Wildau - Königs Wusterhausen|
|K (Konrad)||Hermannstrasse - Spindlersfeld||7th||10.3||18 min||Ringbahn , connecting line Baumschulenweg – Neukölln , Görlitzer Bahn , branch line Schöneweide – Spindlersfeld|
|Hermannstraße (U8) - Neukölln (U7) - Köllnische Heide - Baumschulenweg - Schöneweide - Oberspree - Spindlersfeld|
|E (Emil)||Westkreuz - Mahlsdorf - Strausberg - Strausberg North||30
|Wetzlarer Bahn , Stadtbahn , Ostbahn , Strausberg – Strausberg Nord||in the evening only to Mahlsdorf|
|EI (magpie)||Westkreuz - Mahlsdorf (- Hoppegarten )||23
|Wetzlarer Bahn, Stadtbahn, Ostbahn||only in high season to Hoppegarten|
|E II (oak)||Ostbahnhof - Mahlsdorf||9||11.3||21 min||Eastern Railway||only peak hours, not during the holidays|
|E III (Erna)||Mahlsdorf - Strausberg - Strausberg North||10
|Ostbahn, Strausberg – Strausberg North||only in the evening, then replaces train group E; every second train only to Strausberg,|
|S II (Sirius) *||Ostbahnhof - Mahlsdorf||9||11.3||18 min||Eastern Railway||early peak hours only, not during the holidays|
|Westkreuz - Charlottenburg (U7) - Savignyplatz - Zoologischer Garten (U2, U9) - Tiergarten - Bellevue - Central Station (U55) - Friedrichstraße (U6) - Hackescher Markt - Alexanderplatz (U2, U5, U8) - Jannowitzbrücke (U8) - Ostbahnhof - Warschauer Straße (U1, U3) - Ostkreuz - Nöldnerplatz - Lichtenberg (U5) - Friedrichsfelde Ost - Biesdorf - Wuhletal (U5) - Kaulsdorf - Mahlsdorf - Birkenstein - Hoppegarten - Neuenhagen - Fredersdorf - Petershagen Nord - Strausberg - Hegermühle - Strausberg Stadt - Strausberg North|
|O (Otto)||Potsdam Central Station - Ahrensfelde||29||47.4||74 min||Wannseebahn , Wetzlarer Bahn , Stadtbahn , Ostbahn , outer ring , Wriezener Bahn|
|OI (Olaf)||Potsdam Central Station - Ahrensfelde||29||47.4||74 min||Wannseebahn, Wetzlarer Bahn, Stadtbahn, Ostbahn, outer ring, Wriezener Bahn|
|Potsdam main station - Babelsberg - Griebnitzsee - Wannsee - Nikolassee - Grunewald - Westkreuz - Charlottenburg (U7) - Savignyplatz - Zoologischer Garten (U2, U9) - Tiergarten - Bellevue - main station (U55) - Friedrichstrasse (U6) - Hackescher Markt - Alexanderplatz (U2 , U5, U8) - Jannowitzbrücke (U8) - Ostbahnhof - Warschauer Straße (U1, U3) - Ostkreuz - Nöldnerplatz - Lichtenberg (U5) - Friedrichsfelde Ost - Springpfuhl - Poelchaustraße - Marzahn - Raoul-Wallenberg-Straße - Mehrower Allee - Ahrensfelde|
|T (Theodor)||Warschauer Strasse - Wartenberg||9||22 min||Ostbahn , outer ring|
|TI (tapir)||Warschauer Strasse - Wartenberg||9||22 min||Ostbahn, outer ring|
|Warschauer Strasse (U1, U3) - Ostkreuz - Nöldnerplatz - Lichtenberg (U5) - Friedrichsfelde Ost - Springpfuhl - Gehrenseestrasse - Hohenschönhausen - Wartenberg|
|N (north pole)||Birkenwerder - Blankenburg - Grünau (- Zeuthen )||24
|Nordbahn , Outer Ring , Stettiner Bahn , Ringbahn , Görlitzer Bahn||until Zeuthen only peak hours; in the evening only every third train between Birkenwerder and Blankenburg|
|Birkenwerder - Hohen Neuendorf - Bergfelde - Schönfließ - Mühlenbeck-Mönchmühle - Blankenburg - Pankow-Heinersdorf - Pankow (U2) - Bornholmer Straße - Schönhauser Allee (U2) - Prenzlauer Allee - Greifswalder Straße - Landsberger Allee - Storkower Straße - Frankfurter Allee (U5) - Ostkreuz - Treptower Park - Plänterwald - Baumschulenweg - Schöneweide - Schöneweide depot - Adlershof - Grünau (- Eichwalde - Zeuthen )|
|NI (Neisse)||Pankow - Schöneweide (- Grünau )||16
|Nordbahn , Ringbahn , Görlitzer Bahn||to Grünau only Mon – Fri|
|Pankow (U2) - Bornholmer Straße - Schönhauser Allee (U2) - Prenzlauer Allee - Greifswalder Straße - Landsberger Allee - Storkower Straße - Frankfurter Allee (U5) - Ostkreuz - Treptower Park - Plänterwald - Baumschulenweg - Schöneweide - Schöneweide depot - Adlershof - Grünau|
|C (Caesar)||Spandau - Berlin-Schönefeld Airport||28||40.7||72 min||Spandau suburban railway , Wetzlar railway , light rail , Görlitz railway , outer freight ring|
|Spandau (U7) - Stresow - Pichelsberg - Olympiastadion - Heerstraße - Messe Süd - Westkreuz - Charlottenburg (U7) - Savignyplatz - Zoologischer Garten (U2, U9) - Tiergarten - Bellevue - Central Station (U55) - Friedrichstraße (U6) - Hackescher Markt - Alexanderplatz (U2, U5, U8) - Jannowitzbrücke (U8) - Ostbahnhof - Warschauer Straße (U1, U3) - Treptower Park - Plänterwald - Baumschulenweg - Schöneweide - Schöneweide depot - Adlershof - Altglienicke - Grünbergallee - Berlin-Schönefeld Airport|
- The train group marked with * on line S5 has stopped running since the beginning of the lack of availability of S-Bahn vehicles in June 2009.
- The line lengths were determined with the DB program TPS.
- The information in the evening is valid from around 9 p.m. until the end of business hours.
From the beginnings of the Berlin railways to the end of the Second World War
With the Berlin-Potsdam Railway , the first railway line in Berlin went into operation in 1838. In the following years, further radial routes were created in all directions. In 1871, the Ringbahn was opened outside of the then built-up area . Since 1900 several attempts have been made with electric rail operations.
In 1913 the decision was made in favor of an alternating current system with power supply by means of a catenary suspended above the vehicles. With the outbreak of the First World War , the preparatory work was stopped, but resumed after the end of the war. In the Pankow area there were already some catenary masts.
After the First World War, the newly founded Deutsche Reichsbahn (DR) decided to convert the city, ring and suburban railway to electrical operation. Because the continued use of the existing wagons, which was planned before the war, was no longer justifiable because of the poor condition of most vehicles and in order to reduce the effort for the clearance profile, the project was changed to an operation with 800 V DC voltage and laterally painted from below Busbar. After several years of preparatory work, the first electrified railway line from the Szczecin suburban train station (now the Nordbahnhof) to Bernau went into operation in 1924 . For the time being, the six test trains were used, in 1925 the DR put the first series model into service with the later ET 169 . In 1929 the era of trains hauled by steam locomotives ended on the suburban tracks of the Stadt- und Ringbahn.
In around seven years up to 1933, 235.0 kilometers of city, ring and suburban lines were equipped with power rails as part of the “ Great Electrification ” . A supply contract was signed with Bewag in 1928 for the power supply and a high-voltage connection was established between the Klingenberg power station, which is currently being expanded, and a switchgear on Markgrafendamm, as well as three other switchgear. The power was distributed from the four switchgear to the substations and rectifiers along the route.
By the end of 1943, the Berlin S-Bahn network had expanded to 294.8 kilometers. The S-Bahn recorded a passenger record of 737 million travelers in 1943. In April 1945, as a result of the fighting in Berlin and the failure of the power supply, the S-Bahn had to be stopped. At the beginning of May 1945, the tunnel ceiling under the Landwehr Canal was blown up and the north-south S-Bahn tunnel was flooded. A short time later, the subway network was also largely full of water via the passenger corridor in Friedrichstrasse station to today 's subway - line U6 .
The time of division
All of Berlin until the Wall was built in 1961
After the Second World War , the S-Bahn network was quickly freed from war damage. The German Reichsbahn (DR) of the Soviet zone of occupation and later East Germany kept on Allied arrangement, the operating rights for the entire Berlin route network. The first trains were back in service on July 6, 1945. At the end of 1947, with a few exceptions, the entire network was open to traffic again.
With the division of Germany and Berlin, the East-West conflict had a significant impact on the development of the S-Bahn. The demarcation of West Berlin was gradually being prepared on the part of the GDR . As early as 1952, West Berliners were no longer allowed to enter the surrounding area in the GDR. In 1951/1952 the terminal stations of the long-distance railway, which could only be reached via West Berlin, were closed and traffic was diverted around the city.
With the Berlin outer ring , a possibility of completely bypassing West Berlin was created by the end of the 1950s. Until 1961, traffic on the S-Bahn routes to West Berlin was still normal.
By the time the Wall was built in 1961, the largest S-Bahn network to date had been built in Berlin with a length of around 335 kilometers.
After the wall was built
August 13, 1961 was the greatest turning point in the operation and network of the S-Bahn after the destruction of World War II.
The S-Bahn continued to be operated by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in two separate sub-networks. In East Berlin, the S-Bahn remained the mode of transport with the highest percentage of passengers, with a share of around 35 percent. The route network continued to grow in the 1970s and 1980s. In particular, the new housing estates in the northeast of the city ( Marzahn and Hohenschönhausen ) were connected to the network.
In 1980 there were layoffs, which caused great unrest among the workforce, and the Reichsbahn was also planning extensive schedule thinning. The displeasure of the workers erupted in the second Berlin S-Bahn strike . As a consequence, the Reichsbahn fired most of its West Berlin employees and reduced the number of lines in West Berlin from ten to three.
The Berlin S-Bahn strike, however, brought the S-Bahn into the media's interest and aroused the desire to include the S-Bahn in West Berlin's local transport system. In 1983 negotiations began between representatives of the Senate, the BVG and the Deutsche Reichsbahn. In December 1983 this was concluded with the Allied approval of the agreement between the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the Berlin Senate to transfer the operating rights of the S-Bahn in the area of West Berlin .
