The Munich subway is next to the S-Bahn is the most important means of transport of the public transport in the Bavarian state capital Munich . Since the opening of the first line on October 19, 1971, a network with a length of 103.1 km and 96 stops has been built, to which the neighboring town of Garching near Munich is also connected.
The Munich subway network has a total length of 103.1 km with a total of 100 subway stations , intersection stations with several levels counted twice. The maximum route speed in the entire network is 80 km / h. In contrast to other networks, there is no continuous night-time operation, except for the night from New Year's Eve to New Year's and the days of Carnival ; The company is closed from around 1 a.m. to 4 a.m., on the nights from Friday to Saturday and from Saturday to Sunday from around 2 a.m. to 4 a.m.
With the exception of lines U5 and U6 , all lines run entirely in tunnels. The U5 line comes to the surface shortly before the southern end of the line in Neuperlach Süd, the U6 in the northern section between Studentenstadt and Garching-Hochbrück and a short stretch between Garching and Garching-Forschungszentrum . On all lines the trains usually run every 10 minutes, at rush hour also every 5 minutes, but sometimes not on the entire route. At the start of operations and in late traffic after midnight, the trains usually only run every 20 minutes or less. With the exception of early and late traffic, most lines run with long trains (6-car trains), only the U4 line and the U7 amplifier line between Neuperlach center and the Olympia shopping center are mostly served by short trains (4-car trains).
There are three main routes through the city center, each of which has two lines. The timetables are coordinated on the common sections of the lines in such a way that the overlapping clocks usually result in a regular train sequence. The oldest main route is used by the U3 and U6 lines (section Münchner Freiheit to Implerstraße), the color of the stop signs is blue. The U1 and U2 run between the main station and Columbusplatz on the second trunk line with a red line . The most recently built main line, main line 3 , is used by the U4 and U5 between Westendstraße and Max-Weber-Platz and is marked with a yellow line strip. Most of the other stations of the respective line families are also provided with this identification color on the station walls. There are deviations due to changes in the route concept. When it was opened up to 1980, the line tape was given the color of the line that ran there when the corresponding underground station opened. With the opening of the route of the U1 to Rotkreuzplatz, the concept was changed and the line groups of the main routes were formed. The underground stations should now have a line strip with the color code of the corresponding line group. With the extension of the U2 line to Messestadt, the U2 and U5 lines were swapped for the originally planned line groups from Innsbrucker Ring station. The southern stations on the line to Neuperlach Süd, with the exception of the Neuperlach Süd terminus, still have a red line band, although they are now served by a yellow line. Since the opening of the Georg-Brauchle-Ring station in 2003, the identification colors have only been used at individual stations, and they have disappeared at some older stations due to the replacement of the station signs.
The numbering of the lines was not done in the order in which they opened, rather the numbers of the respective tram lines were originally taken over. The U6 line, which was opened first, took its name from tram line 6, which crossed the city from north to south on a route with a similar catchment area. In order to avoid gaps, however, from 1988 onwards the U8 was renumbered into U2 and the line designated as U9 (replacement for tram lines 9, 19, 29) in U4 until it was commissioned.
MVG operates eight underground lines, two of which are only intermittent repeater lines (signs with a two-tone background). The table below shows the average distance between stops for the line in question. The bracketed value refers to the section of the U6 line in the Munich city area.
|Olympia shopping center - Georg-Brauchle-Ring - Westfriedhof - Gern - Rotkreuzplatz - Maillingerstraße - Stiglmaierplatz - Central Station - Sendlinger Tor - Fraunhoferstraße - Columbusplatz - Candidplatz - Wettersteinplatz - St.-Quirin-Platz - Mangfallplatz|
The U1 began in 2004 at the Olympia shopping center in the Moosach district , where the U3 also has a stop under the U1 station. There is also an underground "bike-and-ride" parking garage, which is unique in Munich, i.e. a bicycle parking garage directly in the subway station.
On the way to West Cemetery follows the U1 Hanauerstraße , at the intersection of Georg-Brauchle-Ring is the opened in 2003 and the artist Franz Ackermann designed same station . The Westfriedhof train station is also a popular photo opportunity for advertising agencies because of the lighting designed by Ingo Maurer . The U1 continues via Gern , where the history of the district can be read on large glass surfaces in the back track wall, to Rotkreuzplatz , which was the northern end of the U1 between 1983 and 1998. Under Nymphenburger Strasse, the line now runs over Maillingerstrasse to Stiglmaierplatz , before finally flowing into the common inner-city trunk line at the four-track main station with the U2.
On the busy inner-city section, U1 and U2 run offset against each other in such a way that they run every 3–7 minutes. From Monday to Friday, compressor trains at certain times of the day result in a more even cycle. At the main station they also cross under the main S-Bahn line and the U4 and U5. Right at the next station, Sendlinger Tor , the U1 crosses under the tracks of the U3 and U6 in a station with two single tubes that are widely spaced apart and connected by a cross platform.
Because of its proximity to the Isar, the next station, Fraunhoferstraße , was excavated using shield driving in two individual tubes, which, however, are connected in the station area. For this reason, the station is characterized by thick columns. The following station, Columbusplatz, is designed as a three-track branching station, here the lines from U1 and U2 now separate again.
The U1 line, opened in 1997, turns south here, crosses the colorfully designed Candidplatz station and finally reaches Wettersteinplatz . The following St.-Quirin-Platz station is architecturally unique and just as unusual for the Munich subway, as it is opened to the side with a large "eye" and a shell-shaped glass roof structure arches over it. It is the only train station to have two elevators right next to each other, as there is a facility for disabled people nearby, which justifies this unusual measure. Originally only an elevator was planned here, the recess for this can be seen on the ceiling of the platform level.
Finally, under Naupliastraße, there is the Mangfallplatz terminus , which is followed by a large underground park-and-ride facility. A tram line was originally planned here from Wettersteinplatz, but the underground was favored.
Plans to extend the U1 in the south to the Harlaching hospital or even to Großhesseloher Brücke have been postponed for reasons of cost and because of dubious traffic benefits. Originally the tram line 25 was to be replaced here, as the tram was to be completely replaced by the subway by the mid-1980s. An extension in the north towards Fasanerie is also not expected in the medium term.
|Feldmoching - Hasenbergl - Dülferstraße - Harthof - Am Hart - Frankfurter Ring - Milbertshofen - Scheidplatz - Hohenzollernplatz - Josephsplatz - Theresienstraße - Königsplatz - Central Station - Sendlinger Tor - Fraunhoferstraße - Columbusplatz - Silberhornstraße - Untersbergstraße - Giesing - Karl-Preis-Platz - Innsbrucker Ring - Josephsburg - Kreillerstraße - Trudering - Moosfeld - Messestadt West - Messestadt East|
The U2 is likely to be the line with the most frequently changed line ends. It also changed its name, since it was initially referred to as the U8 line. It is the only line (U2 and U8 history taken together) that runs or has run on all three line families (U1 / 2, U3 / 6, U4 / 5). Today the U2 has an operating length of approx. 24.4 km.
Today the U2 starts in the north under the S-Bahn station Feldmoching , where there is a connection to the S-Bahn line S1 to Freising and the airport and - at times - also to the regional train service to Landshut. After Milbertshofen station , the U2 meets the U3 at the four-track Scheidplatz station , where a direct change is possible on the same platform, the connection is usually awaited. Until the opening of the route to Dülferstraße in 1993, the U2 ran from Scheidplatz like the U3 to the Olympiazentrum . Finally, through Schwabing and Maxvorstadt , you continue towards the city center through the train stations at Hohenzollernplatz , Josephsplatz , Theresienstraße and Königsplatz .
At the main station , the U2 now meets the common trunk route with the U1 through the city center to Columbusplatz , for more information see U1 . From Columbusplatz, the U2 leads via Silberhornstraße and Untersbergstraße to Giesing station , where you can change to the S3 and S7 on the surface. Via Karl-Preis-Platz , the U2 continues to Innsbrucker Ring , where - as at Scheidplatz - there is usually a direct connection to the same platform to a crossing line, here to the U5. Until the opening of the branch to the trade fair city in 1999, the U2 ran here as well as the U5 to Neuperlach Süd. Now it crosses the districts of Berg am Laim and Trudering, where there is another connection with the S-Bahn at Trudering station .
After the Moosfeld train station , the two train stations Messestadt West and Messestadt Ost follow . Immediately adjacent to the underground stations is the exhibition center to the north and a new building area to the south, the Riem Arcaden shopping center and the areas of the Riemer Park , where the Federal Garden Show took place in 2005 .
The construction of the U3 line was accelerated drastically after the 1972 Summer Olympics were awarded to Munich on April 26, 1966 . The route network plan, which had only been approved a year earlier, was changed and the U3 was planned as a feeder to the Olympic site, since the original route via the main station could not be implemented in the short time. In addition, operation without a connection to the technical base in Fröttmaning was assessed as too risky. The U3 has a route length of 19 km.
In the north, the U3 started at Moosach station on December 11, 2010 . Before that, it started at the Olympia shopping center station , where the U1 begins. Via the Oberwiesenfeld train station , which opens up the northern part of the Olympic Park, the four-track Olympiazentrum train station is reached, where the U3 had its northern end point from 1972 to 2007. The current train station Olympiazentrum should actually have already been called Oberwiesenfeld , which is why there was one Olympiazentrum (Oberwiesenfeld) in the line until it was renewed in 2014 . In order to preserve the original name of the district in the cityscape , the new station, provisionally named Olympiapark Nord , is called north of the station Olympiazentrum Oberwiesenfeld .
Via the Petuelring train station , Scheidplatz is reached, where you can find a connection to the U2 on the same platform opposite. The Münchner Freiheit station is finally reached via Bonner Platz , where the line joins the common U3 / U6 trunk line. Via Giselastraße and Universität , the U3 meets the crossing lines U4 and U5 at Odeonsplatz , which are crossed there. This transfer option was not originally intended, so the southern end of the station had to be extensively rebuilt. The paths between the two main routes are therefore not laid out in the generosity that Munich is used to. This shortcoming is all the more apparent since this section is the most heavily used in the entire underground network.
At Marienplatz station, designed by Alexander von Branca , the S-Bahn lines S1 – S8 are crossed, and this is where congestion is common, especially in professional and stadium traffic. The station is the busiest in the entire subway network, which is why, after the decision to build a new football stadium in Fröttmaning, it was decided to provide additional pedestrian tunnels to ease the burden.
