The Hamburg U-Bahn is the elevated and underground railway system of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg and some neighboring communities in Schleswig-Holstein . The system was put into operation in 1912 and is the second oldest in Germany after the Berlin U-Bahn . With a route length of 106.373 km, the Hamburg subway has the second largest network in Germany after the one in Berlin.
The operator is the municipal Hamburger Hochbahn AG , which, with the exception of the Norderstedt Mitte - Garstedt section, also owns the system. The Norderstedt section, including some DT4 vehicles, belongs to Verkehrsgesellschaft Norderstedt (VGN), a subsidiary of Stadtwerke Norderstedt , which the Hochbahn has commissioned to operate.
The route network is normal-gauge and completely independent of road traffic, the power supply is provided by a side, coated from below busbar with 750 volts DC voltage . The predominantly radial route from the city center to the districts to the north and east of it and the large proportion of open route sections are characteristic of the network. A total of around 61 kilometers of the network run on dams and viaducts or in cuts, while the tunnels together make up around 45 kilometers. The urban area south of the Norderelbe and west of the former border between Hamburg and Altona has not yet been served by the underground.
Together with the S-Bahn , the A-Bahn (AKN) , the R-Bahn and the bus network, the U-Bahn is one of the main carriers of local public transport in the Hanseatic city and its surrounding area. In 2017, the subway carried a total of 242.5 million passengers at 1,447.4 million passenger kilometers.
Lines and operations
The Hamburg subway network consists of four lines:
The 0.505 km long section Schlump (Ringbahnsteig) - Christ Church, the so-called Moorkamp curve, has not been used in regular service since June 3, 1973 and has only served as an operating line since then.
The current line names were first introduced in 1966 for the U1 and U2 , followed by the name U3 in the following year . The name U4 was given to the new line from HafenCity to Billstedt in 2012 .
The letter routes
In-house, the HHA uses a further classification system with letters, which primarily has a structural character and therefore does not correspond to the train routes. This system was set up in the early 1950s and classifies the existing lines under the letters A to D. The Rothenburgsorter line was no longer taken into account here, as it was decided to demolish it in 1944. New lines are given the letters from E in chronological order, including the planned but not built lines, so the system has gaps.
|route||Route name||length||of which tunnel||Route & Notes|
|A.||ring||17.487 km||5.113 km||Schlump - St. Pauli - Town Hall - South Central Station - Berliner Tor - Barmbek - Kellinghusenstraße - Schlump|
|B.||Eimsbüttel line||9.540 km||8.126 km||Schlump (Ringbahnsteig) - Christ Church - Hagenbeck Zoo - Niendorf Markt - Niendorf Nord
The 0.505 km long section Schlump (Ringbahnsteig) - Christ Church has
only been used as an operating line (Moorkamp curve) since the opening of the inner city tunnel (Line T)
8.308 km 5.004 km 6.056 km
0.119 km 5.453 km
||State border Schleswig-Holstein / Hamburg - Ochsenzoll - Langenhorn Markt - Ohlsdorf
Ohlsdorf - Alsterdorf - Kellinghusenstrasse
Kellinghusenstrasse - Jungfernstieg - South Central Station
|C1||Norderstedter branch||3,668 km||1.172 km||State border Hamburg / Schleswig-Holstein - Garstedt - Norderstedt center|
|D.||Walddörferbahn||17.665 km||Barmbek - Wandsbek-Gartenstadt - Farmsen - Volksdorf - Ohlstedt|
|D1||Großhansdorfer branch||10.385 km||Volksdorf - Großhansdorf|
|E.||Wandsbeker line||7.491 km||6,700 km||Central station south (km 19.368) - Wandsbek Markt - Wandsbek-Gartenstadt (km 26.859)
This route begins at km 19.368 of route C and continues its kilometrage
|K||Billstedter line||10.427 km||8.192 km||Berliner Tor - Horner Rennbahn - Billstedt - Mümmelmannsberg|
|T||Inner city tunnel||5.072 km||5.072 km||Berliner Tor - Central Station North - Jungfernstieg - Schlump (below) - Christ Church|
|W.||HafenCity line||5.270 km||4.988 km||Jungfernstieg - Elbe bridges|
|Total route length:||106.373 km||44.935 km||of which 105.868 km are driven in regular line operation and 0.505 km as operational route|
The Hamburg U-Bahn network has four lines with 93 or 103 stops, provided the stations served by several lines are counted several times.