On January 9, 1984 at 3 a.m., BVG took over S-Bahn operations in West Berlin. However, the BVG got the oldest vehicles from the DR; However, she was anxious to quickly adapt to the modern standard of the subway . Therefore, new S-Bahn trains were soon procured on their behalf, which are still in use today as the 480 series in the Berlin S-Bahn network.
Even before the fall of the Berlin Wall, efforts were made to largely restart the S-Bahn network in West Berlin. Citizens' initiatives and petitions resulted in the renovation of the southern section of the Ringbahn being started in 1989.
Development from 1990
After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the focus was on merging the two S-Bahn networks. In the first few days, the Deutsche Reichsbahn brought vehicles of the 275 series to the west, as the trains available at the BVG could not cope with the onslaught. The BVG ranked them among leading own quarter trains. On July 2, 1990, continuous traffic on the light rail from east to west with the three lines was resumed. On the same day, the Oranienburger Strasse ghost station on the north-south railway was reopened.
On September 1, 1990, the two ghost stations Nordbahnhof and Unter den Linden (today: Brandenburg Gate) were again served by the S-Bahn. The station Potsdamer Platz was handed back to the passenger on March 1, 1992nd
Until the end of 1993, S-Bahn operations in Berlin were carried out jointly by the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the BVG. At the turn of the year 1993/1994, the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the Deutsche Bundesbahn merged to form the Deutsche Bahn . At the same time, the operation of the S-Bahn in the former West Berlin was taken over by the new Deutsche Bahn.
Until around 2006/2007, the S-Bahn was one of the most reliable and popular S-Bahn systems in Europe. In the years that followed, there was a steady decline in performance, which culminated in 2008, 2009 and 2010 with serious drops in performance as the S-Bahn crisis . The reasons lay in a combination of excessive rationalization as a result of the pressure on returns exerted by the parent company, the resulting maintenance deficits, a management failure of the S-Bahn management at the time under Tobias Heinemann, and design defects in the new vehicles.
At the turn of the year 1993/1994, the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the Deutsche Bundesbahn merged to form the Deutsche Bahn AG. On the same date, the operation of the S-Bahn in the former West Berlin, which until then had been carried out by the BVG , was handed over to Deutsche Bahn. On January 1, 1995, operations were transferred to the newly founded S-Bahn Berlin GmbH ; it has been a wholly-owned subsidiary of DB Regio AG since March 2010 .
The S-Bahn Berlin GmbH operates the S-Bahn traffic on the basis of a tender for a transport contract signed in August 2004 between Deutsche Bahn and the Berlin Senate. The contract was retrospective from the beginning of 2003 to the end of 2017 and comprised funds from the states of Berlin and Brandenburg in the amount of 3.54 billion euros.
After delays in the tendering process, it was decided to allow S-Bahn Berlin GmbH to continue operating by direct award. The provisions of the transitional agreement were published in the European Official Journal on June 3, 2015. In the North-South and Stadtbahn subnetworks, Interim Contract II will then end between 2027 and 2028. For the 'Ring' subnetwork (Ringbahn and feeder), staggered deadlines have been agreed in order to enable a possible new operator to gradually take over operations - for the short line between Spindlersfeld and Südkreuz until the end of 2020, the Ringbahn itself until October 2023.
The previous operator of the DB subsidiary S-Bahn Berlin GmbH has been commissioned with its own new vehicles and a vehicle capacity increase of 20% for the subsequent transport contract for the sub-network 'Ring' with lines S41 / S42, S47 and S8.
Tenders for future operation
In 2012, the two federal states of Berlin and Brandenburg, as the responsible authorities , decided to publicly tender the operation and maintenance of the Berlin S-Bahn throughout Europe, and the Berlin-Brandenburg Transport Association was commissioned as the awarding authority . Originally, independent tenders were planned for three sub-networks (Ring, Stadtbahn and North-South); the invitation to tender for the entire network was discarded because such an award was expected to result in insufficient competition due to the high risks involved. After the current transport contract expires in December 2017, Deutsche Bahn will continue to be commissioned for at least two of the subnetworks, as a new operator of the network would have to buy new vehicles because Deutsche Bahn was not ready to hand over trains. On the Berlin system with the side conductor rail and the weight restrictions on the trains, only specially developed vehicles can be used, which will not be available in the required number by 2017.
The award procedure for the “Ring” sub-network, which includes lines S41 and S42 (ring line) as well as lines S46, S47 and S8 with an annual traffic performance of 9.4 million train kilometers (almost a third of the total traffic), was started in June 2012 . The plan was to put the operation out to tender for 15 years, but maintenance for 33 years. However, the procedure was discontinued due to a decision by the Senate of the Berlin Chamber Court on January 24, 2013. As part of a lawsuit brought by Deutsche Bahn against the award procedure, the court questioned the particularly long term of the planned contract and referred the procedure to the European Court of Justice.
On April 11, 2013, the VBB started a new award procedure for the Ring sub-network on behalf of the two federal states. It provides for operation and maintenance from December 2017 to be tendered for a period of 15 years. New vehicles are procured from the future operator. Numerous applicants had submitted an application to participate in the award procedure on July 15, 2013. These include S-Bahn Berlin GmbH (the current operator), the French RATP , the British National Express Group , MTR from Hong Kong and the vehicle manufacturers Bombardier, as well as Siemens and Stadler together .
In March 2014 it became known that several of the applicants had decided not to participate in the process. In addition to Deutsche Bahn, only National Express remained. This also withdrew from the award procedure in October 2014. The only remaining applicant is S-Bahn Berlin GmbH . Traffic expert and politician Matthias Oomen ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ) called for the tender to be canceled in connection with the performance of S-Bahn Berlin GmbH.
In November 2013, Deutsche Bahn tendered a framework contract for the procurement of up to 690 multiple units for the Berlin S-Bahn across Europe. The quarter trains, up to 37 meters long, are to be designed for a maximum speed of 100 km / h. Most applicants, however, dropped out. The previous manufacturer Bombardier (BR 481 in the Hennigsdorf plant near Berlin) was also eliminated due to the tightened financing conditions, so that only Siemens / Stadler is considered a promising candidate (Stadler is building the new Berlin underground trains in Berlin-Pankow). The supply for the new trains is higher than expected and would therefore make future operations significantly more expensive than before - at least 390 new wagons should be procured by the new operator. In December 2015, Siemens / Stadler signed a framework agreement with S-Bahn Berlin GmbH for the delivery of 1,380 cars, of which 106 trains (consisting of 85 four-part and 21 two-part vehicles) were ordered directly. The trains will be run as class 483/484 .
The tender for the sub-networks 'North-South' and 'Stadtbahn' started on August 4, 2020. In addition to the transport performance, the award also includes vehicle delivery and maintenance with a term of 15 years, for maintenance of 30 years. The state of Berlin buys at least 1,308 S-Bahn cars with an option for a further 852 cars and wants to take them over into state ownership. The new operator is expected to join the north-south sub-network in December 2027 and the light rail network in February 2028.
As early as October 1, 1891, there was a separate tariff in Berlin on the routes of the city, ring and suburban railways. Since 1893 punch pliers have been used at the stations for validation, so that tickets purchased in advance could be used from different departure stations. On May 15, 1938, the separate tariff area was expanded. Teltow and Wünsdorf were added in the south and Werneuchen in the northeast. On October 1, 1944, a price level system was introduced, which lasted until 1991 in East Berlin and the surrounding area with only minor modifications. All relations in and around Berlin were covered with eight price levels, whereby price levels 6 to 8 were only necessary for trips from the western to the eastern suburbs of Berlin. Price level 1 was sufficient for journeys in the city area. Prices ranged from 20 pfennigs for price level 1 to 1.30 marks for price level 8. The prices in East Berlin were also maintained until 1991.
In terms of tariffs, no distinction was made between the electric S-Bahn lines and the other suburban lines. These were also officially called the S-Bahn . Course book cards used the terms "electrically operated S-Bahn routes" and "steam-operated S-Bahn routes", later "non-electrically operated S-Bahn routes". During the GDR era, some of these trains were popularly referred to as Sputnik as they circled the area of West Berlin. The S-Bahn tariff area was changed only slightly for decades and in the 1980s ranged from Nauen , Werder (Havel) or Beelitz-Heilstätten to Werneuchen , Strausberg and Fürstenwalde in East-West and from Velten, Oranienburg and Bernau to Ludwigsfelde , Wünsdorf and Königs Wusterhausen in north-south direction.
After a currency reform took place in both German states at the end of the 1940s, there was a stipulation that West Berliners had to purchase their tickets in DM West (also for journeys from train stations in the eastern area). In order to check this, the tickets in the western part were printed in red on yellow cardboard and in the eastern part the printing remained in black. Separate price levels were introduced for West Berlin after the Wall was built. After the takeover by the BVG in 1984, the West Berlin S-Bahn was integrated into the BVG tariff system.
In East Berlin, the tariff system was independent of that of the BVG / BVB until the end of the GDR. However, from February 1, 1976, tickets purchased in advance at price level 1 could also be used for journeys on BVB's means of transport. On July 1, 1989, new tickets were introduced that made it possible to change between the S-Bahn and the U-Bahn. This change became necessary because the Wuhletal station was operated jointly by DR and BVB. This regulation did not apply to the transition to the bus or tram.
After German reunification , the area of the S-Bahn tariff for the tariff area Berlin and the surrounding area and a uniform tariff for all public transport were introduced.
In 1999 the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB) was founded. The common tariff of the VBB for all member regions and cities was introduced on April 1, 1999 and has also been valid in the Berlin S-Bahn network since then.
From a nationwide perspective, the S-Bahn Berlin is integrated into the price system of Deutsche Bahn . In principle, it has been possible for several years to buy one-way tickets from any train station outside of Berlin and Brandenburg to stations in the S-Bahn network. In return, however, tickets to destinations outside the VBB are not available at all stations of the Berlin S-Bahn. The so-called ticket for the initial route is also not available in the federal states of Berlin and Brandenburg.
Renovation and new construction projects
As early as 1988, the Deutsche Reichsbahn had presented plans to redesign the Ostkreuz station . In 2007 the long-postponed renovation of the station began. In addition to the complete redesign of the track field, two new regional platforms are also being built. The station will be made barrier-free by installing elevators and escalators . Operation on the east-west lines of the S-Bahn will in future be carried out in the direction of operation, so on platform D the trains should run in the direction of the city and on platform E the trains should go east. At the same time, the line to the neighboring Warschauer Strasse station and this station will be renovated. The cost of the renovation is currently given at 411 million euros.