At the Sendlinger Tor , the lines U1 and U2 cross, the course of which is crossed. The Goetheplatz station , which was also built before 1941, is reached via the Lindwurm tunnel , which was built 35 years earlier . In this tunnel section, the bulges in the wall for the originally intended overhead line masts as well as the markings on the walls as an air raid shelter in World War II can still be seen. The following Poccistraße station (near the former suburban train station Munich South ) was subsequently installed between the existing and operating tunnels and opened on May 28, 1978, almost three years after the rest of the route. The U3 and U6 lines separate again at the Implerstraße train station, and there is also a single-track junction in the opposite direction to the Theresienwiese plant, via which the U4 / U5 route can be reached.
From the three-track branch station Implerstraße , the U3 leads almost exactly south. The next station, Brudermühlstraße , was built together with the Brudermühl tunnel of the Middle Ring above , which is why it is relatively deep in the groundwater. An old millstone on the mezzanine level reminds of the tradition of the street. In the following Thalkirchen train station (zoo) , animal motifs are reminiscent of the back track walls designed by Ricarda Dietz of the nearby Hellabrunn zoo .
From Thalkirchen, the line first runs in a westerly direction via the Obersendling stations (with a connection to the Siemenswerke S-Bahn and regional train stadiums), Aidenbachstrasse , Machtlfinger Strasse , Forstenrieder Allee to the Basler Strasse station . Fürstenried West terminus is already right on the city limits, but a further extension to Neuried is conceivable.
|Westendstraße - Heimeranplatz - Schwanthalerhöhe - Theresienwiese - Central Station - Karlsplatz (Stachus) - Odeonsplatz - Lehel - Max-Weber-Platz - Prinzregentenplatz - Böhmerwaldplatz - Richard-Strauss-Straße - Arabellapark|
At 9.247 km, the U4 is the shortest Munich underground line with only 13 stations. It was originally planned as the U9 and until the timetable change in 2006 it was the only line that usually ran only with short trains (4-car trains). Exceptions are Friday afternoons and the time of the Oktoberfest , since the timetable change on December 10, 2006, the U4 has been running daily during the week holidays during rush hour with long trains with six cars, but only every ten minutes instead of the previous five.
In the west (in operational terms in the north, although the southern end of the U4 is the only Munich line to be further north than the operational northern end) the U4 begins on Westendstrasse , where the U5 also runs. Initially, the U4 ran like the U5 to Laimer Platz , but was then withdrawn by two stations due to insufficient capacity. The U4 and U5 are the only pair of lines that split the common trunk line into two lines at only one end.
At Heimeranplatz there is a connection to the S-Bahn lines S7 and S20. The following station, Schwanthalerhöhe, was called the exhibition grounds until 1998 (when the Munich exhibition center moved to Riem) . Shortly after the station, the only operating line of the Munich subway branches off to the three-track Theresienwiese plant . When the line for the U4 / U5 was built, there was no connection to the rest of the underground network, especially not to the technical base in Fröttmaning, except via this operating track and the parking facility there. Today there is another connection to the rest of the network at Innsbrucker Ring.
The Theresienwiese train station is equipped with a supervisory pulpit in order to be able to cope with the number of passengers during the Oktoberfest - until the renovation of the train station in Fröttmaning, this was unique in the Munich subway network. The southern exit of the station also ends directly on the festival meadow. During the Oktoberfest , the local supervisory staff and not the driver, as is otherwise the case. During the day outside of rush hour, the U4 starts at Westendstrasse, during rush hour and on weekends (except early mornings) it starts at Theresienwiese, as the passenger numbers in the western section do not justify such service.
At the main station there is a connection to all S-Bahn lines and to the main line of the U1 and U2, which is crossed there. After crossing under the main S-Bahn line, the Karlsplatz (Stachus) station is reached, where there is again a connection to the S-Bahn. The subway station here is the deepest in the Munich subway network, the escalator at the Lenbachplatz exit is the longest in Munich with 247 steps, 56.5 meters in length and 20.63 meters of travel height. In the further course to Odeonsplatz , where there is a connection to the U3 and U6, the deepest point of the entire network is reached at around 36 meters. At Odeonsplatz is 52.8 meters long, the second longest escalator in Munich. For comparison: The deepest underground station in Germany (26 m), which is also the one with the escalator with the highest lifting height (22 m), is located in Hamburg ( underground station Messehallen ).
Like Odeonsplatz, the following Lehel station is also a mine-excavated station with two individual tubes connected by cross passages. The line now crosses under the Isar in order to leave the common U4 / U5 trunk line again in the three-track branching station Max-Weber-Platz near the Maximilianeum . One of the exits of the underground station at Max-Weber-Platz is housed in a listed tram pavilion, which changed modes of transport as part of the underground construction.
Via the Prinzregentenplatz station, designed by Alexander Freiherr von Branca like Marienplatz, and the Böhmerwaldplatz station with its green design reminiscent of its namesake , the U4 reaches Richard-Strauss-Strasse station , which, due to its location, is the only one on this route to have side platforms. At Böhmerwaldplatz there is also a road tunnel of the Mittlerer Ring , which, like the subway, is located under Richard-Strauss-Straße . The U4 ends at Arabellapark station , but the parking facility continues for 600 meters almost to the originally planned Cosimapark station.
A continuation of the U4 via Cosimapark and Fideliopark in the direction of Englschalking is included in the 3rd medium-term program for the subway construction of the state capital Munich, but is not expected in the medium term due to the already relatively low utilization of the U4. The originally planned extension to the west in the direction of Blumenau also has little chance of being realized, as the population density there does not justify the construction of a subway.
The U5 currently begins at Laimer Platz , an extension to Pasing is being considered, but the realization is currently rather questionable. The current operating length is 15.4 km.
The U5 leads via the also very brightly designed station Friedenheimer Strasse to Westendstrasse , where it then follows the same route as the U4 via Heimeranplatz , Schwanthalerhöhe , Theresienwiese , Hauptbahnhof , Karlsplatz (Stachus) , Odeonsplatz and Lehel to Max-Weber-Platz , see U4 .
The main line of the U4 / U5 finally separates at Max-Weber-Platz, the U5 bends in a right-hand curve to the south to the Ostbahnhof, which is designed in a strong white-red contrast . There is a connection to the main S-Bahn line, which is also crossed under here. After the third-longest inner-city distance between two train stations at 1602 meters, Innsbrucker Ring train station has a direct connection to the U2 in the direction of Messestadt on the same platform opposite.
After the Michaelibad train station, the longest inner-city section between two train stations follows at 1,708 meters. The route runs on the edge of the Ostpark and reaches the Quiddestrasse station . The next station is Neuperlach Zentrum , in the large new housing estate of Neuperlach , which has been built since the 1960s . After the Therese-Giehse-Allee station , the U5 finally comes to the surface to end at Neuperlach Süd station. The station, which is located on a bridge, similar to the Berlin elevated railway lines, can be recognized from afar by its jagged roof structure. This route was originally served by the U8, from 1988 jointly by the U2 and U5 and has only been served by the U5 since 1999. The Neuperlach Süd station was partially redesigned on the platform level as part of a renovation from 2007 to 2008. The color orange, which is unfamiliar for this line, was used on the pillars of the roof. The new signposting system for the stations, some of which had already been used during the renovation of the Marienplatz station or at the Odeonsplatz stop and has since been introduced in other stations, was also installed here. The station's access level has not been renovated.
In Neuperlach Süd there is the special feature that the S-Bahn and U-Bahn share one platform - the S7 runs on platform 3, while the U5 trains arrive on platform 2 on the other side of the platform. So there is a direct transition from the U-Bahn to the S-Bahn on the same platform. In Neuperlach Süd there is also a larger storage facility (operations facility south), in which many trains are parked during off-peak times and at night that cannot be parked in Fröttmaning or in storage facilities in the network.
At the beginning of regular operation of the Munich subway, there was a short-lived U5 amplifier line between Münchner Freiheit and Goetheplatz , after just over a year this line was discontinued on July 2, 1973 and the journeys were integrated into the U6 line.
|Garching Research Center - Garching - Garching-Hochbrück - Fröttmaning - Kieferngarten - Freimann - student town - Alte Heide - North Cemetery - Dietlindenstraße - Münchner Freiheit - Giselastraße - University - Odeonsplatz - Marienplatz - Sendlinger Tor - Goetheplatz - Poccistraße - Implerstraße - Harass - Partnachplatz - Westpark - Holzapfelkreuth - Haderner Stern - Großhadern - Großhadern Clinic|
The U6 has 26 stations and is the longest Munich subway line at 27.4 km. It was the first line to go into operation. The Lindwurmtunnel (section between Sendlinger Tor and including Goetheplatz station) was built as early as 1938–1941 as part of a north-south S-Bahn line. It is largely similar to today's route of the U6, but should cross the east-west S-Bahn at Karlsplatz / Stachus.
It is the only line that leaves the Munich city area. It begins under the University and Research Center of the City of Garching near Munich at the Garching Research Center train station . From there, the line passes under Garching itself and connects the city with an underground station , before it comes to the surface shortly before the Garching-Hochbrück station in the Garching district of the same name. Subsequently, the underground trains travel 4208 meters without stopping to Munich. The first station in Munich itself is called Fröttmaning and connects to the Allianz Arena . With the construction of the arena, the station had to be rebuilt with four tracks in order to cope with the high number of passengers at soccer games. The following Kieferngarten station , the terminus of the first Munich underground line, is a four-track branching station, the branch to the technical base is located here in the opposite direction. Further on the surface, the route leads via Freimann to the student city . Then the subways will go underground again. The route now follows Ungererstraße with the stations Alte Heide , Nordfriedhof and Dietlindenstraße to Münchner Freiheit . From here the U6 takes the same route as the U3 southwards under the city center to Sendling , where the routes of the two lines separate again at the Implerstraße station .
Behind Implerstraße, the route turns west to Harras , where you can change to the S7 S-Bahn line . It then crosses under the Sendling-Westpark district in an east-west direction. This section of the route with its stations Partnachplatz , Westpark and Holzapfelkreuth was opened with the International Garden Exhibition in Westpark . Finally, the subways reach the southern end of the U6 at the Großhadern Clinic via the Haderner Stern and Großhadern stations .
The U7 is a repeater line and only runs the entire length of the route during rush hour, with the exception of Friday afternoons and during school holidays. It has 19 stations and serves two main routes. The U7 starts at the Olympia shopping center and runs parallel to the U1 on route 2 to the main station . Together with the U1 and U2, the line leads over the Sendlinger Tor to the Columbusplatz and together with the U2 continues over Giesing to the Innsbrucker Ring . There the U7 enters the same platform on which the U2 is otherwise processed. When you exit the station, the U7 turns onto the main route 3 and runs parallel to the U5 to its end point in Neuperlach Zentrum .