With nine lines (four on the Stadtbahn and five on the Ringbahn level), Ostkreuz station is one of the busiest stations in the entire network. Since the renovation is taking place while operations continue, no binding completion date is known. Deutsche Bahn initially expected completion in 2016. In 2017, it was assumed that the work would be completed in 2018. The renovated building was inaugurated on December 9, 2018.
As the construction work progressed, the southern curve of the Ostkreuz and platform A were taken out of service on August 31, 2009. This resulted in line changes. Since its completion in December 2017, there has been direct traffic from the southern ring line to the light rail . There is no longer a platform on the Südringkurve, and the S9 trains do not stop in Ostkreuz. The north ring curve of the Ostkreuz station (Warschauer Straße - Frankfurter Allee) was closed in 2006 and demolished in the following years. There are no plans to restore them.
In October 2009 the new regional platform of the Ringbahn was completed to the point that the S-Bahn trains on the Ringbahn used it temporarily. Then the demolition of the Ringbahn S-Bahn platform and its new construction including a platform hall could begin. This was put into operation on April 16, 2012 after a lockout of 16 days.
With the timetable change on December 15, 2015, the regional platform on the Ringbahn was opened and the Ostkreuz thus regional train stop for the first time.
Since the timetable change on December 10, 2017, regional trains as well as individual long-distance trains (e.g. Flixtrain [formerly: Locomore ] to Stuttgart ) have also stopped at the tram level . In addition, the Südringkurve for line S9 and the newly built platforms D and E have been in operation again since that day. From June 2018, an Intercity of the Deutsche Bahn will also stop at Ostkreuz.
Görlitzer Bahn (Baumschulenweg - Grünauer Kreuz)
The renovation work on the Görlitzer Bahn began on July 12, 2006. In 2010 and 2011, the newly built Baumschulenweg and Adlershof stations went into operation in several stages , and the bridges over the Britzer connecting canal and the Teltow canal were also renewed. During the renovation, the platform in Adlershof was given a new location directly above Rudower Chaussee. The renovation of the Wildau train station was completed in 2014 so that it is now double-track and barrier-free.
Further major construction projects are planned along the route:
- Reconstruction of Schöneweide station including the construction of a new tram underpass
- Renewal of the bridges over the Sterndamm
- Installation of further electronic interlocking technology along the route
- Renewal of the long-distance railway tracks and rebuilding of the overhead line system
New track construction
Extension of Berlin Schönefeld Airport - Berlin Brandenburg Airport
For the future Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER) in Schönefeld, southeast of Berlin, the S-Bahn line was extended from the current terminus at Berlin-Schönefeld Airport via a large arch to the new terminal. A train station with six tracks was built directly under the terminal of the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, which is currently under construction. Four tracks are intended for the long-distance railway as a through station . With the approach from the west, two tracks are planned for the S-Bahn. At the beginning of July 2008, the shell of the first 185-meter-long section of the station was completed to the point where the terminal building could be erected. On July 24, 2009, the airport company handed over the shell of the airport train station and the first part of the tunnel to the DB . The new route includes the train stations Waßmannsdorf and Berlin Brandenburg Airport and has a length of around 7.8 kilometers. The construction costs are given at 636 million euros. However, this also includes the costs for the long-distance railway connection to be created at the same time.
Planning line S21 (second north-south runway - first construction phase)
The second north-south line with the planning name S21 is to connect the northern ring line via the main station, Potsdamer Platz station and the Wannsee railway with the southern ring line. As part of the Greater Berlin competition that took place from 1907 to 1910 , Albert Sprickerhof proposed a route with a route that was almost identical to the current plans. Since then there have been a number of planning variants for such a route. A similar line was envisaged in the plans for the “ World Capital Germania ” in the 1930s.
The route is to be built in several sections. In 2005, the planning approval decision for the northern part of the route from the ring railway to the main station was issued. In October 2009, a financing agreement was signed between the Senate and Deutsche Bahn for the first section. The costs are given as 226.5 million euros. On November 27, 2009, the preparatory construction work on the main train station for this construction phase began. For the underground construction pit, diaphragm walls are being built into the ground in Invalidenstrasse and covered with a reinforced concrete cover.
This expansion stage provides for the construction of a west curve to the Westhafen S-Bahn station and an east curve to the Wedding S-Bahn station on the Nordring. The development of these lines was already being prepared when the north-south long-distance railway was built until 2006. From there, the route is to run in a southerly direction (in the tunnel) to the main station east of the north-south long-distance railway. The implementation of an intermediate station with the working name Perleberger Brücke (as a tower station in V-shape) is planned as an option. After construction delays due to ingress of groundwater, an opening in summer 2021 is expected since summer 2017.
Planning line S21 (second north-south runway - second construction phase)
Construction of the second section was originally scheduled to start in 2017, but was already delayed in the planning phase. As of 2019, the section is in the draft and approval planning, which is then followed by a plan approval procedure. The new S-Bahn line will run in a tunnel from the main train station past the Reichstag to Potsdamer Platz. It will flow into the existing tunnel of the north-south S-Bahn at the level of the Brandenburg Gate and use it as far as Potsdamer Platz . The first north-south S-Bahn was laid out in 1939 with a view to creating a second line with four tracks. The costs for the new S-Bahn line (construction sections 1 and 2) are estimated to be 317 million euros in 2009.
There are still no dates for the further construction phases up to the southern ring line. So far they have only been defined in the Berlin zoning plan.
Considerations for further expansions
Since German reunification , there have been considerations to rebuild the lines that have not been used since 1961 or 1980 and to supplement the network with some new lines. Many of these plans have changed or been abandoned several times since then.
According to a resolution by the Berlin House of Representatives , the aim is to restore the S-Bahn network to essentially the same extent as in 1961. This was recorded in an agreement between the railway, the Federal Ministry of Transport and the Senate on November 4, 1993. The network should have been restored by 2002. On this basis, the planning was included in the land use plan of 1995. In 1995 the plan for a target network was published in a study of traffic development by the Senate Department for Traffic and Enterprises. Only the connections Jungfernheide-Stresow, Spandau-Staaken and Zehlendorf-Düppel, which existed until 1980, were not included in these plans. This declaration of intent is only to be understood symbolically today, as some construction projects already go beyond or deviate from the goal at that time. The tense budget situation, changed traffic flows and the alternative development by regional railways led to the postponement or complete cancellation of projects already planned.
After a new Senate coalition emerged from the election to the Berlin House of Representatives in 2011 , the Senate now literally advocates in its coalition agreement "in principle [...] the restoration of all S-Bahn lines that existed on August 12, 1961". More specifically, the S-Bahn line from Spandau station westwards to Falkensee and the construction of a Tempelhofer Feld S-Bahn station are to be promoted, as well as a Kamenzer Damm S-Bahn station to be "considered in planning".
A corridor survey by the State of Brandenburg presented on November 28, 2016 showed that the extensions to Nauen and Rangsdorf had the greatest chance of being realized at this time. In June 2018, the state government then publicly announced the construction of the S-Bahn extensions to Rangsdorf as part of the Dresden Bahn construction work.
The extension of the Prignitz-Express to Gesundbrunnen is preferred to an S-Bahn extension to Velten.
On this basis, the following describes how these plans have changed over time and how the possibilities for implementation are presented today. For many stretches, only one route clearance is planned today.
The following documents are used as a basis:
- FNP (yes = included in the FNP (Berlin), no = not included in the FNP (Berlin), tr = route clearance in the regional regional transport plan for Brandenburg)
- " Land use plan of the city of Berlin" - status 2004 including the changes up to 2009
- "Regional Transport Plan Brandenburg 2008–2012"
- Target network (VB = urgent need, WB = further need, TR = route clearance, - = not included)
- "Transport planning for Berlin - materials for the urban development plan for transport." (Senate Department for Transport and Companies Berlin 1995)
- "Berlin on the move" (Senate Department for Building, Housing and Transport Berlin 1997)
- "Hub Berlin - Building for the S-Bahn" (S-Bahn Berlin GmbH & DB Projekt Verkehrsbau GmbH Berlin 2001)
These documents are updated with current newspaper reports, press releases from the Senate and the surrounding communities and cities as well as the work of various citizens' initiatives.
|Lines closed during World War II|
|Cheruskerkurve ( planning line S21 ): Julius-Leber-Brücke - Südkreuz (approx. 0.8 km)|
|Yes||TR||No||The so-called "Cheruskerkurve" was part of the Süd-Ring-Spitzkehre until July 3, 1944 . In 2000, the FNP was expanded to include this direct connection between the Wannseebahn and the Ringbahn as the 4th construction phase of the “S21”. Exact dates do not yet exist.|
|Lines that existed until August 13, 1961 (closed due to the construction of the wall)|
|Blankenfelde - Dahlewitz - Rangsdorf (approx. 4.8 km)|
|tr||TR||Yes||In the brochure “Turntable Berlin - Building for the S-Bahn” published by S-Bahn Berlin in 2001, this route was still shown. In the meantime there has been no rebuilding. The community of Rangsdorf is trying to reconnect the S-Bahn. The mayor of the municipality has spoken out in favor, and a citizens' initiative has also been formed. This route is advocated in the regional regional transport plan for Brandenburg 2008–2012. The federal government would provide funding to prove the need for this route. The state of Brandenburg has not yet carried out a plan approval procedure.|
|Spandau - Nauener Straße - Hackbuschstraße - Albrechtshof - Seegefeld - Falkensee (- Falkensee Parkstadt - Finkenkrug) (approx. 7.8 km / 10.7 km)|
|VB||Yes||The benefit of extending the S-Bahn from Spandau to Falkensee or Finkenkrug was justified in a profitability study by the federal government and the states of Berlin and Brandenburg. In March 2008 the project was certified with a cost-benefit factor of 1: 1.31. With the construction of this line, the heavily populated western part of Spandau would be connected to the rapid transit network. The execution is controversial. The former Berlin Senate made up of the SPD and the Left Party was in favor of the building, the Greens and the CDU of the Havelland district have spoken out against it. The city of Falkensee and the communities behind Finkenkrug fear a thinning of the RE and RB connection. If the budget situation in the city of Berlin improves, this route - at least in Berlin area - can be seen as the most feasible. An investigation has shown that the route to Hackbuschstrasse has a cost-benefit ratio of 2.64. The construction costs for this section were determined in 2009 at 37 million euros. However, the federal government rejects funding for an extension only within Berlin. An alternatively investigated extension on the route of the Osthavelländische Eisenbahn to Falkenseer Chaussee resulted in a benefit-cost factor well over 1, but was rejected by the Spandau district office. In the longer term, an extension beyond Falkensee to Nauen is planned, according to the Senate Department for Environment, Transport and Climate Protection.|
|Friedhofsbahn : Wannsee - Dreilinden - Stahnsdorf (approx. 4.2 km)|
|TR||No||The reconstruction of the route is now relatively complicated due to the relocation of the federal highway 115 . The route of the cemetery railway is still dedicated in Berlin and Brandenburg . In particular, the Evangelical Church had an interest in the reopening of this route. She relied on old contracts with the railway and tried to sue for construction. In the meantime, the lawsuit has been dismissed and the Deutsche Bahn real estate company put the land up for sale in 2014 and has the dilapidated bridge over the Teltow Canal torn down.|
|Lines that existed until September 17, 1980 (closed after the 1980 strike)|
|Siemensbahn : Jungfernheide - Wernerwerk - Siemensstadt - Gartenfeld (- Haselhorst - Daumstraße - Hakenfelde) (approx. 4.0 km / 8.0 km)|
|Yes||TR||Yes||A reactivation of the Siemensbahn , which would only make sense with a structurally very complex extension over the Havel to the Wasserstadt Spandau (possibly to Hakenfelde ), is very unlikely. An investigation into the continuation to Hakenfelde, as part of the S21 planning line, has shown that construction costs are too high. The development of Siemensstadt itself has been covered by the U7 underground line since 1980 . While in 2001 the Deutsche Bahn had shown this route to Gartenfeld as planning, in 2007 it applied to the Federal Railway Authority to de-dedicate this route. The Senate is currently still maintaining the connection to Gartenfeld in the FNP. In the course of the expansion of Siemensstadt by Siemens , which became known at the end of 2018, the plans for reconstruction, which previously called the year 2035, are to be adjusted. On the part of the railway it is stated that even if the resolution to rebuild it will be more than the five years that the original construction took.|
|Main line : Zehlendorf - Zehlendorf Süd - Düppel-Kleinmachnow (- Kleinmachnow Schleusenweg - Dreilinden Europarc) (approx. 2.2 km / 5.3 km)|
|-||No||After the Second World War, after the initial steam operation, the short section from Zehlendorf to Düppel was prepared for the electric S-Bahn in 1948 and used until 1980. A cost-benefit analysis for a regional railway operation of the continuous trunk line from 2008 did not suggest that the volume of traffic required for reconstruction could be expected. Since 2008 there have been discussions about re-establishing the main line between Zehlendorf and Griebnitzsee as a S-Bahn line. On June 10, 2009, the Steglitz-Zehlendorf district, the Kleinmachnow community, Europarc Dreilinden and Deutsche Bahn International GmbH presented a preliminary study of a possible S-Bahn operation on the eastern part of the route between Zehlendorf and Europarc Dreilinden to the public. This is not yet an official plan.|
|Routes that existed until September 20, 1983 (island operation after the Wall was built)|
|Hennigsdorf - Hennigsdorf Marwitzer Straße - Hennigsdorf Nord - Hohenschöpping - Velten (approx. 5.9 km)|
|tr||WB||Yes||The city of Velten is trying to reconnect to the S-Bahn network and in 2008 commissioned a feasibility study. After the wall was built, an island line ran from Hennigsdorf to Velten until 1983 . A cost-usage study has now been approved by Deutsche Bahn. Until 2001 this route was still officially planned by the railway.|
|Considerations for new lines|
Planning line S21
Part 1: Potsdamer Platz - Gleisdreieck - Yorckstraße (approx. 2.1 km)
Part 2: Gleisdreieck - Yorckstraße (Großgörschenstraße) (approx. 0.9 km)
|Yes||WB||No||This new line represents the 3rd planning stage of the "S21". It is to lead south from the Potsdamer Platz station. Construction work has been going on here since the 1930s. It then runs parallel to the long-distance railway tunnel with a stop at the Gleisdreieck underground station and is supposed to open into the “Yorckstrasse (Großgörschenstrasse)” station with a western branch and into the “Yorckstrasse” station with an eastern branch. Dates are not yet known for this part of "S21" either. In the Debis parking garage south of the Landwehr Canal, the route of the S21 on the upper floor has been taken into account.|
Berlin outer ring (local traffic loop) :
Part 1: Karower Kreuz - Sellheim Bridge (approx. 1.0 km)
Part 2: Sellheim Bridge - Parkstadt - Wartenberg (approx. 3.0 km)
Part 3: Springpfuhl - Biesdorfer Kreuz - Biesdorf Süd - Biesenhorst - Wuhlheide - FEZ - Spindlersfeld - Glienicker Straße - Grünauer Kreuz (about 13.3 km)
|This is a plan that was developed in the GDR in the early 1960s. In the 1980s it was taken up again and expanded. Now connecting curves from the Berlin outer ring (BAR) to the Stettiner Bahn in the north (Karower Kreuz) and to the Görlitz Bahn in the south (Grünauer Kreuz) were planned. Also a connection to the Silesian Railway at Wuhlheide station. By the end of the GDR, the Deutsche Reichsbahn had already performed some preliminary construction work, such as B. the preparation of the S-Bahn route between Adlershof and Köllnische Vorstadt, a three-track S-Bahn route from Altglienicke to the bridge abutment on the north side of the Adlergestell and the route on the Sellheimbrücke section to Wartenberg. As part of this planning, the construction of a depot was also planned. These plans were taken over in the FNP, but not pursued for a long time. The Wartenberg - Sellheimbrücke section was still officially in the planning stage until 2001. In the spring of 2009 the Berlin House of Representatives decided that the planning of the local transport bypass had to be prepared. After that, however, a regional train is planned on the outer ring. A new tower station for regional trains and the S-Bahn (S2) is to be built at Karower Kreuz . However, this depends on the further expansion of the Szczecin Railway in this section, which is planned for 2015 at the earliest.|
|Discontinued plans (only plans that existed after 1945)|
|East-West S-Bahn : Anhalter Bahnhof - Kochstraße - Moritzplatz - Görlitzer Bahnhof - Lohmühlenstraße - Kiefholzstraße - Plänterwald (approx. 6.1 km)|
|No||No||No||This route is a planning that was started in the 1930s in connection with the Germania planning and was only finally put on hold in the revision of the FNP of the Senate in 1985. During the construction of the underground station “Anhalter Bahnhof”, overpass structures were also built. At Moritzplatz , under the subway station, there is a completed transfer station, which was built in the 1920s for an underground line. As part of this planning, it should be used for the S-Bahn. There are no further preliminary construction work. At times, a direct connection from Kochstrasse to Potsdamer Platz was also planned.|
|Ring closure: Teltow Stadt - Teltow Isarstraße - Stahnsdorf Lindenstraße - Stahnsdorf (approx. 6.5 km)|
|No||No||No||The first considerations for such an S-Bahn connection were made at the end of the 1930s as part of Germania planning. First earthworks were also carried out during World War II. In 1991 this route was still officially planned by the Senate. In later plans, such as the FNP of the Stahnsdorf community, the route is no longer included. The route is not included in the regional planning Havelland-Fläming, the joint state planning Berlin-Brandenburg and the LNVP Brandenburg. The state government is also hostile to the route, as it is feared that the follow-up costs would be borne by peripheral parts of the country. Crossing newly created residential areas would make things even more difficult. The closure of the ring includes the extension via Dreilinden to Wannsee, as local politicians are striving for.|
|Heidekrautbahn : Karow - Schönerlinde - Schönwalde - Basdorf - Wandlitz - Wandlitzsee (approx. 18.1 km)|
|No||No||No||In 1976 there was a plan for this S-Bahn route in what was then the GDR. This planning was not discussed with any higher authority by the Berlin magistrate . However, it was picked up and persecuted until 1980. The S-Bahn would have replaced an existing suburban connection. The only construction measure implemented was the connection of the so-called "Heidekrautbahn" to the Karow S-Bahn station. Officially, the plan was not abandoned until the end of the GDR; the plans were only discarded after reunification.|
In addition to the considerations for route extensions, there are expansion programs for routes and stations. In the future, the single-track lines to Hennigsdorf , Teltow Stadt and Potsdam are to be expanded to double-track in sections. The Dresdener Bahn , on which the S-Bahn sometimes does not have its own tracks, is to be expanded as a feeder for the new Berlin Brandenburg Airport and the S-Bahn will have its own tracks. In addition, several stations are designed to be barrier-free with elevators and ramps every year . The construction of further entrances is also planned for some stations in the existing network. In addition, further stations are to be built in the existing network.
The following documents are used as a basis:
- FNP (yes = included in FNP, no = not included in FNP, empty = train station in Brandenburg)
- " Land use plan of the city of Berlin" - Status: 2015 including the changes up to 2016
- Target network (VB = urgent need, WB = further need, LB = long-term need)
- "Transport planning for Berlin - materials for the urban development plan for transport." (Senate Department for Transport and Companies Berlin 1995)
- "Berlin on the move" (Senate Department for Building, Housing and Transport Berlin 1997)
|FNP||Target network||railway station||route||Location (neighboring existing train stations)||comment|
|LB||Arkenberg||Berlin outer ring||Blankenburg and Mühlenbeck-Mönchmühle||Construction work available - planning was abandoned|
|Yes||LB||Biesdorf Cross||Eastern Railway||Friedrichsfelde Ost and Biesdorf||Transition to the local transport bypass|
|Yes||LB||Block causeway||Silesian Railway||Rummelsburg and Karlshorst depot|
|Yes||LB||Bohnsdorfer Chaussee||Outer ring of goods||Grünbergallee and Berlin-Schönefeld Airport|
|Yes||VB||Borsigwalde||Kremmener Bahn||Eichborndamm and Tegel|
|Yes||VB||Book south||Szczecin Railway||Karow and Buch|
|Yes||LB||Bucher Strasse||Berlin outer ring||Blankenburg and Mühlenbeck-Mönchmühle||Construction work available|
|Yes||WB||Bürknersfelde||Berlin outer ring||Gehrenseestrasse and Springpfuhl||Connection to the planned U 11|
|Yes||LB||Charlottenburger Chaussee||Spandau suburban railway||Pichelsberg and Stresow|
|Yes||LB||Dudenstrasse||Dresden Railway||Yorckstrasse and Südkreuz|
|LB||Glasower Dam||Dresden Railway||Mahlow and Blankenfelde (Kr.Teltow-Fläming)|
|Yes||LB||Grünauer Cross||Görlitz Railway||Adlershof and Grünau||Transition to the local transport bypass|
|Yes||WB||Kamenz Dam||Dresden Railway||Attilastraße and Marienfelde|
|Yes||WB||Karow Cross||Szczecin Railway||Blankenburg and Karow||In addition, regional train station and transition to the local transport bypass, associated possible extension of the S75 via Malchow in discussion|
|Yes||LB||Kiefholzstrasse||Ringbahn||Treptower Park and Sonnenallee|
|Yes||LB||Komturstrasse||Ringbahn||Hermannstrasse and Tempelhof||Planning as "Tempelhofer Feld" in a slightly offset position - suspended after the referendum|
|LB||Mahlow North||Dresden Railway||Lichtenrade and Mahlow|
|Yes||LB||New shore||Ringbahn||Beusselstrasse and Jungfernheide|
|Yes||LB||Oderstrasse||Ringbahn||Hermannstrasse and Tempelhof|
|Yes||VB||Schönerlinder Strasse||Berlin outer ring||Blankenburg and Mühlenbeck-Mönchmühle|
|Yes||LB||Schorfheidestrasse||North runway||Wilhelmsruh and Wittenau|
|Yes||WB||Wuhletalstrasse||Wriezener Bahn||Mehrower Allee and Ahrensfelde|
Operations center and transport management
When electronic interlocking technology (ESTW) was commissioned in the Berlin S-Bahn network from 1993, the associated operator stations were set up in the Halensee control room building complex on Halenseestrasse. From 1999, the operations center of the S-Bahn Berlin emerged, by additionally concentrating the S-Bahn operations management and the four dispatchers for the east, west, ring and north / south train lines in one location. In the following - u. a. Driven by the elimination of decentralized signal boxes and platform supervisors - more employees were added to support internal and passenger communication.