The U7 was introduced for the timetable change on December 12, 2011. It replaced the previous amplifier trips on the U1 between Westfriedhof and Sendlinger Tor . In operation, so-called short trains with four cars are usually used on the U7, which is why only car types A and B run. Until December 14, 2013, the line only ran in the morning rush hour on school days along the entire length of the route, while in the afternoons and during holidays only the section between Westfriedhof and Sendlinger Tor was served. Since December 15, 2013, trains have also been running to Neuperlach Zentrum on school days in the afternoons , while during the holidays they only run to Sendlinger Tor .
In the course of construction work on the U3 between the Scheidplatz and Münchner Freiheit stations in 2017, during which the line had to be closed for several months, the U7 was initially temporarily extended to the Olympic shopping center. The MVG has decided to continue to run the U7 to the Olympia shopping center.
|only on Saturdays: Olympiazentrum - Petuelring - Scheidplatz - Hohenzollernplatz - Josephsplatz - Theresienstraße - Königsplatz - Central Station - Sendlinger Tor - Fraunhoferstraße - Columbusplatz - Silberhornstraße - Untersbergstraße - Giesing - Karl-Preis-Platz - Innsbrucker Ring - Michaelibad - Quiddestraße - Neuperlach center|
The U8 is a repeater line and only runs on Saturday afternoons. With the timetable change on December 15, 2013, the journeys between Olympiazentrum and Sendlinger Tor via the main train station , which had already been carried out on Saturdays for some time, were given their own line number. Since December 9, 2018, the trains have continued to Neuperlach center . The U8 serves 19 stations on all three main routes. Between the Olympiazentrum and Scheidplatz it runs parallel to the U3 on the main route 1 , in the further course to Innsbrucker Ring parallel to the U2 on the main route 2 , before it changes to the main route 3 and follows the course of the U5 to Neuperlach Zentrum . It travels on a section of the U8 (now U2), which ran from 1980 to 1988 from the Olympic Center via Sendlinger Tor to Neuperlach Süd .
Structure and equipment
With the exception of the Studentenstadt , Freimann , Kieferngarten , Fröttmaning , Garching-Hochbrück (all U6) and the elevated Neuperlach Süd (U5) train stations, all train stations are tunnel stations at least one level deep. The platforms are usually around 120 meters long. All stations were equipped with a tactile grooved belt in front of the platform edge, newer stations have a complete tactile guidance system from the lifts and stairs to the platform. For this, the municipal utilities were awarded the integration prize of the Bavarian Association of the Blind in 1996.
Most of the stations are double-track and have a central platform; only the Olympic shopping center (U1), Richard-Strauss-Straße (U4), Neuperlach Süd (U5), Garching-Hochbrück and Nordfriedhof (both U6) stations are double-track with side platforms . The two crossing stations Scheidplatz and Innsbrucker Ring have four tracks , the branch stations Hauptbahnhof (U1 and U2) Münchner Freiheit and Kieferngarten as well as the stations Olympiazentrum and Fröttmaning , in the vicinity of which major events regularly take place. The branching stations Implerstraße , Max-Weber-Platz and Columbusplatz are built on three tracks; In contrast to the four-track branching stations, the lines out of town have a common track here and only separate behind the station.
In the platform area of all stations, the station name is repeatedly signposted on the walls, sometimes also in the middle of the platform and, if necessary, between the tracks, either on a continuous strip of lines in the color of the respective line group, or on boards in the same color. Only the two U6 stations in Garching, which opened in 2006, differ from this: At the research center, the station name was omitted on the walls, and in Garching the name was drawn on the wall cladding in the style of the logo of the city of Garching without further emphasis.
Most of the train stations have two separate entrances, all train stations are barrier-free with escalators and elevators. The platform height is 100 or 105 centimeters above the upper edge of the rails , which enables rapid boarding of trains with floors that are just as high. Most of the stations have a kiosk or other sales booths, and toilets are usually available. Technical operating systems are housed in other operating rooms, such as rectifiers for power supply or interlocking technology.
Most subway stations have one or more mezzanine floors known as lock floors . They connect several station entrances to the tracks. Until the summer of 2019, access to the platforms was only allowed to people with a ticket or a platform card that only allowed them to enter the platform, but not to travel on the underground. The platform ticket has now been abolished. Such platform restrictions only exist in the Hamburg Transport Association . Some underground stations also have direct access to the adjacent department stores: Marienplatz , Münchner Freiheit , Hauptbahnhof , Dülferstraße , Karlsplatz (Stachus) and the Olympia shopping center .
When the first subway stations were put out to tender in the mid-1960s, the interest of many architects in participating in their construction was rather low. The underground architecture, which is characterized by simplicity and functionality, was considered less interesting and profitable. In the course of the 1980s, the demands on an appealing design of the underground stations gradually increased. Bright, light rooms should counteract the feeling of oppression under the earth. Straight lines, which shaped the geometry in the early years, gradually gave way to curved line shapes. The character of the surface was also increasingly taken into account when designing the stations. The construction of many train stations was planned and carried out by the underground and later construction department's own architects, including Garabede Chahbasian, Hans-Alfred Schaller and Paul Kramer.
On the first line U6 built , Paolo Nestler was responsible for the majority of the regular stations between Alte Heide and Harras . The rather simple train station buildings , almost reminiscent of Bauhaus ideals, are characterized by straight lines and functional room design. The stations can be distinguished by the different colors and shapes of the platform pillars clad with ceramic tiles and by the slightly different color tones of the wall panels made from fiber cement panels. At the Münchner Freiheit , a wall frieze designed by Jürgen Reipka breaks through the otherwise monotonous design. From May 2008 to the end of 2009, the Münchner Freiheit train station was renovated and given a new face thanks to Ingo Maurer's lighting concept .
The central transfer station at Marienplatz stands out from the design of the standard stations. The office of the renowned architect Alexander Freiherr von Branca won the competition and designed the train station in strong orange, dark blue and dark green tones. Von Branca was also responsible for the renovation of the station from 2004 to 2006: he carefully integrated the extensions into the existing concept.
The stations of the U3 to the Olympiapark , planned and implemented only a few years later , were completely different from the Nestler'schen standard stations in exposed concrete with wall reliefs by Christine Stadler and Waki Zöllner. The successful Olympic application enabled a new self-confidence in the design.
The stations of the former U8 line between Scheidplatz and Neuperlach Süd (today to Innsbrucker Ring U2 , then U5 ), opened in 1980, are very similar in design. Based on the U6, the same basic concept was used for almost all stations. Only the color and the type of access systems distinguish most train stations. The Königsplatz underground station, designed by Josef Wiedemann , should be emphasized on this route : Here, replicas, albeit not until 1988, and facsimiles of the works of art exhibited in the art area above were placed directly on the platform and on the back wall. Since 1994 there has been an exhibition room ( art building ) above the platform in a previously largely unused cavity . The transfer stations Sendlinger Tor and Hauptbahnhof were also designed differently to emphasize their importance.
From the beginning of the 1980s, design was increasingly important. The brown-colored train stations on the U1 line to Rotkreuzplatz made the start, but did not convince the experts. The the International Horticultural Exhibition 1983 opened stations of the flowers line extension of the line U6 designated stations Partnachplatz , Westpark and Holzapfelkreuth liked even better with their design in graded greens and yellows. The U4 and U5 stations, which opened shortly afterwards, were even more detailed in terms of design. For the first time, each train station was individually designed and - as was the case at Königsplatz four years earlier - the surface was included in the design. The design of the Theresienwiese train station is based on a brewery cellar. Under the Stachus , pictures of past trams designed by Volker Sander are reminiscent of the tradition as transfer hubs in local public transport. In the exhibition grounds (today Schwanthalerhöhe ), flags and silhouettes of visitors to the fair spread international flair on the walls. There were also changes in the materials: initially artificial stone, fiber cement panels and concrete were popular elements, later steel , aluminum and glass gained in importance.
Partly elaborate designs of the platforms and especially the back track walls characterize the majority of the younger stations. The high, pillarless station halls usually gave a bright and friendly impression of the room. At low-lying train stations, such as Oberwiesenfeld , Machtlfinger Straße (both U3), Messestadt West (U2) and St.-Quirin-Platz (U1), daylight was also used in the room design and interior lighting. The last-mentioned station, located on a slope, was spanned with an elaborate roof structure. St.-Quirin-Platz is therefore the only underground train station in Munich where passing passengers can take a quick look “outside” (into the Am Hohen Weg green area ). Where no daylight was available, existing lighting concepts were implemented from indirect artificial lighting using reflective wall and ceiling elements, thus avoiding the "uniformity" consisting of long rows of fluorescent tubes in the lighting of earlier stations.
As early as 1905 there were plans to build an underground track roughly on the route of today's main line of the S-Bahn between the main station and the east station as well as a ring line that circles the old town. Since these plans were clearly oversized for the traffic volume at the time, they were forgotten again. The tram network was still able to cover the traffic flows in what was then a city of half a million. From 1910, the only 450 m long, automated Munich Post-U-Bahn connected the main train station with the railway post office on Hopfenstrasse. It was only used to transport mail. The tunnel consisted of prefabricated concrete parts that prevented groundwater from seeping in. It ran 6.8 meters below street level, was 2.3 meters wide and 1.2 meters high.
In 1928 there were again plans to replace the trams in Munich with an underground network, but the global economic crisis thwarted all plans. A network of five subway lines, which had some similarities with the current route distribution, was to be implemented.
In the time of National Socialism , a network of electric underground railways was planned for the “capital of the movement” from 1936 onwards and construction had already begun, but the Second World War put an end to it. The tunnel of today's U6 between Sendlinger Tor and Goetheplatz - including the local train station - was already completed in the shell, but still as part of an S-Bahn route. This also explains the relative generosity of the Goetheplatz (especially in the mezzanine at the Goetheplatz entrance, the architecture does not match today's use) and the narrowness of the current Sendlinger Tor transfer station on the platform of the U3 / U6 (see below "Planning after the Second World War": Crossing point of lines C and D).
The groundbreaking ceremony for this tunnel took place on May 22, 1938 in Lindwurmstrasse , which was to mark the beginning of the end of the tramway. The shell was completed by 1941, and the first railcars were to be delivered in the same year. The war-related scarcity of resources led to this work being stopped. The shell was used as an air raid shelter during the war , as is still evident today from the inscriptions on the tunnel walls.
After the war, parts of the tunnel were filled with rubble, while others served as a breeding ground for mushrooms for a while before the ingress of groundwater made this short piece of underground history unusable.
Planning after the Second World War
Shortly after the war, there were voices in the Munich city administration that campaigned for the planning of a rapid transit system in Munich, but it was not until 1953 that a new planning phase began with the formation of the “Study Society for the Construction of a Munich Elevated and Underground Railway”. At first, however, it was imperative that the tram network be repaired so that there was no money for a subway. The plans for a subway in Munich were bogging along, while the traffic area for surface traffic was increasingly used and the trams in the city center were getting stuck in the turmoil more and more frequently. The average speed of the trams was sometimes only 4–13 km / h, between Karlsplatz and Marienplatz there were 62 trams an hour. The strong increase in population of around 50,000 inhabitants annually in the late 1950s - Munich already had one million inhabitants in 1958 - and increasing motorization contributed to the traffic chaos.
There was also a dispute over whether the S-Bahn or the underground should run on the east-west route between the Ostbahnhof and the Hauptbahnhof. Only in 1963 was there an agreement, the "classic route" was added to the S-Bahn. For a long time it was also a matter of dispute whether the north-south subway and the S-Bahn should meet at Stachus, the modern traffic center of the city, or at Marienplatz, the historic center. The choice finally fell on Marienplatz in order to be able to focus on the historic center in the urban design of the coming decades.
In the mid-1950s, the working group for transport planning in Munich provided four diameter lines (designation A, B, C, D), which divide the city into eight sectors and contain essential elements of today's route network.
- Line “A” (east-west line): Pasing - Laim - Westend - Stachus (change to line “B”) - Marienplatz (change to line “C”) - Ostbahnhof - Berg-am-Laim;
- Line "B": Moosach - Gern - Rotkreuzplatz - Stiglmaierplatz - Stachus (change to line "A") - Odeonsplatz - Max-Weber-Platz - Bogenhausen - Zamdorf - Riem;
- Line “C” (north-south line): Freimann - Münchner-Freiheit - Marienplatz (change to line “A”) - Goetheplatz (transfer station to line “D” built in 1938–1941) - Harras - Waldfriedhof;
- Line "D" (further north-south line): Siedlung am Hart - Scheidplatz - Elisabethplatz - Central Station - Goetheplatz (change to line "C") - Giesing.
Various planning scenarios were worked out between 1955 and 1959, including for a sub-paving tramway where the tram lines were to be largely retained, but with an underground route in the city center. On December 15, 1959, the city council decided on this underground tram network, which was to gradually replace the trams in the city center with tunnels over a total of 17 km in length in the coming years, while in the outskirts it was to continue to run on existing above-ground routes the light rail concept .
In 1963, the city council also approved an overall transport plan which, in addition to the construction of the V-Bahn (today the main S-Bahn line), provided for four underground tunnels in the city center with a total length of 35 km, which were only to be expanded into the actual underground from 1990. Until then, the operation should be carried out with trams. In 1963 the Free State of Bavaria, the state capital of Munich and the Deutsche Bundesbahn founded a GbR with the aim of founding a construction and financing company for the underground, drawing up a financial plan, winning the federal government as a partner for the project and Plan the train together.
On January 15, 1964, the Office for the Promotion of the Construction of Underground Mass Transportation Systems , which was directly subordinate to the Lord Mayor, was founded and converted into a municipal department just two years later. Also in 1964, the decision was made to immediately build line 6 between Harras and Freimann as a subway and also checked the concept of the other lines again. The increasing car traffic in the city finally forced the adoption of the first underground line network on June 16, 1965 by the Munich city council. The planning draft provided for four trunk routes that should split up in the outskirts. Large parts of the network did not yet agree with the network actually implemented today. The lines planned at that time:
- U1: Moosach train station - (Dachauer Str.) - Hbf - Goetheplatz - Columbusplatz - Giesing train station - Neuperlach center
- U2: Amalienburgstr. - Rotkreuzplatz - Hbf - Goetheplatz - Columbusplatz - Harlaching KH - Großhesseloher Bridge
- U3: Heidemannstr. - Scheidplatz - Munich Freedom - Marienplatz - Goetheplatz - Fürstenrieder Str. - Blumenau
- U4: Pasing - Laimer Pl. - Heimeranplatz - Hbf - Theatinerstr. (Marienplatz North) - Max-Weber-Pl. - Arabellapark - St. Emmeram
- U5: Pasing - like U4 - Max-Weber-Pl. - Leuchtenbergring - St.-Veit-Str. - Waldtrudering
- U6: Pine Garden - Münchner Freiheit - Marienplatz - Goetheplatz - Harras - Waldfriedhof - Großhadern
- U8: Hasenbergl - Am Hart - Scheidplatz - Theresienstr. - Karlsplatz (Stachus) - Sendlinger Tor (4th trunk line) - Kapuzinerstr. (Junction with U1 / 2) - Thalkirchen - Aidenbachstr. - Fürstenried West
Plans for a ring line of the underground were soon discarded because the tangential passenger volume was too low for this, but when building the main S-Bahn line at Rosenheimer Platz station, consideration was given to the fact that the possibility of an intersection station should not be built here . Today the tram takes up most of the tangential traffic flows, and the concept of a ring underground train has been abandoned.
Construction and opening of the first lines
On February 1, 1965, the City of Munich and the Bavarian State Government founded the Münchner Tunnel-Gesellschaft mbH , which was supposed to coordinate the financing of the subway and the S-Bahn trunk line tunnel . Responsible for the planning and construction of the underground was the newly created underground department, whose head and driving force was Dr. Klaus Zimniok was.
Construction work from 1965 to 1972
The construction of the Munich subway also began on February 1, 1965 with the groundbreaking ceremony by Bavarian Prime Minister Alfons Goppel and Munich mayor Hans-Jochen Vogel on the construction site of the subway station at Nordfriedhof , which was then still called "Schenkendorfstrasse" should receive. The first 13.2 kilometer long subway line between Kieferngarten and Harras with twelve underground and three above-ground stations should be completed in 1974.
The award of the 1972 Summer Olympics to Munich on April 26, 1966 accelerated the realization of the underground plans. An efficient transport network had to be built in a very short time. With its resolution of June 16, 1966, the city council changed the previous plans and gave priority to the subway route to the Olympic site , so that construction work began on May 10, 1967. The construction of a 2.7 kilometer long section with the Implerstraße and Harras underground stations , however, was postponed.
As early as the summer of 1967, the first tests with the delivered prototypes of the subway cars were able to run on the route between Alte Heide and Studentenstadt . Workshop work was provisionally carried out in the siding north of the Alte Heide underground station. The three prototypes of the future vehicles made their first laps in a tram depot before they could finally be placed on the underground in 1967. In 1969 the route to the north depot in Fröttmaning could be used. A siding to the network of the Deutsche Bundesbahn was also built south of the Freimann train station , via which all future underground vehicles could be delivered.
The first trains are running
On October 19, 1971 - around three years earlier than originally planned - passenger service on the first Munich underground line U6 started on the 10.5-kilometer route between Kieferngarten and Goetheplatz . This marked the beginning of Germany's third underground network after Berlin (since February 18, 1902) and Hamburg (since February 15, 1912). The Nuremberg metro, however, was decided almost at the same time as Munich, and was already under construction (commissioning March 1, 1972), keeping very close to the system planned for Munich. This made it possible for Munich and Nuremberg to "lend" vehicles to each other in the early years when their own cars were short. However, later conversions made to meet individual requirements mean that no further smooth replacement of vehicles can be achieved.
On May 8, 1972, the four-kilometer branch from Münchner Freiheit - Olympiazentrum ("Olympialinie") to the Olympiapark was opened and served by the second Munich subway line U3 (also from Goetheplatz ). In connection with the S-Bahn , which had started operations ten days earlier, Munich was prepared for the rush of visitors on the occasion of the Olympic Games . From August 26 to September 11, 1972, the U3 line ran every 5 minutes, and for larger Olympic events even every 2½ minutes. Around four million visitors were transported in 17 days. For the increased operation, four DT1 trains were loaned from VAG from Nuremberg , which were largely identical to the Munich type A cars.
Extensions in 1975 and 1978
On November 22, 1975, the extension of the U3 and U6 lines from Goetheplatz to Harras was opened to traffic. A third track built in the Implerstrasse underground station could not be used for 14 years. This advance construction work has only been required since 1989 in order to guide the trains that run on a separate southern branch of the U3 line onto the joint route of the U3 and U6. The branch of a connecting tunnel to the planned third trunk line (today U4 / U5) was also prepared .
On May 28, 1978, the subsequently built Poccistraße station was opened on the section between Goetheplatz and Implerstraße . Its construction was delayed due to a planned city motorway, which was ultimately not built, and had to be carried out while the U3 and U6 lines were still in operation, which is why the station is strongly characterized by the supporting pillars.
Main phase of network expansion
On October 7, 1970, the decision was made to build only three instead of four trunk lines through the center and to bundle two line branches from the outer districts in each trunk line. The reasons were, on the one hand, the high costs of the underground structures in the densely built-up historic city center, and, on the other hand, a better network effect due to fewer connections. Over-development due to too many routes should also be avoided. According to a study by the U-Bahn department, the reduction in the number of regular routes greatly increased the cost-effectiveness of the routes, and the connections in the city center could also be relieved through bundling. This should save about half a billion DM.
The main features of the route network planned at the time were completely implemented in the following two decades, with only changes in the outskirts. The core of the network was an inner-city triangle consisting of the main train station , Odeonsplatz and Sendlinger Tor , which should enable optimal transfer connections between all lines and the main S-Bahn line at the aforementioned and the included stations at Karlsplatz (Stachus) and Marienplatz . At that time, the core objectives were set in three medium-term programs, which in 2006 were almost achieved.
|Construction stages of the 1st medium-term program|
|U1||Rotkreuzplatz - Columbusplatz|
|U8||(Olympiazentrum -) Scheidplatz - Neuperlach Süd
Today U3 / U2 / U5; Olympic Center branch (U3) already under construction
|U3||Scheidplatz - Implerstraße
Scheidplatz - Goetheplatz already under construction
|U9||Laimer Platz - Arabellapark
Today U4 / Westendstraße - Arabellapark
|U5||Laimer Platz - Innsbrucker Ring (- Neuperlach Süd)|
|U6||Pine garden - Holzapfelkreuth
Pine garden - Goetheplatz already under construction
|Construction stages of the 2nd medium-term program|
|U1||Westfriedhof - Hauptbahnhof
Columbusplatz - Mangfallplatz
|U2||Feldmoching - Scheidplatz|
|U3||Olympia Shopping Center - Olympiazentrum
Fürstenried West - Implerstraße
|U6||Großhadern Clinic - Holzapfelkreuth|
|Construction stages of the 3rd medium-term program|
|U1||Olympia Shopping Center - Westfriedhof|
|U2||Innsbrucker Ring - Exhibition City East|
|U3||Moosach - Olympic shopping center|
|U4||Arabellapark - Englschalking|
|U5||Pasing - Laimer Platz|
Since the beginning of the 1970s, other parts of the city center and beyond were also being built. The station square was a major construction site for years, as a four-storey intersection of the S-Bahn main line, the U8 / U1 main line (today U1 / U2) and the future U5 / U9 main line (today U4 / U5) was built here. The width and depth of the structure made a diaphragm wall cover construction necessary, in which the side walls and the cover of the structure are created first and only then the individual floors from top to bottom. Between Scheidplatz , where the new route threaded into the Olympic line (now crosses with it), and the new large housing estate in Neuperlach , the construction machinery digged its way through the main station , Sendlinger Tor , Giesing and Michaelibad to Neuperlach Süd, where a second large parking facility was built. This section was opened on October 18, 1980, at around 16 km it is the longest section of the Munich subway that has been opened in one piece.