This integrated operations center - with the tasks of infrastructure operation ( EIU ) and tasks of the transport company ( EVU ) - was divided up again in preparation for the planned sub-network tenders and non-discriminatory infrastructure access; Since November 1, 2011, the EVU tasks have been carried out by the transport management of S-Bahn Berlin GmbH in the premises of the Schöneweide plant. As a result, the employees in the operations center moved to DB Netz AG on January 1, 2016 .
Today the operations center S-Bahn Berlin consists of the network coordinator, the emergency control center, the four area dispatchers and 21 ESTW operator stations, which are divided into three control areas (Stadtbahn, Nord-Südbahn, Ringbahn). The transport management, on the other hand, is responsible for the traffic, vehicle and personnel disposition as well as the tasks of passenger information. In order to control the entire network of the Berlin S-Bahn by electronic interlocking technology by 2025, the 14 ESTW sub-centers that are already in place will be expanded accordingly, and the number of operator stations in the operations center will then increase to 28.
The former name of this control center was "Zentralstellwerk". This operations center is the only operations center in Germany that is solely responsible for the operation of an S-Bahn.
Train control system
The external signaling took place - in addition to the form signals customary at the time - with the introduction of electrical operation using Sv signals specially developed for the S-Bahn . Later the Hl signals and Ks signals, which are widely used on the railways, were also used. The last Form and Sv signals finally went out of service around the turn of the millennium.
The routes are also provided with mechanical travel blocks. These consist of a fixed route stop and a travel lock device on the vehicles. This system is currently being converted to the specially developed train control system for the S-Bahn Berlin (ZBS). A pilot project started in 2000 between the Treptower Park / Köllnische Heide and Hermannstraße stations. The first line equipment went into operation in autumn 2011 on the Berlin Northern Railway between Schönholz and Frohnau. The equipment of the entire network should be completed by 2025.
Passenger information system
In 2007, the previous Fallblatt train destination displays at the stations of the Ringbahn were replaced by modern, dynamic train destination displays , as they exist in a similar function on the Berlin U-Bahn . In contrast to the subway, whose displays are made up of LED matrices, the S-Bahn is the usual LCD display with white letters on a blue background at Deutsche Bahn . In contrast to the old indicators, the time to the departure of the next train (or the next trains) and the stopping position of the train (for example, whether a short train stops in front or behind) are also shown. The stations of the light rail and the north-south route were also gradually equipped with the new indicators. Since there were sometimes longer transition phases between deactivating the old displays (e.g. after the supervisors had withdrawn ) and installing the new ones, passenger information deteriorated temporarily in some places.
At less frequented stations, Deutsche Bahn initially replaced the fall sheet train destination indicators with simple metal signs with directions. As a result of the criticism of passenger information during the massive train cancellations in summer 2009, more stations should be equipped with dynamic displays than originally planned.
The retrofitting of the passenger information systems was completed at the end of 2013. 135 stations were equipped with a total of 590 LCD displays, 33 less frequented stations with dynamic text displays . Furthermore, all stations were equipped with fully automatic " Voice over IP " sound systems as part of the operations and information system (BIS) of the Berlin S-Bahn. The investment costs amounted to 40 million euros.
Since the start of electric S-Bahn operations, the trains have been manned by drivers and train attendants . All train stations had a supervisor who gave the order to leave the train station. It was not until the mid-1960s that the S-Bahn began to be operated by one person. The driving order was given to the driver via VHF radio. Only a few stations built in the 1980s, such as Wartenberg, did not have their own supervision, but were monitored by cameras from neighboring stations and the trains were dispatched from there.
After several years of trials, the S-Bahn introduced the new dispatching procedure for train dispatch by the train driver (ZAT) in its network in April 2004 . Instead of the traditional way of receiving the departure order from the station supervisor, the train drivers themselves check whether passengers are still getting on and off, warn by shouting "Direction ... - stay back please" and close the doors. Without technical support, the train drivers at the unattended stations have to get out of the driver's cab to check in and look along the train. Since the driver has to walk on curved platform edges until the end of the train can be seen, the transfer of platform images into the driver's cab was developed and tested until March 2014. This was followed by the introduction of the system called ZAT-FM (train handling by the driver using the driver's cab monitor) in the trains and at the stations concerned. The introduction of this procedure was initially delayed, in February 2013 the Federal Railway Authority granted the type approval. A total of 80 of the 166 S-Bahn stations were to be equipped with it. At the other stations, train dispatch takes place without technical support (ZAT-oU; train dispatch by the driver without technical support ). Furthermore, so-called trunk supervisors are to be used at 20 stations, which should serve as a fallback level in the event of failure of the driver's cab monitors. Each master supervisor is assigned a mobile supervisor who, if the master supervisor does not have an image display, takes over the classic handling at the said S-Bahn station.
During the introductory phase, the train drivers recognized the stations concerned by the ZAT sign at the end of each platform. After ZAT was introduced across the board - with a few exceptions - it has been a standard handling procedure since April 3, 2017. The ZAT signs have been omitted and the remaining platforms with clearance by the supervisory authority are marked with two newly introduced signs ( ÖA : local supervision; AuB : clearance support by an employee on the platform). ZAT-FM is currently (as of February 2017) in use at 79 stations, ZAT with mirror support at 67 and ZAT without aids at 19 stations, on another 12, the clearance is carried out by the local supervisor (stations with several platforms were counted several times ).
With the beginning of the Great Electrification in the 1920s, it became necessary to develop vehicles especially suitable for S-Bahn operations. The experience gained from the Berlin-Potsdam suburban train station - Lichterfelde Ost line, which has been in operation since 1903, was incorporated into the new developments. A total of ten series have been developed for the S-Bahn to date (2010).
All series share the design for the European standard gauge of 1435 mm, the use of a separate conductor rail arranged on the side and a car body width of 3000 mm, which is relevant for the transport capacity.
The profile of the vehicles is limited by the clearance profile in the north-south tunnel , which was built with a clearance height of 3.80 m above the top of the rails and a clearance of up to 3.80 m. For the procurement of new vehicles, a boundary profile was specified in 2018, which in the lower area corresponds to the GI2 and G1 profile of the international European railways, but in the upper area follows the maximum dimensions of the 480/481 series, whereby the roof is from 3250 tapered mm. According to this, the maximum vehicle height is 3600 mm above the upper edge of the rail, the maximum vehicle width is 3290 mm.
The vehicles initially had a uniform floor height of 1100 mm, so that level access was possible with a platform height of 1030 mm. With the third ordinance amending the railway building and operating regulations in May 1991, the provisions on platform heights were tightened and standardization aimed at three possible heights. The initial exemption for Berlin was dropped in 1994, so that newer platforms have a height of 960 mm and the cars of the series 481 and following have a floor height of 1000 mm.
The passenger compartments of the Berlin S-Bahn cars are not air-conditioned.
The test trains and the series developed from them (ET / EB 169 - Bernau) had a car division that was no longer followed in later vehicles. The smallest operational unit consisted of two longer railcars and three short trailer cars, which together formed a half-train. With the following series (ET / EB 168 - Oranienburg) , the quarter-train principle, which has been retained in all vehicles from 1925 until today, was introduced. A quarter train (abbreviated quarter ) is the smallest deployable vehicle unit at the Berlin S-Bahn and consists of two cars. The name goes back to the strength of the train, so from the quarter train the half train (two quarters), the three quarters train (three quarters) and the full train (four quarters) emerge.
In regular service, trains can only be formed from vehicles of the same series. In the 481 and 485 series, the smallest possible train formation is the half train . Only the 480 series can be used as a quarter train, as each car has a driver's cab. A longer train formation than the execution (eight cars) is not possible due to the length of the platform, but was occasionally considered.
In the years before the Second World War, six series were developed and used. The first of these series were retired in the 1960s. Many of the vehicles in the other series were still in use after various modifications after the turn of the millennium. It was not until the late 1950s that a new series was developed that did not go beyond test vehicles.
ET / EB 169 series
The series linked to the previously delivered test trains was initially used on the northern routes from Berlin to Bernau and Oranienburg (electrical operation Berlin - Bernau from August 8, 1924). The trains delivered in 1925 had a special car arrangement: They consisted of two long railcars at the end of the train and three short two-axle sidecars in the middle. Even during production, this concept was considered a mistake. 17 units of this type were produced. After modifications and technical adjustments to the ET 165 series, these trains were in service until 1962. Because of the height and length of the railcars, the units of this series could not be used in the north-south tunnel . The converted railcars were used as part donors for the construction of subway trains.
ET / EB 168 series
The 1925 type was produced in the following year for the newly electrified northern routes in the direction of Oranienburg and Velten, from which the later designation Oranienburg type is derived. With it, the quarter train principle was introduced for the first time . A total of 14 wagon factories in the German Reich supplied the 50 quarter trains consisting of multiple units and control cars. Among other things, this was done under the aspect of finding suitable companies for the later large-scale series (ET / ES / EB 165). In the 1930s, the control cars were converted into sidecars. The series was taken out of service in the early 1960s and used as a parts dispenser for the type EIII subway vehicles built in Raw Schöneweide, the old car bodies were scrapped. Only three cars have survived to this day.