The connection of the new large housing estate in Neuperlach with the subway was not without controversy, the Deutsche Bundesbahn favored a connection through its S-Bahn tunnel route, which is why the tunnel was even widened for a later threading of this route between Rosenheimer Platz and Ostbahnhof. This dispute, which ultimately ended in favor of the underground, delayed the planning and construction work on the second main underground line for several years and did not allow it to open until 1980.
For the International Horticultural Exhibition in 1983 in Westpark , the U3 and U6 were extended by three stations to Holzapfelkreuth on April 16, 1983 ("flower line"), and just a few weeks later on May 28, the U1 branch to Rotkreuzplatz went into operation. With a good 40 km and two main routes with a total of four lines, the city center and individual outskirts were already well developed just twelve years after the start of operations, but the expansion continued.
The first section of the U5 / U9 trunk line (today U4 / U5) from Westendstrasse to Karlsplatz (Stachus) was opened on March 10, 1984 . Since otherwise there was no connection to the rest of the network and, above all, to the technical base in Fröttmaning, a tunnel with a double-track parking facility was built under the Theresienwiese , which connects the stump section with the Implerstraße station and thus the remaining network. So far, journeys with passengers have only taken place as construction site diversions on this section.
The U5 grew rapidly, on March 1, 1986 the main line of the U3 and U6 was reached with the Odeonsplatz , on March 24, 1988 the line in the west was extended by two stations to Laimer Platz . On October 27 of the same year, the two line branches were finally opened via Max-Weber-Platz to Innsbrucker Ring and Arabellapark . From now until 1999 the U5 shared the route to Neuperlach Süd with the U2. This opening should be the last for the U4 and U5 to date. Extensions are planned in the west to Pasing or Blumenau, in the east the U4 is to be extended to Englschalking . In view of the tight budget situation and the comparatively low benefit, both construction measures are not expected in the medium term. The Pasing – Hauptbahnhof route is also already served by four S-Bahn lines and one tram line.
Further expansion to today's network
About a year later, on October 27, 1989, the south branch of the U3 from Implerstraße to Forstenrieder Allee was opened, the U6 now served the section to Holzapfelkreuth alone. On June 1, 1991, it was extended to Fürstenried West , where the southern end of the U3 is still today.
In 1993 the two main lines U2 and U6 were extended: Since May 22nd, the U6 has been running in the south to its current terminus at Klinikum Großhadern , since November 20th the U2 branched off at Scheidplatz and found its provisional terminus at Dülferstraße . The U6 was extended again on June 30, 1994, this time in the north by one station to Fröttmaning . The station does not open up a residential area, but was built next to the technical base, where a large park-and-ride parking garage is intended to encourage drivers not to drive into the city center via the A 9 motorway , but to change to the subway here. Between 2002 and 2005, however, a new, now four-track station was built in its place and the old one was demolished to make the Allianz Arena better accessible. In addition, the departures of many international bus routes from the city center have been moved here.
Since a concentration of research institutes had been planned north of the neighboring municipality of Garching since the 1980s, there have also been plans to extend the U6 to this point. In a first step, the U6 drove for the first time on October 28, 1995 to Garching-Hochbrück , the first and so far only route that crosses the city limits. The further stretch to Garching Research Center was opened in October 2006 (see below).
On October 26, 1996, the U2 in the north was extended by two stations to Feldmoching S-Bahn station , and on November 9, 1997, the southern branch of the U1 followed to Mangfallplatz . Half a year later, on May 23, 1998, the north branch of the U1 was extended by two stations to the Westfriedhof . With these, as well as with most of the openings since the early 1990s, the subway department gave more thought to the design of the train stations and had each train station given its own character. For example, the wall cladding in Feldmoching station reflects village life there, while the Dülferstrasse and Candidplatz stations are more colorful than most other stations.
These network expansions were accompanied by the closure of numerous tram routes, including the entire south-west network and the tram-like route into Hasenbergl. Up until the 1980s, there was still the political intention of completely replacing the tram network with underground trains, and it wasn't until the early 1990s that a rethink began. This gave the tram a renaissance as a complement to the underground.
A line branch was opened again on May 29, 1999 when the U2 was extended from Innsbrucker Ring via Trudering to the Neue Messe in Riem. The construction work for this almost 8 km long section was delayed in 1994 due to a serious accident in Trudering . A public bus had broken into a tunnel in the future underground station, and several passengers were killed in the crater. This incident extended the construction time and increased the construction costs for this route significantly, so that only a massive bus shuttle service was offered as a public transport connection for the opening of the new exhibition center. In order to keep the construction costs within limits, the stations were built in the "refined shell" style.
The extension of the U6 to Garching Research Center on October 14, 2006 connected the city of Garching and the university and research institutes in the Garching research area with significantly better transport connections than the previous bus connection from Ismaning or Garching-Hochbrück allowed. This extension became necessary because more and more institutes have settled in the research area in the last few decades, especially many of the TU Munich . More than 10,000 students and employees now work here, so that the development by bus and private transport reached its capacity limits.
Directly after the Garching-Hochbrück train station , the tunnel ramp begins under the town of Garching, where two platforms connected with cross-passages were built 17 meters below the surface, similar to the one in Trudering. After the urban area, the route emerges from the underground again after approx. Three kilometers and leads about 1000 meters above ground over fields until shortly before the underground station research area . Under Garching itself as well as under the research area, the tracks were laid in elastically mounted track troughs so that residents and sensitive measuring devices in the institutes are not affected by vibrations. In the section between Hochbrück and Garching, sub-ballast mats were used that only allow less damping. The above-ground section has no attenuation.
The activities of the subway construction department of the building department now concentrated on the Moosach district : both the U3 and the U1 were to be further extended here. It started with the extension of the U1 to Georg-Brauchle-Ring on October 18, 2003, and a year later on October 31, 2004 it finally reached the Olympia shopping center (OEZ), where the shell of the U3 junction was already completed. The U3 has led to the Olympia shopping center since October 28, 2007, and since December 11, 2010 it has led to Moosach S-Bahn station.
The long delay in the routes to Moosach is due to the fact that there was long disagreement as to whether the U1 or the U3 should lead to Moosach station. The routing and the location of the train stations also led to many discussions that could only be cleared up late. The crossing station at the Olympia shopping center was the most expensive solution proposed, but also the one with the greatest transport benefit.
In the medium term, a few line extensions to include individual train stations can be expected, but most lines would have to cross the city limits and advance further into the surrounding area.
Renovation of older systems
The structures, some of which are now 40 years old, also need visual and functional refreshments. Concrete refurbishment and replacement of technology (e.g. large numbers of escalators ) continue to occupy the employees of the Munich Transport Company and the building department. Conversions such as the additional platform tunnels created at Marienplatz require a similar effort as a completely new station building, especially since they have to take place while operations continue. A fundamental renovation and modernization of the Neuperlach Süd train station took place by the end of 2008, which also affected the regular service somewhat. The Freimann underground station was also renovated. It received a new roof construction and - as the last station on the Munich subway - wheelchair-accessible access by means of elevators. From May 2008 to the end of 2009, the Münchner Freiheit underground station was also completely renovated and modernized.
After modernizing the mezzanine floor at Karlsplatz (Stachus), the mezzanine floor of the main train station was modernized from mid-2011. Due to damage to the building structure from moisture and, above all, from aggressive road salt residues, the building envelope and reinforcement were replaced during ongoing operations. The modernized mezzanine was opened in February 2014.
On October 19, 1980, the U1 was introduced during rush hour as a repeater line for the newly built U8 (now U2) between the main train station and Innsbrucker Ring. After just a few weeks, however, it was discontinued due to schedule problems (turnaround time at the main station). Some German newspapers even reported the closure of a newly built underground line.
At the beginning of the line operation of the Munich U-Bahn there was a short-lived amplifier line U5 between Münchner Freiheit and Goetheplatz , after only a year this line was discontinued on July 2, 1973 and the trips were incorporated into the U6 line.
The amplifier line only ran Monday to Friday during rush hour from Rotkreuzplatz to Columbusplatz (the entire route is included in the U1, usually only short trains) and at major trade fairs also to Messestadt Ost (from Columbusplatz, the route of the U2, usually long trains). It was introduced in 1999 with the opening of the U2 to Messestadt Ost .
On December 8, 2006 the U7 was discontinued, instead the U1 was reinforced to a 5-minute cycle during rush hour between Westfriedhof and Sendlinger Tor .
With the timetable change on December 12, 2011, the U7 between Westfriedhof and Neuperlach Zentrum was reintroduced.
Between 1980 and 1988, today's U2 was called U8. At that time it ran from the Olympic Center to Neuperlach Süd .
Until December 9, 2006, the U8 was the name for the amplifier line between Harthof and Neuperlach Zentrum , which was introduced in May 1999 when the U2 to Messestadt Ost opened. It ran from Feldmoching to Innsbrucker Ring on the U2 line and from there on the U5 to Neuperlach Zentrum . It drove Monday to Friday at rush hour, but on Friday only in the morning. This should compensate for the elimination of the U2 between Innsbrucker Ring and Neuperlach Süd .
On Friday afternoons (as well as on individual return trips on other days of the week) the U8 ran from the Olympic Center . It was then the only line on all three main routes: Olympiazentrum to Scheidplatz via the U3 line , then to Innsbrucker Ring on the U2 route and from there to Neuperlach Zentrum on the U5 route.
On December 8, 2005, the U8 was shortened at its northern end, the Feldmoching - Harthof section has not been used by the U8 as scheduled since then. At the northern end of the U2 there was therefore a 10-minute cycle even during rush hour.
On December 8, 2006, the U8 line, which had previously operated between Harthof and Neuperlach center , was discontinued. Instead, the U2 serves the section between Harthof and Messestadt Ost every 5 minutes during rush hour.
U2E / U8 (2006-2010)
Since December 2006, on Friday afternoons outside of the school holidays, a repeater line has been running between Harthof and Neuperlach Zentrum , and on Friday between Milbertshofen and Columbusplatz . In the online timetable information of the MVV this was referred to as U2E. It was partially signposted as U8 on the vehicles and in the stations. Due to the route, these trains stopped at Innsbrucker Ring station on the track of the U2 and continued from there in the direction of Neuperlach. With the timetable change on December 12, 2010, the repeater trips to Innsbrucker Ring were shortened and integrated into the timetable of the U2.
Route and line chronicle
Changes in the line network, where existing route sections are used by other lines, are shown in italics. For cells shaded in gray, the line has been withdrawn from the section.
|Opening date||Subway line||Route section||Route length||New train stations|
|19th October 1971||Pine garden - Goetheplatz||12.0 km||13|
|May 8, 1972||Münchner Freiheit - Olympic Center||4.0 km||4th|
|Goetheplatz - Munich Freedom|
|November 22, 1975||/||Goetheplatz - Harras||2.7 km||2|
|May 28, 1978||/||Poccistrasse||0.0 km||1|
|October 18, 1980||/||Central station - Innsbrucker Ring||16.0 km||18th|
|Central station - Scheidplatz|
|Innsbrucker Ring - Neuperlach Süd|
|Scheidplatz - Olympic Center|
|April 16, 1983||/||Harras - Holzapfelkreuth||2.7 km||3|
|May 28, 1983||-West||Central station - Rotkreuzplatz||3.3 km||3|
|March 10, 1984||Westendstraße - Karlsplatz (Stachus) (4.6 km)
+ connecting track to / (1.4 km)
|March 1, 1986||Karlsplatz (Stachus) - Odeonsplatz||0.7 km||1|
|March 24, 1988||Westendstrasse - Laimer Platz||1.4 km||2|
|October 27, 1988||/||Odeonsplatz - Max-Weber-Platz (1.9 km)||7.7 km||7th|
|Max-Weber-Platz - Innsbrucker Ring (2.2 km)|
|Max-Weber-Platz - Arabellapark (3.6 km)|
|Innsbrucker Ring - Neuperlach Süd|
|Odeonsplatz - Laimer Platz|
|Late 1988||Depot||Extension to the technical base||0.3 km|
|October 28, 1989||-South||Implerstraße - Forstenrieder Allee||6.1 km||6th|
|Implerstraße - Holzapfelkreuth|
|June 1, 1991||-South||Forstenrieder Allee - Fürstenried West||1.9 km||2|
|May 22, 1993||-West||Holzapfelkreuth - Großhadern Clinic||2.9 km||3|
|November 20, 1993||-North||Scheidplatz - Dülferstrasse||5.0 km||5|
|Scheidplatz - Olympic Center|
|June 30, 1994||-North||Pine garden - Fröttmaning||1.0 km||1|
|October 28, 1995||-North||Fröttmaning - Garching -Hochbrück||3.8 km||1|
|October 26, 1996||-North||Dülferstrasse - Feldmoching||1.9 km||2|
|November 8, 1997||-South||Columbus Square - Mangfall Square||3.6 km||4th|
|Columbus Square - Innsbrucker Ring|
|May 23, 1998||-West||Rotkreuzplatz - Westfriedhof||2.0 km||2|
|May 29, 1999||-East||Innsbrucker Ring - Exhibition City East||7.7 km||6th|
|Innsbrucker Ring - Neuperlach Süd|
|December 1999||-West||Westendstrasse - Laimer Platz|
|October 18, 2003||-West||Westfriedhof - Georg-Brauchle-Ring||0.7 km||1|
|October 31, 2004||-West||Georg-Brauchle-Ring - Olympic shopping center||0.5 km||1|
|October 14, 2006||-North||Garching-Hochbrück - Garching Research Center||4.4 km||2|
|October 28, 2007||-North||Olympiazentrum - Olympic shopping center||2.2 km||2|
|December 11, 2010||-North||Olympic shopping center - Moosach||2.0 km||2|
Source: City of Munich, Building Department
The subway in Munich runs on standard gauge tracks with a gauge of 1435 mm, the power supply for the multiple units is provided by a conductor rail attached to the outside . The operating voltage is 750 V DC , about every two kilometers of the route there are rectifiers to feed the busbars, which draw their energy from the 10 kV three-phase network of the Stadtwerke München. The rectifier works are controlled and monitored from the control room in the Marienplatz underground station.
The platform profile is designed for a vehicle width of 2900 mm and a floor height of 1100 mm above the upper edge of the rail (SOK), the platform height is 1000 mm and from 1987 1050 mm above the SOK. Twin platforms, which allow separate boarding and alighting ( Spanish solution ), were not built on the subway in contrast to the Munich S-Bahn main line .
Subway operations center
The entire train operation is monitored and controlled via the Munich subway operations center (UBZ) in Emmy-Noether-Straße. From there, among other things, the line interlockings , which are distributed over the subway network, are controlled remotely. This is usually done automatically and is monitored by the signalmen, who only intervene in exceptional cases, for example in the event of a fault. The dispatchers, who are also located in the subway operations center, are responsible for train deployments, punctuality and diversions in the event of a fault. The television images from the surveillance cameras and the connections to the emergency call facilities in the underground stations also come together in the UBZ.
Via the so-called VIP-Net ("video, information and process network"), all systems such as cameras, escalators, elevators and ticket machines can be monitored and partially controlled remotely.
|Type||Numbers||Years of construction|
→ Main article: MVG series A
The type A trains produced between 1967 (three prototypes) and 1983 are designed as double multiple units (DT), the north and south sections of which are always closely coupled during normal operation. Above the couplings, the railcars are each 37.15 meters long, 3.55 meters high and 2.9 meters wide. Each DT has six double-leaf doors on both sides and a capacity of 98 seats and 192 standing places. The regular top speed is 80 km / h, the engine power 721 kW and the weight between 51.6 and 53.2 tons (type A2.5 and A2.6).
A total of 194 A-trains were delivered in six series, six of which have now been sold to VAG Nürnberg. Four more units were in the meantime loaned out to Nuremberg, but have returned. Three units were scrapped after accidents, two prototypes have been taken out of service. After the soccer World Cup in 2006, it was planned to replace a significant part of the older A-railcars with type C units, but this was delayed because the C-trains had to be temporarily shut down due to quality defects in the axles. Due to increased traffic, the A-railcars will continue to be used.
Type A vehicles are currently in use on all lines, a total of 179 units are still in the MVG's portfolio .
|Type||Numbers||Years of construction|
→ Main article: MVG series B
The type B trains purchased between 1981 and 1995 had to meet the increased demand for vehicles following the network expansions that were completed and expected in the 1980s. Similar to the type A, six prototypes were ordered before the first series vehicles were delivered. However, due to various technical teething problems of the prototypes, it took another six years for the series vehicles to be delivered, during which two deliveries (A2.5 and A2.6) of the tried and tested, but actually outdated Type A were ordered.
The changes to the series vehicles that were finally delivered meant that the prototypes could not initially run in a train formation with the series vehicles, so that these had to be converted between 1992 and 1995 to ensure compatibility.
The dimensions correspond to those of the A series , the trains are visually distinguishable primarily through the continuous windshield of type B and the newly introduced matrix display as a train destination display on the front of the 22 units (type B2.8) purchased in 1994/95 . In contrast to type A direct current motors, the type B cars have three-phase motors.
A total of 63 units were delivered. Five of the six prototypes were taken out of service between 2005 and 2007, with the exception of unit 498, as it was used by Siemens as a test vehicle for Syntega technology. Before car 7497 was taken out of service, the associated driver's cab was detached and sold to the MVG Museum , which used it to build a driving simulator. The type B cars are used on all lines, but cannot be coupled with the A series in regular operation.
A total of 57 Type B vehicles are still in the MVG's inventory .
|Type||Numbers||Years of construction|
→ Main article: MVG series C
After the first type A vehicles had reached the end of their economically sensible usability at the end of the 1990s with a 30-year service life, the procurement of a type C began . Another motivation was the increased need for vehicles for the route extensions of the U1 and U3 to Moosach and the U6 to Garching.
For the first time, a train with six continuously connected car bodies was built, which only runs in full length (equivalent to three units type A or B), similar to the H series of the Berlin subway . In the workshop, the six-car trains can be shortened to an intermediate car, but this is usually only done for maintenance purposes. If there is a shortage of cars, trains with five cars run occasionally, for example on the U4 during the 2006 World Cup and on the U1 and U6 in April 2007. The six-car train has rows of seats lengthways in the first and last car. There are also three wooden row seats on each side in front of and behind the car crossings. There are face-to-face seating groups in the middle car.
This time prototypes were dispensed with and a delivery of ten six-car trains was ordered straight away. Since November 11, 2002, after various delays, the first units of the new generation of cars went into operation, which now also have computer-controlled optical and acoustic passenger information systems. There are a total of ten vehicles of type C1.9 and eight vehicles of the only slightly modified type C1.10. They are used on all lines, but only in rare cases on the U4, when there are no short trains, as is usually the case.
Between December 2006 and April 2007, all ten C1.9 trains were temporarily out of service because problems with the axles were discovered.
Between the end of 2013 and 2015, the commissioning of 21 more vehicles in an improved C2 version was announced, which are very similar to the C1 in terms of appearance and interior. However, the start of the first train of this series took place two and a half years later in June 2016. The options for a further 46 vehicles of this type were redeemed in July 2020 and should go into operation from 2022.
These trains were also ordered as six-car trains. By reducing the number of seats, the interior offers space for 940 passengers, compared to 912 in the C1.9 and C1.10 models. With this order, the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft wants to implement its service offensive with more frequent intervals of 2½ to 2 minutes on sections of the route and replace the oldest type A vehicles.
During the day, almost exclusively trains consisting of three type A or B double railcars or one type C multiple unit run on all lines except the U4. When the load is lower, for example in early and late traffic, so-called short trains run from just two type A or double cars B. The train length is shown on the train display screens, the stopping position of the short trains can be found on the screens and information labels on the track.
During some large-scale operations, there was a temporary exchange of cars between the Nuremberg and Munich subways . B. during the 1972 Olympic Games , the Nuremberg Christmas Market in 1978 or the Pope's visit in 1980. The first generation of cars in Nuremberg was originally identical to the type A trains, but later modifications mean that the trains are not coupled.
All trains have a maximum speed of 80 km / h, the average travel speed of the Munich subway is 36 km / h.
Like the one in Vienna, the Munich underground network has been equipped with the LZB 500 short loop system (LZB 502/512) since it was commissioned. In contrast to the Vienna underground network, stationary signals were not dispensed with. Until the mid-1990s, driving was carried out exclusively by hand using fixed signals (FO). Only then was the LZB activated in sections, at that time still with light-switched signals. In regular operation, LZB is used during the day. In the evening from 11 p.m. until the end of operations and the first train in the morning is driven by hand, taking into account the fixed signals, so that the driver can also keep up with manual operation (so-called "driving according to fixed signals (FO)"). In the past, people drove by hand after 9 p.m. and on Sundays. It is stipulated that every driver has to achieve a certain monthly number of driving hours according to fixed signals.