ET / ES / EB 165 series
With the so-called “Great Electrification” in the second half of the 1920s, the demand for vehicles increased sharply. The series of types 1927, 1929 and 1930, later designated as the Stadtbahn type , were constructed (designated as ET / ES / EB 165.0-6 since 1942). Six well-known wagon construction companies in the German Reich delivered these trains in several lots between 1927 and 1930, the first two types as motor coaches and control cars, later as motor coaches and trailer cars. With a total of 638 quarter trains, it was the largest series in Germany to be produced in a short time according to uniform principles.
In the years 1932/1933, quarter trains of the types 1932 and 1933 (type Wannsee) , which were called ET / EB 165.8 from 1942 onwards, were put into service for the new Wannseebahn 51 to be electrified .
Trains of the ET / ES / EB 165 series were in regular use until 1997 after various repairs and modernizations. 188 quarter trains were converted into the 276.1 series between 1979 and 1989 ; their service ended in 2000.
ET / EB 125 series
The units of the series with a maximum speed of 120 km / h, known as banker trains , were launched in 1935 (type 1934, four trial quarter trains), 1936 (type 1935a, ten quarter trains) and 1938 (type 1937 I, four Quarter trains), each consisting of multiple units and sidecars. The trains received more powerful traction motors, they were used as a kind of express S-Bahn on the long-distance tracks of the Potsdamer Bahnhof – Zehlendorf (–Wannsee) line, with a top speed of 120 km / h since 1938. These special missions ended shortly before the end of the war and were not resumed afterwards. The Deutsche Reichsbahn then rebuilt all quarter trains around 1950 to 80 km / h and incorporated them into the ET / EB 166 series.
ET / EB 166 series
In the summer of 1936 the Olympic Games took place in Berlin . In the same year, the industry delivered 34 quarter trains consisting of multiple units and sidecars to the Reichsbahn for the expected higher volume of traffic and for the demand on the first section of the north-south S-Bahn, which was opened at the same time. This small series of the 1935 design quickly became known as the Olympia design . Outwardly, this and the 1935a wagons delivered at the same time largely corresponded to the 1934 banker test train. Since 1941, the designation was ET / EB 166. The series, which was greatly decimated by war and post-war events, was converted into the BR from the end of the 1970s 277mod used for many years. The last trains were retired in 2003.
ET / EB 167 series
After the route network was expanded, additional vehicles were required in the second half of the 1930s. 283 quarter trains of this series were planned, which were delivered from 1938 (divided into three construction lots of types 1937 II, 1939 and 1941). Due to the effects of the war, the deliveries dragged on until 1944. After the war, the S-Bahn was able to take over a number of locomotives from the Peenemünde factory railway , which were almost identical in terms of their coachwork . After adapting to the conditions in Berlin, these cars were also added to the ET 167 series. The ET 167 series cars, from 1970 277, were rebuilt and modernized in the following years. The modernization with new bogies and the alignment of the donor vehicles of the original series ET 125 and 166 as well as the Peenemünder railcars was much more profound than with the ET 165. The inclusion of the former Peenemünder railcars also resulted in seven quarter trains with control cars. Trains of this series were in use until 2003. Together with those of the ET 125 and 166 series, they were later referred to as round heads .
ET 170 series
The train of this series was a test train that was presented to the public in 1959. It had various innovations, such as the continuously accessible half-train, a construction that was only taken up again with the Berlin S-Bahn with the 481 series. A half train was the smallest operational unit in this series. Two half trains were built. Since they were afflicted with many technical inadequacies and workmanship defects and with the construction of the Berlin Wall the immediate need for new trains decreased, the first half-train was parked in the mid-1960s, while the second was repainted after the main inspection in the red / yellow S-Bahn -Colors were used sporadically until the end of the 1960s. Both half trains were scrapped by 1974. Due to its blue / white paintwork, this series was popularly known as the Blue Wonder .
The S-Bahn Berlin is currently using vehicles from all three of the last three series in regular service.
In the 1970s, the Deutsche Reichsbahn was forced to replace the very old stock of vehicles with new vehicles. The manufacturer LEW Hennigsdorf then developed a new type of railcar. The prototypes were presented to the public at the Leipzig Spring Fair in 1980 and then tested. The series maturity required numerous changes, the delivery of the series cars therefore only took place in 1987 and 1990–1992. The Deutsche Reichsbahn received a total of 170 quarter trains, which were given the class designation 270. In this series, a quarter train consists of a railcar with a driver's cab with an even and a sidecar with an odd serial number. With the introduction of the common numbering plan, the railcars were classified in the class 485, the sidecars in the 885 with usually identical serial numbers. In 1993, a half train of this series was converted into a duo S-Bahn by installing diesel engines . On May 29, 1994, a test operation with this train was started on the S19 (train group J - Jutta) between Oranienburg and Hennigsdorf . Since this operation did not prove to be economical, it was closed again on May 28, 1995 after one year. In 2003, the S-Bahn Berlin began retiring the class 485. The departure from the class 485 trains was not final, however. On March 5, 2011, the first of 20 reconditioned trains was put back into service.
After the BVG took over the operation of the S-Bahn in West Berlin on January 9, 1984, the procurement of new vehicles was also urgently needed. After four quarter trains were delivered and tested as prototypes in 1986, a further 41 double multiple units (quarter trains) of this type were delivered to the BVG from 1990 onwards. A second delivery took place between 1992 and 1994 with 40 double railcars for the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the Deutsche Bahn AG . A special feature of this series is that there is a driver's cab at both ends of the quarter train.
This series is the first that was ordered by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, founded in 1995. It is the last series delivered so far. From 1996 to 2004 a total of 500 double multiple units (quarter trains) were delivered. A railcar with a driver's cab (481) and a railcar with a shunting driver's cab (482) are connected by a transition. In 2003, three prototypes were ordered on a trial basis, in which four wagons of a half-train are continuously accessible. These trains have a railcar with a driver's cab at each end and two railcars without a driver's cab in between.
Due to the award of operations for the Ring sub -network to S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, the latter concluded a framework agreement with the manufacturing consortium Stadler Pankow and Siemens at the end of 2015 for the delivery of up to 1,380 cars. At the same time, an initial binding order was placed for 106 trains, consisting of 85 four-car and 21 two-car units. The two-part trains (quarter trains) are referred to as the 483 series, the four-part trains (half-trains) as the 484 series. The delivery of the first pre-series vehicles is planned for the end of 2020. From January 2021, the pre-series vehicles are to be tested in regular passenger operation on the S47 line. From July 2022, further vehicles are to follow on the S46 line and in 2023 on the ring railway (lines S41 / S42).
In addition to various work vehicles that are combined under the 478/878 series , the trains intended for special traffic are designated as the 488/888 series. This includes the Panorama-S-Bahn and the historic vehicles.
Work and service vehicles
This vehicle is unique. The train consists of two railcars and a sidecar running in between. It was created by converting modernized ET / EB 167 cars , later the 477/877 series. While the car bodies are largely new, many technical components of the Reko cars have been adopted. This train is not used in normal regular service. The S-Bahn offered city tours with him until 2009, and he could be rented privately. The train is equipped with a modern multimedia system so that the announcements can be followed in multiple languages via headphones. Since the windows extend into the roof of this car for a better field of vision, it is known as a panorama train (previously the Panorama S-Bahn).
The S-Bahn has three historic trains intended for special trips, which are parked in the Erkner railcar hall and are operated by the Association for the Historic S-Bahn e. V. are looked after and looked after:
- Museum train of the series ET / ES 165 (light rail) in the delivery condition from 1928. This quarter train consists of a railcar and a control car. It was manufactured in 1928 and was in regular use from 1929 to 1984, most recently as the 275 659/660. It has been available as a historic vehicle since May 31, 1987 and bears the car numbers (ET / ES) 2303/5447. It has largely been restored to its original condition - with upholstered seats of the former second carriage class - and offers space for 112 passengers. Since it was initially based in the Twh Bernau, it is also called "Bernauer Viertel". Later it was transferred to the Twh Erkner, and from there it was also used with the traditional quarter trains in train formation.
- Traditional train of the ET / ES / EB 165 series as it was in the 1950s / 1960s. This train was completed in 1990, initially consisting of three quarter trains of the Stadtbahn type built in 1928/1929 (3662/6121, ET / EB 165 471, ET / ES 165 231). They show an exterior condition of the 1930s and 1950s, while their interior furnishings reflect the 1950s and 1960s. The train was based in the Friedrichsfelde depot, and it was used for traditional public journeys once a month. In 1997 it was supplemented with a quarter train of the Wannseebahn design from 1933 (ET) and 1932 (EB) in the state of the 1970s, and after the demise of the Stadtbahn type , two more quarter trains , modernized by the BVG, were added, which up to belonged to the historical rolling stock during the deadline or still belong to the present day; the quarter train 475/875 605 was refurbished in its last condition in 2005.
- One quarter train each from the ET / EB 167 series as it was in the 1930s and one in the 1960s. These vehicles were built in 1938 and 1939. They were not converted into the 277mod series and were used in normal regular service until 1991. Since February 2, 2002, they have been in the inventory of historic vehicles owned by the Historic S-Bahn Association. V. and bear the numbers 3839/6401 and ET / EB 167 072.
In addition, further quarter trains or single wagons of almost all series - except for the 166 and 170 - have been preserved. These are also part of the club's custody and are kept in the Twh Erkner - most of them can be exhibited.
In the 1990s, special trips were carried out with the traditional train every month, after that, together with the other vehicles, until 2009 only on special occasions (e.g. anniversaries and new openings of S-Bahn lines), as Christmas, New Year's and Easter trains and for used for some public and rented special trips.
After a historic train derailed on June 14, 2008 in the north-south tunnel, the light rail quarter trains were initially shut down to eliminate the causes, but this did not materialize after the outbreak of the crisis, and a few years later the 167 train was also shut down after the deadline. Since then, journeys on the route network are no longer possible. The association is currently working on restarting the 167 quarter trains, and in the long term the reconditioning of the city tram quarter trains is also planned depending on the availability of the necessary resources and capacities.
Special vehicle use
In the summer of 2002, during renovation work to connect the new S-Bahn platform in the main station, regional trains with x-cars replaced the S-Bahn on the long-distance tracks between Friedrichstrasse and Zoologischer Garten for around 14 days . Rental vehicles from Düsseldorf and Nuremberg were used , commuting between Berlin Ostbahnhof and Berlin-Spandau (and some of them to Nauen ).