When “driving to LZB”, the driver presses two start buttons at the same time after starting up or after each train dispatch. The driver then monitors the track space, operates the doors, handles the train handling and is available in the event of a fault. The driver can drive either manually using the maximum speed displayed in the driver's cab or with automatic travel and brake control (AFB) ; Fixed signals are darkened in both LZB driving modes . The train number-dependent switchover between "Driving according to fixed signals (FO)" and "Driving according to LZB" takes place at the signal box, which means now by remote control from the subway operations control center. If the train protection system malfunctions, a substitute signal is activated manually.
The Munich subway is equipped with 78 m long LZB loops as standard, which are lengthened as the normal direction of travel descends. As a result, the LZB standard braking distance is always guaranteed over three LZB loops, at least in the normal direction of travel; Another LZB loop is used to keep a safe distance. A following train can move up to 80 meters on a train standing on a platform or leaving the platform. Additional stopping positions can be set in the LZB. In the area of the stations, due to the platform length of 120 m, the LZB loops are arranged in such a way that at the respective exit signal there is a slip path of 96 m on the level.
At times, consideration was also given to retrofitting the so-called “driverless turn” and thus to carry out the turning drive required at terminal stops without a driver. The motivation for this is shorter turnaround times, which would lead to cost savings.
Since the electrics in the couplings of the vehicles are only designed on one side, all trains can only be coupled in one direction. This leads to the above-mentioned peculiarity of the north and south end of a route (see U4 ). The “north end” of a train can only be coupled with the “south end” of another. This is why there is no track system in the entire network that enables the train to turn (i.e. no triangular journeys).
For the transport of building materials, tracks or new escalators, there are a few small cars with a crane as well as a diesel and two battery locomotives with flat wagons, ballast wagons and wagons with a built-in lifting platform. In addition to a few other special vehicles, the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft has a vacuum cleaner train (VakTrak) baptized with the name “Schlucki”, which gradually removes dirt and rubbish from the track bed when operations are closed. The 56 meter long special train travels through the network at a speed of up to 10 km / h and has a cleaning air throughput of 300,000 m³ / h. This train is so far unique in Germany.
On September 20, 1994, on Truderinger Strasse, a bus on line 192 fell backwards into a large, sudden hole in the depths; the bus disappeared almost completely into the water that had washed away the street. The cause was washouts during the construction of the subway. Three fatalities and a double-digit number of injuries were the result.
Up to now, three double railcars had to be deleted from the vehicle fleet due to accidents, but there have not yet been any serious accidents in which vehicles were damaged in the passenger service of the Munich subway.
Two DTs (149 and 176) were completely destroyed in a fire in a parking facility on September 5, 1983. Due to the failure of a fan for the braking resistors, the train at the main train station was taken out of scheduled service and taken to the Königsplatz sweeping system to the north. There the wagons caught fire and both units burned out. The tunnel ceiling of the parking facility was also badly damaged, but regular traffic could be resumed quickly, on the U1 after just a few hours. Part of one of the two units can be viewed in the Munich Fire Brigade Museum together with operational logs and photos . Another part was used in a fire test by the Research and Testing Office of the International Union of Railways in a disused Norwegian railway tunnel in 1985 and then scrapped.
Another DT was severely damaged in a shunting accident on December 28, 1995 when the vehicle was being driven too fast when coupling. The heavily damaged DT was the prototype 092. The undamaged half has been on display since 2006 in the Transport Center of the Deutsches Museum in the “Urban Rail Transport” department.
The subway drivers are trained on a driving simulator in the technical base in Fröttmaning.
The doors of almost all trains now have a pinch detection as well as an optical and acoustic signaling of the closing process. Emergency intercoms in every door area enable direct communication with the driver. All train stations have emergency stop systems with which the entrance to a track can be blocked for passengers if, for example, a person has entered the track area. Activating the emergency stop activates emergency stop signals that are located in the tunnel area immediately in front of and just behind the station. These cause the driver to initiate emergency braking immediately. In automatic mode, the subway train is braked automatically.
A special feature is the semi-communal facility of the U-Bahn-Wache , which ensures safety in the U-Bahn and U-Bahn stations and also supports the handling of vehicles at junction stations such as Marienplatz during large-scale operations such as football matches.
On the night of April 26, 2013, three different systems for track bed monitoring were officially put into operation at the Rotkreuzplatz underground station. Laser, radar and video systems are used here. The use of such systems was required by both the passenger and the blind association. The various systems are to be tested for a year. The Studentenstadt underground station was selected for testing on the surface.
All underground stations are barrier-free with elevators or ramps. Most of the stops that were originally built without a lift were equipped accordingly in the 1990s and around the turn of the millennium. The station architecture and the lighting have been optimized for barrier-free access; in addition, each platform edge is provided with a tactile strip for the visually impaired, which marks the beginning of the safety strip.
The new type C underground trains have barrier-free boarding areas and handrails and an optical and acoustic passenger information system.
In addition to three larger systems, there are parking facilities across the entire network between the stations and especially at the ends of the line, in which the underground trains can be parked at night and outside rush hour. In addition, replacement trains are posted here at some points in the network, which replace regular trains in the event of a defect.
Technical basis in Fröttmaning
Before the subway construction began, a suitable location for a depot for the subway was looked for. The previous tram workshops were out of the question for reasons of space, an underground workshop in the center was ruled out for financial reasons. It quickly became clear that a workshop would be built above ground at the pine garden in the northern part of the city. For this operational reason, the construction of the U6 to Kieferngarten had priority, although other routes would have been more important in terms of traffic requirements.
Initially, the depot in Fröttmaning mainly consisted of parking facilities and storage buildings as well as maintenance halls in which minor repairs and, in some cases, overhauls were carried out. Since the still small fleet of cars did not justify a main workshop, individual parts had to be transferred to the main tram workshop for repairs.
As the underground construction progressed in the mid-1970s, the increased demand for cars led to the construction of a main workshop next to the maintenance halls, in which all necessary tasks for the underground can be carried out. In the 1980s, the northern depot was further expanded to its current state, the technical base in Fröttmaning, which now has its own adjacent underground station.
Before the North Depot was completed, a test run with the three prototype trains took place on a section of the U6. For this, the parking facility north of the Alte Heide train station was temporarily used as a makeshift workshop.
At the southern end of the U5 line in Neuperlach Süd there is an extensive above-ground parking facility, which was necessary with the construction of the then U8 to relieve the technical base in the north of the city. Outside of rush hour and during the night, trains are parked here that cannot be parked in other parking facilities on the U5. A total of up to 41 double railcars can be parked here.
Since there was no connection to the rest of the track network and, above all, to the technical base in Fröttmaning when the U5-West was built, a connecting line was built under the Theresienwiese , north of Implerstraße station (U3 / U6) and east of Schwanthalerhöhe station (U4 / U5) is connected to a single track. There is space for 18 double railcars on two sidings, a third track serves as a through track for vehicles between the two lines.
In the regular timetable the route is not used by passengers, only during a construction site at Odeonsplatz (installation of a double track change) in May 2003 the U3 line coming from Fürstenried West was turned around at Schwanthalerhöhe.
With the opening of the U3 to Moosach in December 2010, the expansion of the Munich underground network came to a standstill for the time being. For the first time since 1965, there are no longer any subway sections under construction in Munich.
U6-West: Großhadern Clinic - Martinsried
The 1.3 km long route is to connect the biotechnology center with the Martinsried campus in Martinsried to the subway network. Since the route will cross the city limits here, the municipality of Planegg and the Free State of Bavaria are responsible for planning and financing . At the instigation of the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs, the state capital Munich initiated preliminary planning and had an expert report drawn up that forecast a positive cost-benefit factor for this route. In 2007, the municipality of Planegg had test drilling carried out, which showed that further construction is possible from a technical point of view. In 2008 it also awarded a contract to renew the ten-year-old cost-benefit analysis of the extension.
The district council of the district of Munich decided on July 20, 2009 to build the extension. The 67 million euro route was originally scheduled to go into operation by 2014/2015. Administrative considerations and delays in drafting the contract by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, however, meant that the groundbreaking ceremony planned for 2012 had to be postponed. The project was finally approved in October 2013, but negotiations on assumption of costs and responsibilities dragged on. In December 2014, the Bavarian cabinet finally gave the green light for further construction. After all contracts had been negotiated, the tax office demanded that changes to the sales tax law be incorporated, which led to further delays in the start of construction. In the spring of 2017, a project management company was to be established between the sponsors, and the extension was expected to be completed by 2022. In June 2017 there was talk of an increase in costs to around 100 million euros, which might require a new vote in the district council. As of October 2019, construction will start in spring 2022 as possible.
U5-West: Laimer Platz - Pasing
The route was in the planning approval procedure, but was initially not pursued any further. Preparatory measures were foreseen in the budget for 2008. Since the S-Bahn and Tram 19 are already running parallel to the planned route , the transport benefit is controversial. Some passenger associations are calling for the extension to be guided by five to six stations across the Blumenau in order to develop an area that is further away from the S-Bahn and is currently only served by bus lines.
In July 2013, the city council again commissioned more detailed plans for the underground extension to Pasing. The 3.6 km long route is to be led via the planned stations Willibaldstraße and Am Knie to the long-distance train station Pasing. The subway platform at Pasing station is to be built so deep that a later extension under the Würm to the Freiham development area is possible. The Munich City Council decided on the construction on July 14, 2015. In 2015, the building department assumed a construction time of six years and costs of 547 million euros. A planning approval decision for the section up to Willibaldstrasse was issued on November 21, 2019. As of November 2019, construction is expected to start in 2021 and completion in 2029.
There are also plans to expand the Theresienwiese underground station to four tracks. During the Oktoberfest this station is overloaded with up to 20,000 people per hour, so that it often had to be temporarily closed during the Oktoberfest. The extension of the U5 west to Pasing will exacerbate this situation, as Oktoberfest visitors will then travel to Theresienwiese from two directions by underground . In the opinion of the city council and MVG, the four-track expansion of the station is therefore the inevitable consequence of the extension of the U5 to Pasing. The requirements for this station for the planned U9 clasp should also be included in the expansion plans .
U4 east: Arabellapark - Englschalking
The route would close the gap between the previous terminus Arabellapark and the S8 in Englschalking and significantly shorten the travel time from Bogenhausen and the Arabellapark area to Munich Airport with a change to the S8. This would also relieve the main S-Bahn line, and the passengers of the S8 could avoid any disruptions from Englschalking via the U4. The financing is currently unclear, critics are skeptical about an extension of the U4, which is already underutilized. In a current flyer of the MVG a variant with only one intermediate station (Fideliopark) is presented, an additional intermediate station Cosimapark contained in older plans is no longer included. At the same time, the construction of a tram route between the two stations is being investigated. There is also the option of continuing the U4 from Englschalking to Messestadt Riem or Aschheim later .