The main station and the north-south tunnel were opened for the soccer World Cup in summer 2006 . During this time, an alternating current S-Bahn operated on the route Gesundbrunnen - Hauptbahnhof (low) - Potsdamer Platz - Südkreuz on the north-south long-distance line . Since this line roughly corresponded to the planned line S21 , it was given this number. Rental vehicles from the 423 series from the Munich , Stuttgart and Frankfurt am Main S-Bahn systems were used . Even during the operational restrictions of the S-Bahn in the summer of 2009, 423 trains ran as a replacement on the Südkreuz - Gesundbrunnen long-distance railway line, sometimes on to Hennigsdorf.
At that time, a wide variety of rental sets were used on the Stadtbahn . In addition to the 423 multiple units already mentioned above, there were double-decker cars of the type DBpza with high entrances from the Schleswig-Holstein area and DBpza with low entrances and DBuza. Trains with n- , x- and y-cars were also used.
The route between Gesundbrunnen and Hennigsdorf was served by S-Bahn trains consisting of x-cars from the North Rhine-Westphalia area. A special feature was the train, which consisted of type Bxf 796 cars - “Night Express Plus” cars. There was also a train made up of Bimz wagons from the DB Regio Nordost .
The vehicles of the Berlin S-Bahn have a distinctive color scheme that is typical of Berlin. They are painted in the so-called "traditional colors", bordeaux red in the lower part and ocher in the upper part of the car. After a few attempts with other colors, all trains are now provided with these colors. This color scheme was introduced on June 11, 1928 with the use of the first series vehicles of the ET / ES / EB 165 series on the S-Bahn. First the third class was painted in wine red below the window parapet, later in purple red (RAL 3004) and above in green brown or light rail yellow (RAL 8000), the second class in the window area in light blue green (RAL 6004).
The cars of the first post-war series ET 170 were delivered in 1959 in the colors blue / white . These colors found little approval among the Berlin population. In preparation for the 750th anniversary of Berlin in 1987, new colors were introduced for all means of transport in East Berlin. All vehicles used in local public transport were to be given a very light, almost white-gray color as a uniform basic color; as a contrast, the front ends of the car and the doors were to be given a color code specific to the means of transport. While this principle was applied to subway cars and buses, the results of trial painting on tram and S-Bahn cars were unsatisfactory because of the car body shapes and door arrangements. For the vehicles of both modes of transport, horizontal color separating edges were again provided. For the S-Bahn, the colors burgundy / ivory were defined in only a slightly modified form based on the model of the 270 series prototype cars. An additional ivory stripe was new over the long beams. As a result, the old trains were repainted in these colors. The new vehicles of the DR (series 270/870, today 485/885) were delivered in the 1980s partly in this color scheme, partly in the colors carmine red / anthracite , which earned the vehicles the nickname Coke can . After a few attempts in 2002, these trains have been repainted since 2007 to adapt to the traditional color scheme.
With the takeover of the S-Bahn by the BVG in West Berlin, there were considerations for a new color scheme. A prototype of the 480 series was delivered in crystal blue. This color just failed to gain acceptance among the population.
There were again attempts with a new color scheme with the introduction of the 481/482 series . Initially, a completely new color scheme in blue / anthracite was tested. A paint job in the Berlin and Brandenburg state colors red and white was also under discussion. After all, the trains of this series were delivered in a style based on the classic color scheme with almost completely ocher yellow side walls, only parts of the front and the car edges were red. This color variant was finally replaced by a paint with a lower part in red and an upper part in ocher.
With the procurement of the 483/484 series from 2018, the color scheme was revised. The colors now used are NCS S 2010-Y10R (mustard yellow) and NCS S 1580-R (red), the entrance doors are raised deep black ( RAL 9005) for better visibility and the drive parts are basalt gray (RAL 7012). The color separating edge is now lower, the black separating line under the windows and the red decorative stripe above the windows have been removed. This color scheme is also used in the modernization of the 481/482 series.
In 1992 the Deutsche Bundesbahn and the Reichsbahn agreed on a common numbering scheme. After that, the first digit 4 stands for electric multiple units and the digit 8 for control, side and intermediate cars for electric multiple units. By separating the motor coaches, side cars and control cars into their own master number groups, the serial numbers also changed again. The master number blocks 48x and 88x have been reserved for the S-Bahn Berlin . The cars currently in use are classified in the 480 , 481/482 and 485/885 series.
Depot / main workshop
The S-Bahn Berlin currently has a main workshop and three depots. All general inspections and repairs to the vehicle fleet are carried out here. A railcar hangar is maintained in Oranienburg and Erkner for small repairs.
Main workshop in Berlin-Schöneweide
With the great electrification in the 1920s, there was a need to build a repair shop for the locomotives. The construction of the Reichsbahn repair shop Berlin-Schöneweide (Raw Sw) began in August 1926. The official opening was on October 15, 1927. The first Stadtbahn wagons were delivered at the end of December 1927 and were given their electrical equipment here from January 1928. In the first expansion stage, the plant was designed for a vehicle fleet of 1040 cars. In the years 1930/1931 two more halls were added, with which the capacity for the planned 1,600 cars was reached. Another expansion took place in 1937.
After 1945, trains of all series of the S-Bahn were serviced in Schöneweide. In 1954, the modernization and conversion of all series began. Since the BVG (Ost) did not have its own workshops for the maintenance and repair of the underground trains and trams, this work also had to be carried out here. In the years from 1962 to 1990, S-Bahn trains of the series 169 were built into series EIII underground cars . The vehicles of the Oberweißbacher Bergbahn and the Buckower Kleinbahn were also based here. Due to these external orders, only 40 percent of the capacity of the plant was provided for the S-Bahn.
Since September 1991, the S-Bahn trains of the BVG have also been serviced in Schöneweide (in former West Berlin it still had the operating rights). At the end of 1992 the last tram vehicles got their main inspection here. The maintenance of subway vehicles ended in 1993. Since then, the main workshop has been working exclusively for the S-Bahn again.
A closure of the main workshop planned for 2010 has been suspended by the new management in connection with the S-Bahn chaos of 2009. At the end of 2009 it was announced that the main workshop would be guaranteed to run until 2017.
The depot (Bw Frf) was opened on May 1, 1903. It consists of a 160 meter long railcar hall, a crane hall and an administration building. The entire system is located between the S-Bahn line between the Berlin-Lichtenberg station and the Berlin-Friedrichsfelde Ost station . As part of the conversion to electrical operation, it was converted for the S-Bahn and used by it since May 15, 1928. The railcar hall in Oranienburg was assigned to him as a branch.
It was closed on May 28, 2006, but the Bw was reopened on January 11, 2010 due to a lack of capacity in connection with the S-Bahn chaos of 2009/2010 . Since then the operational maintenance of 25 to 30 quarter trains has been carried out there again. The facilities are currently being modernized, with the buildings, track systems and traction power supply being renewed. In addition to the previous western connection from Lichtenberg train station, a new eastern connection to the depot will be established. At the end of 2015, the construction of a 160-meter-long outdoor cleaning system began. The renovation of the crane hall was completed in November 2015, followed by the renovation of the railcar hall. A total of 25 million euros should be invested. In addition, a new train formation and storage facility was built south of the workshop tracks. The plant is the maintenance location for 184 quarter trains on the S3, S5 and S75 lines.
The outdoor cleaning system went into operation at the end of 2016. It is located at the eastern end of the Bw site north of the pull-out track and has around 5000 washes per year. A full-length building was erected for the facility. This makes it possible to defrost trains in winter and thus accelerate the subsequent maintenance. The planned construction costs were 5.5 million euros.
According to more recent information, 6.5 million euros were invested in the external cleaning system, 7.9 million euros in the renovation of the outside tracks and 8.8 million euros in the crane and railcar hangar. The new train formation facility was built by DB Netz in 2017/2018, for which 14 million euros are being invested.
The Royal Railway Directorate in Berlin acquired an area southeast of the Grünau station in order to build a depot here (Bw Ga). It was opened on April 1, 1910. When it opened, it had 150 employees. On May 1, 1910, the first trains were used from this depot. In the first few years the plant was responsible for steam locomotives and wagons. Separate systems were built for both types of vehicle. In 1916 there was an expansion. From April to December of 1927 the depot for electric S-Bahn trains was rebuilt, and these trains have been serviced there since November 6, 1928. With the takeover of electrical operations, the depot was responsible for the following train routes:
- Grünau - Südring - Stadtbahn - Lichtenberg
- Grünau - Stadtbahn - Spandau West
- Grünau - Nordring - Gartenfeld (only peak hours)
The connection to Spandau West became a traditional train route in the following years, which was maintained after 1945 until the wall was built. In the 1980s, 51 trains per day were used by this depot
- Zeuthen - Ostring - Bernau
- Königs Wusterhausen - Stadtbahn - Friedrichstrasse - Stadtbahn - Erkner - Stadtbahn - Friedrichstrasse
- Berlin-Schönefeld Airport - Stadtbahn - Friedrichstrasse
- Spindlersfeld - Ostring - Blankenburg
provided. This is where the first four quarter trains of the new 270 series (today: 485) were located.
The construction of an external cleaning system - similar to the one in Friedrichsfelde - is planned for 2019.
With the opening of electrical operations on the Wannseebahn, the great electrification was completed. Another depot (S-Bw Ws) was required for the increased vehicle fleet. On May 15, 1933, at the same time as the Wannsee Railway in southwest Berlin, the Wannsee depot was opened as the most modern at the time.
After the construction of the Berlin Wall , the Wannsee depot was the only one in West Berlin alongside the Papestrasse depot . (The Nordbahnhof depot was responsible for western routes, but was in East Berlin .) From 1980 to 1990 it was the last remaining on West Berlin territory. In the first few years after the BVG took over the S-Bahn, all trains had to be serviced here.
Erkner railcar hangar
The Erkner railcar hangar was opened in 1928 (Twh Erk). From an administrative point of view, it was considered to be the operational site of the Berlin-Grünau depot. With the introduction of new BR 481 vehicles, a lower maintenance requirement was expected and this railcar hangar was closed in 2000. Since then, it has been run by the Association of Historic S-Bahn e. V. used. This is where the historic trains are based, and maintenance work is also carried out on them. In January 2010 the hall was reopened for the line vehicles due to a lack of capacity in connection with the train cancellations in 2009/2010. Organizationally, it has been part of the Friedrichsfelde plant since December 2011. The Historische S-Bahn e. V. and S-Bahn Berlin GmbH jointly in the facility. Since the reopening, the infrastructure has been modernized (social rooms, workshop, gates, lighting, sewage, power supply).
Oranienburg railcar hangar
At the train station Oranienburg , north of Berlin, a railcar hall will entertain (Twh Or). It was opened in 1925 in connection with the second northern line. It was the location of the Duo-S-Bahn (S19), which operated for about a year .
With the renewal of the vehicle fleet in the 1990s, reduced maintenance was expected. Therefore, the Papestrasse (today: Südkreuz) and Friedrichsfelde depots and the Erkner railcar hangar were closed. Due to the events in 2009/2010 and the increased need for maintenance capacities, the Friedrichsfelde depot and the Erkner railcar hangar were reopened at the beginning of 2010.
- Depot Stettiner Bahnhof (from 1950 Nordbahnhof ; Stb, Nob): A depot was opened on January 1st, 1927 on the site of the former Szczecin suburban train station . After the three northern routes from the Szczecin railway station to Bernau , Oranienburg and Velten had started operating in 1927 , it was necessary to set up a depot. After the wall was built, the depot was in East Berlin , but could be reached via the North-South S-Bahn, which is part of the West Berlin network, in order to operate these routes with East Berlin personnel. It was used until January 8, 1984 (close of business). Today the area is almost completely covered with office buildings belonging to Deutsche Bahn.
- Papestrasse (Par) depot : In connection with the "Great Electrification" in the 1920s, the Ringbahn had to have its own depot, which was opened on November 1, 1928. The high-rise buildings designed by Richard Brademann consisted of a five-track railcar hall, a two-track side hall and an administration and social building. In connection with the plans for the " World Capital Germania " of the " Third Reich ", it was to be shut down. New halls were built on Oderstrasse in Neukölln for a new depot. However, due to the discontinuation of the Westend depot due to war damage, the Papestrasse depot could not be dispensed with. From here the following routes were mainly served: the Ringbahn and the Siemensbahn (Jungfernheide – Gartenfeld). As a result of the second Berlin S-Bahn strike in 1980, there were considerable line closures in the former West Berlin. The depot was shut down by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in September 1980. After the takeover of the S-Bahn by BVG in West Berlin in 1984 and the reconstruction of routes, it was needed again. In January 1987 the BVG was reactivated as a workshop, which carried out interim inspections on the vehicles of the BR 275. The final closure took place on March 31, 1992. The Tempelhof train formation facility is currently being built on the site . The car halls and the administration and social building were demolished in 2009 and the area cleared. The first construction phase was put into operation on November 19, 2012; the completion of the construction work is planned for 2016.
- Westend depot (Wes): In 1929, the Westend depot was opened at Westend station on the site of a previous steam locomotive depot. It was badly damaged in World War II in 1944 and its operation was severely restricted until 1947. A complete restoration was not carried out, the tasks were taken over by the Bw Papestrasse. Since then, the site has been used as a parking and sweeping facility.
- Railcar hall in Bernau (Brn): The facility, which opened in 1924, was built to accommodate and maintain the very first electric trains delivered and was later used by the Berlin-Grünau depot . It was closed on October 31, 2001 and is still there.
- Hundekehle railcar shed : This workshop, located in the Grunewald district , has been used for the steam operation of the Stadtbahn since the turn of the 20th century and was used for the electric S-Bahn from 1929 to September 1980. Hundekehle was an independent railway depot until the 1950s. The BVG partially reopened the hall as a storage hall from 1984, and train drivers were trained in the former administration building. It is still there.
- Railcar hall Velten (Vlt): From 1927 to 1983 the railcar hall was used for the electric direct current S-Bahn. Since the island operation between Velten and Hennigsdorf was discontinued after the construction of the Wall in1983, it is no longer needed and is now used by Stadler Rail after it was used to park various special vehicles (including the "Velten traditional train").
- Yorckstrasse (Yor) railcar shed: In 1905, a double-track storage hall for the electric trains on the Potsdamer Bahnhof - Groß Lichterfelde Ost line was built. When the line voltage was changed from 550 to 800 volts in 1929 and the old railcars were taken out of service, Stadtbahn-type trains were located here. A year later the hall became a branch of the S-Bw Papestrasse; now only trains were parked but no longer serviced. With the completion of the north-south S-Bahn in 1939, there were continuous trains running in the direction of Bernau / Velten. The trains were now serviced by the S-Bw Stettiner Bahnhof, the hall was closed.
Since the S-Bahn opened in 1924, there have been a number of accidents, less often due to technical defects, but more often due to human error. Some accidents had particular effects on further operations or resulted in fatalities. A small selection:
- On December 15, 1945 there was a collision between an S-Bahn and a local freight train on the single-track Schöneweide – Spindlersfeld branch . There were four dead and one seriously injured. The cause was human error on the part of the dispatcher in charge, who forgot the local goods train coming from Spindlersfeld and allowed an S-Bahn ride to Spindlersfeld when there was no block.
- On August 15, 1948, in the north-south S-Bahn tunnel, a train coming from Oranienburger Strasse ran into a train standing in the curve of the Spree underpass. 63 people were injured. The reason given was that the railcar staff had failed to take the necessary care when “driving on sight” by driving into the bend that was not visible at around 20 km / h. Both should initially be released without notice, but were acquitted by a court and remained on duty.
- In the late afternoon of December 18, 1979, on the northern Berlin outer ring between Mühlenbeck and Karower Kreuz, an S-Bahn train ran into a freight train that was just arriving. The driver was killed in the accident, 20 passengers were injured, five of them seriously.
- In 1987 there were several derailments of BVG S-Bahn trains in the north-south S-Bahn tunnel. After a train had derailed with the first bogie in front of and behind the Friedrichstrasse platform, a major incident occurred in March 1987 when a train traveling north derailed in the tight left curve of the Spree underpass. The BVG railcar 275 227 slid around 50 meters along the tunnel wall, causing considerable damage to the cables and the car itself. There was no personal injury.
- On October 20, 1987, another train with the penultimate bogie of the train derailed in the tight right-hand bend in front of what was then Unter den Linden station (today: Brandenburger Tor station ). The last derailed car (275 319) went out of profile and rammed the Unter den Linden platform, whereby a three-meter-long piece broke out of the edge and a signal on the wall was torn off. On November 2, 1987, the last car derailed at exactly the same place (275 435). This also got out of profile and rammed the platform edge again. Both accidents caused considerable property damage, but no personal injury. The cause of the six derailments was found to be:
- While the BVG began to profile its wheel profiles according to the current UIC standard, the track systems of the Deutsche Reichsbahn (DR) in the north-south S-Bahn tunnel did not meet the current requirements, which apparently led to compatibility problems (rail inclination DR 1:20, UIC 1:40).
- After the handover of the West Berlin S-Bahn to the BVG, the DR had completely removed the protective rails that had been in place until then (which also serve to protect against derailment) in the tight curves .
- The Deutsche Reichsbahn had dismantled all curve lubrication devices on the curved tracks, which greatly increased the tendency for the wheel rims to climb. The derailments had to come about in connection with the other two points. As a consequence, the DR installed the lubricators again and imposed a speed reduction from 50 to 40 km / h. The BVG marked all quarter trains that already had the new UIC profile with a yellow line under the company number. These cars were barred from driving through the tunnel.
- Rear-end collisions occurred on October 21, 2001 at Ostkreuz and on May 13, 2002 at Hackescher Markt station, which gave rise to the introduction of speed monitoring. Two class 485 trains collided at Ostkreuz late on Sunday evening when the approaching train could no longer be stopped in time after an emergency brake. The driver stated that he initiated the required speed reduction before the stop signal, but no evidence could be found to support the claim of the slip. Instead, the court assumed inattention shortly before the end of the shift, so that the previous signal was ignored. Twelve people were injured and there was 190,000 euros in property damage. At Hackescher Markt station, too, experts could not find any problems with the braking system of the series 481 involved, which could explain the excessive speed at the entrance to the occupied platform platform. 13 people were injured here, again mainly from broken windows. In both cases, a fine was imposed on the drivers who no longer drive trains.
- On August 10, 2004, a class 480 S-Bahn car caught fire in the underground Anhalter Bahnhof . The cause was a wiring fault in the braking resistor fan. The station suffered severe damage, had to be closed and renovated for several months, there were no fatalities. The cost of the renovation was given as a total of 5.5 million euros. As a result of this accident, it was decided to equip all underground stations with just one exit with another , similar to the Berlin subway . However, this explicitly only applies to the Oranienburger Straße and Anhalter Bahnhof stations, the latter being given a further southern exit towards Tempodrom .
- On 20 November 2006, an S-Bahn train left at 10:25 the line S25 towards Hennigsdorf in Südkreuz to an occupied track and collided with a working train . As a result of the impact, passengers were thrown through the car, injuring 33 of the approximately 100 passengers, two of them seriously. The work train, a track measuring train, had traveled the route beforehand and covered the rails with a film of water. This film resulted in the following S-Bahn train of the class 481 sliding out of the area when braking in the station area and crashing into the work train. As a consequence of this accident it was ordered that the vehicles of the Berlin S-Bahn have to enter the stations more slowly. As a later consequence of the accident, the maximum permissible speed of all trains of the 481 series was reduced to 80 km / h in February 2008. Only after the wheel slide protection has been converted should higher speeds be used again.
- On May 1, 2009, a class 481 S-Bahn derailed in Kaulsdorf due to a broken wheel disk. According to information provided by S-Bahn employees, the scheduled main inspection of the derailed train had been postponed by two years. As a consequence, this accident led to the later chaos in 2009, as the inspection intervals were shortened and therefore only 165 of 552 required quarter trains were available at times. Ultimately, all axles had to be replaced because they were generally not considered to meet the requirements.
- On August 21, 2012, when crossing a switch in the northern exit of Tegel station, an S-Bahn line S25 going in the direction of Hennigsdorf derailed . Five passengers were injured in the accident, the driver suffered a shock and also had to receive medical attention.
The employee newspaper Paula 7 has been published by the S-Bahn Berlin since 1999 . It appears monthly.
The S-Bahn Berlin and DB Regio Berlin / Brandenburg publish the customer magazine Punkt 3 every two weeks . It appears in a minimum print run of 150,000 copies and is available free of charge at S-Bahn stations and service points. This newspaper is also made available on the Internet as a PDF.
The S-Bahn building information leaflet is published weekly in A5 format. It informs the passenger about the current construction work in the network and the resulting changes to the timetable. It is also available at the train stations and is available on the Internet.
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