U6 north: Garching - Freising district
Since the terminus at Garching-Forschungszentrum is already on the border with the Freising district , an extension to the north is required to the Neufahrn or Eching S-Bahn stops only about six kilometers away, or even to the airport, which is only 13 kilometers away (see Munich 2004 regional plan) . In a feasibility study commissioned by the MVG itself, an extension of the U6 to the Neufahrner S-Bahn station was examined. While the study showed, as expected, that these plans are no substitute for a rapid transit or express S-Bahn connection between Munich Central Station and the airport due to the low speed of the underground trains and the resulting long travel times , she came to the conclusion that networking the U6 and S1 would bring many advantages. In addition to the travel time savings to the airport from the U6 stop Universität, the accessibility of the Allianz Arena from northern and eastern Bavaria and from the airport and the connection between the Garching and Freising-Weihenstephan locations of the Technical University of Munich were emphasized. After a subsequent first cost-benefit study still came to a negative result, the U6 extension is currently (in 2018) being examined again in order to adapt the infrastructure to the expected population growth in addition to the arguments mentioned above.
As a relief for the lines U3 and U6, this route between the stations Münchner Freiheit and Implerstraße is to run west of the main line of these two underground lines via a new station at the Pinakotheken and a third underground station under the main station. On December 12, 2008, the SPD parliamentary group applied to the Munich city council to examine this new subway connection in order to relieve the heavily used route of the U3 / U6 and above all the heavily frequented and no longer expandable transfer stations at Odeonsplatz and Sendlinger Tor. A joint study by MVG and MVV from 2014 came to the conclusion that the line would be structurally possible. However, for operational reasons, it should already be threaded into main line 1 at the Giselastraße underground station, which is then to be expanded to four tracks , instead of at Münchner Freiheit. In addition, as a possible alternative to the four-track expansion of the Theresienwiese station, a new station under the Bavariapark is being considered. It is also being checked whether a clasp can be set up north of the main train station between this U9 and the U2 tunnel between the Theresienstraße and Königsplatz underground stations. The resulting relief of individual route sections could be used to set up new reinforcement lines.
Further expansion options
In the city council resolution to update the local transport plan from 2015, it was decided to examine some upgraded routes. In addition, there is the demand of individual city council groups with regard to further expansion considerations. In detail, this concerns the following extensions of the existing network:
U1-Süd: Harlaching - Solln / Unterhaching
The relatively advanced planning of an extension from Mangfallplatz to the Harlaching Clinic was initially abandoned due to the low number of passengers expected. In 2015 plans to extend the U1 line were taken up again, this time even as far as Solln . The U1 would cross the Isar . At the end of 2016, the plan was presented as part of the multi-year investment plan. At the same time, the community of Unterhaching is striving to extend the U1 from Mangfallplatz via the Infineon site in Neubiberg and the Unterhaching-Nord industrial park.
In parallel, the extension of tram line 18 from Schwanseestrasse to the clinic is being investigated.
U3-West: Moosach - Untermenzing - Pasing
A study from 2011 showed a cost-benefit factor of 0.3 for the extension of the U3 from Moosach to Untermenzing S-Bahn station . According to a resolution from 2015, this investigation is to be updated and carried out against the background of a continuation not only to Untermenzing, but from there to Pasing. The city council faction, Bürgerliche Mitte, suggested that the route should then lead past the end of the A 8 northwest of Blutenburg Castle and build an underground station with an attached park + ride system there. This plan is also part of the 2016 multi-year investment plan.
U4-Ost: Arabellapark - Messestadt
The planning department of the city of Munich has presented plans for a new district in the east of Bogenhausen, which will offer apartments for up to 36,000 residents. The plans also include an extension of the U4 to Messestadt in order to connect the new district to local public transport. At the same time, a direct transfer connection between the airport S-Bahn and the Munich Trade Fair would be created in Englschalking. After the completion of the Erdinger ring closure , a further connection between the airport / trade fair at Munich-Riem station would be possible with the S2 .
U5 east: Neuperlach - Taufkirchen
The municipalities of Taufkirchen and Neubiberg are pursuing the goal that in future the U5, which previously ended in Neuperlach , should travel via the University of the Bundeswehr Munich and the Ludwig Bölkow Campus in Ottobrunn to Ikea in Taufkirchen-Ost.
U5-West: Pasing - Freiham (- Germering) and junction to Blumenau
In 2015, an extension of the U5 or tram line 19 from Pasing station was considered as an alternative to connect the newly emerging Freiham district to local public transport . The city council included this option in the plans for the extension of the U5 to Pasing. The option of a junction to the Blumenau district west of the Willibaldplatz underground station was also included. The Willibaldplatz underground station is part of the extension of the U5 West from Laimer Platz to Pasing , decided by the city council on July 14, 2015 . The Munich planning department has drawn up a route proposal for the extension from Pasing to Freiham. At the beginning of 2019, the city council decided against tram 19 and included the extension of the U5 to Freiham in the “in planning / under construction” category. In February 2020, the building department published a planning template that already provides for the shell of the Freiham underground station together with the other infrastructure of the district. The actual route could then be built from 2028, when the underground to Pasing is completed. The opening would then be possible around 2035.
Ideas for continuing beyond the city limits already exist; discussions about an extension took place with the Germering municipality in mid-2019 . As of the end of November 2019, such an extension by 2040-2050 is considered possible.
U6 west: Martinsried - Planegg
In addition to the planned extension of the U6 to Martinsried, it was decided to include the continuation of the U6 from Martinsried to Planegg as a route to be examined in the local transport plan. In Planegg it would be possible to change to the S6 S-Bahn line .
U26: Am Hart - Kieferngarten
Together with the U9 clip, a connection between the U2 and U6 underground lines in the north of Munich is to be investigated. The end of the route are the Am Hart and Kieferngarten stations . There have already been investigations into the route with the result that the route is unprofitable; these are now to be renewed. However, it is much more likely that a new tram line will be built on the route; the plans for this are more advanced. In the multi-year investment plan for 2016, however, the city council kept the underground line open as an option.
In the past, other expansion considerations were also made. However, most of these measures have proven to be inappropriately expensive in relation to their benefits and have therefore been abandoned. This affects the following extensions to the existing network.
U1-Nord: OEZ - Fasanerie or Feldmoching
This extension through the Lerchenau district would also end the U1 in the north at an S-Bahn station and at the Olympia shopping center (OEZ) would result in the Northern Cross, originally intended by the U-Bahn department . However, since the neighboring Feldmoching and Moosach stations are already connected to the underground network, there were doubts about the usefulness of this connection from the start. After studies had shown a cost-benefit factor of 0.5, this option was not pursued any further.
To improve the connection of the airport , an extension of the U1 to Neufahrn was examined, whereby the line from Feldmoching should then run along the S-Bahn route of the S1. A draft of the ÖDP suggested two variants for the section between OEZ and Feldmoching. One involved tunneling under the settlement on Lerchenauer See. The other was based on an above-ground route, along the existing route east of Lerchenauer See, which was originally intended for the Munich Transrapid and is currently used for freight trains.
U2 north: Feldmoching - Karlsfeld
The city council parliamentary group of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and the CSU parliamentary group in the Karlsfeld municipal council proposed the above-ground extension of the U2 from Feldmoching to Karlsfeld as a measure to relieve the community of high car traffic. In addition, the aim was to create a greater incentive for the employees of the large companies MAN and MTU to use local public transport to get to work. After initial investigations had shown a low cost-benefit ratio for this route, no in-depth planning was carried out.
Mini subway ring line
U-Bahn or S-Bahn ring line along existing routes
Also under discussion was a ring line ("Ringbahn") along existing routes ( Bahn-Nordring in the north, east corridor in the east), whereby it remained open whether such a ring line would be implemented as an S-Bahn or an U-Bahn. A proposal by the Pro Bahn passenger association provides for this route to be operated with multi-system vehicles that can use both underground and S-Bahn lines in order to be able to use the U3 tunnel west of the Oberwiesenfeld underground station . A new initiative by the Free Voters , on the other hand, calls for an expanded variant of this route, namely between Pasing, Moosach, Bahn-Nordring, Ost-Korridor and Berg am Laim, to be expanded as the S-Bahn Nordring. In their opinion, this also includes an extension of the U1-Nord to at least the Bahn-Nordring (crossing station Lasallestrasse), a crossing station Knorrstrasse with the line U2 and a crossing station Freimann Süd with the line U6.
Tangente Westfriedhof - Hohenzollernplatz
The subway cross-connection between the existing U1 and U2 lines (a connection between the Westfriedhof and Hohenzollernplatz stations was proposed ) was not included in the local transport plan, as an additional line there was at times required by the Schwabing-West district committee and the FDP city council faction cannot be integrated into the subway network. In addition, the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft considers the existing tangential connections (tram line 12 and bus line 53) to be sufficient.
Since September 8, 2009, there has been official mobile network coverage for the first time in some of Munich's subway stations in the city center and on the routes in between. The mobile network was set up by a consortium of the then four large German mobile network providers under the leadership of Vodafone . On July 2, 2011, the expansion of a UMTS network in Munich was completed. Since then, there has been mobile phone reception in the entire Munich subway network. By 2012, the extra-urban section Garching-Hochbrück - Garching Research Center should also be supplied with radio communication. In November 2013 this section was also provided with a cellular network. The LTE network was put into operation on March 31, 2017 .
|September 2009||Routes between the main station, Stachus, Sendlinger Tor, Marienplatz, Odeonsplatz and Theresienwiese|
|end of 2009||U2-Ost to Messestadt
U6-Nord to Fröttmaning (from Studentenstadt, overground route already with reception)
|December 2010||Remaining network except for routes listed under 2011|
|2011||U1 between Columbusplatz and Mangfallplatz
U2 between Am Hart and Feldmoching
U3 from Obersendling to Fürstenried West
U3 from the Olympia shopping center to Moosach
U5 between Westendstraße and Laimer Platz
U6 from Holzapfelkreuth to Großhadern Hospital
U6 in the Garching tunnel stations
Passenger TV / Munich window
In April 2009 it was also announced that from the end of 2013 all wagons on the Munich subway would be equipped with screens for displaying customer information, news and entertainment. The project is funded through advertising. In 2016, however, only a few wagons, exclusively of the type A2.5, A2.6 and C2.11, were equipped with screens.
Passenger television was launched on November 21, 2013. The left monitor shows the next train station, the further course of the journey and current connection information. The other monitor is 80% with editorial content (news, entertainment, current MVG information) and 20% with advertising. Four double monitors are installed per car. With this conversion measure, type A trains also receive automatic announcements for the first time. The new C2.11 trains are already being delivered with the monitors. Passenger television was introduced on Munich trams at the end of 2015.
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