The underground runs daily from approx. 4 a.m. to approx. 1 a.m., on the nights from Friday to Saturday as well as before Sundays and public holidays in Hamburg there is continuous night traffic with a partially shortened route. The subway runs according to a regular schedule that differentiates between a Monday – Friday, Saturday, and Sunday and public holiday schedule. The basic cycle on all lines is 10 minutes during the day and 20 minutes from around 11 p.m. This does not apply to the two north-eastern outer sections Volksdorf - Ohlstedt and Volksdorf - Großhansdorf , which are only served every 20 minutes outside of rush hour. In the inner city area, Monday to Saturday, all lines except the U4 run every 5 minutes until around 9 p.m. Mondays to Fridays on working days, the offer is condensed on certain sections during rush hour to a train sequence of 2½ minutes.
Since the U4 line runs between Jungfernstieg and Billstedt together with the U2 line on the same route, the U4 only runs between the Jungfernstieg and HafenCity University stations in less busy night traffic.
All lines have a uniform symmetry time , which is a few seconds after the minute x1.
At the stations Berliner Tor , Kellinghusenstraße , Wandsbek-Gartenstadt and Barmbek , there is the option of a platform-level transition between the underground lines that run here, which arrive and depart at the respective platform in the same direction of travel or, in the case of Barmbeck, between the two branches of the U3. The trains meet here as simultaneously as possible. Furthermore, at the terminus of the U1 in Norderstedt Mitte, there is a platform-level transition to the AKN line A2 .
The network currently comprises 93 stations, of which 45 are located in tunnels, 42 in a cut or on a railway embankment and 6 on viaducts. At eight stations each there is a transition between the individual underground lines and the S-Bahn, some stations offer both options.
The central nodes of the network are the main station (linking all four underground and six S-Bahn lines as well as the regional and long-distance trains ), Berliner Tor (linking three U-Bahn and four S-Bahn lines) and Jungfernstieg (links three underground and suburban train lines each, with an additional pedestrian tunnel connection to the Rathaus station with the underground line U3).
→ see also: List of Hamburg subway stations
Accessibility and freedom from barriers
The barrier-free expansion of the underground network began in 1990. Of the network's 93 route stops, 82 (as of June 2020) are equipped with elevators and are therefore also fully accessible for passengers with restricted mobility such as wheelchair users or people with prams or walkers.
Of the barrier-free stations, 28 have platforms, the surface of which is raised over the entire length to the boarding level of the trains and thus offer the possibility of step-free boarding. At the other stations, only a section of the platform was raised and only here allows stepless entry. These areas are marked with a chessboard-like floor marking and above head height with boards with pictograms of wheelchairs and prams. This also includes marking with chessboard pictograms on the car doors located in the middle of the train. Anyone who is at this position can get on more easily with a wheelchair or stroller and arrive at the exit stop exactly in the appropriately configured platform area. The partial increase is the reason why short trains of the Hamburg subway, even at stops with only one exit at one end of the platform, usually stop in the middle of the platform and not as close as possible to the entrance.
There is no “automatic” train stop function on the Hamburg U-Bahn to ensure that the middle of the train is precisely positioned at the “checkerboard” marking. Rather, the train driver has to brake “by hand” to a point that is determined by the number of wagons on the respective train. For this purpose, there are signs with the respective number of cars opposite the edge of the platform on the outside of the power rail at the appropriate places.
Planned barrier-free expansion
A central project of the Hochbahn is the barrier-free expansion of all stations in the Hamburg city area. The planned measures include the installation of an elevator per platform, the partial and at some stations the full elevation of the platforms to create step-free entry and the installation of a tactile floor guidance system .
Although the barrier-free expansion of the subway began in 1990, only around 40 percent of the stops were equipped accordingly in 2010. In the 2000s in particular, work was slow: between 2003 and 2010, only 7 stations were adjusted. Since 2011, however, the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg has been providing additional grants for the barrier-free expansion, which has made it possible to significantly increase the number of adapted stations. For the first expansion stage, 18 stops were named in 2012, which were expanded between 2012 and 2015. In fact, 17 existing stops were expanded and put into operation in these years. With the adaptation of the Rauhes Haus station in December 2015, the U4 became the first completely barrier-free line in the network. In August 2014, Hochbahn presented the plans for a further expansion stage, in which ten more stops had been adjusted by the end of 2016.
For the implementation of the first expansion stage, the Senate provided 32 million euros in additional funds; for the measures outstanding after 2015, Hochbahn expected an investment volume of around 100 million euros in the summer according to a rough estimate. In December 2015, she estimated an investment volume of 180 million euros for the 33 stops in phase II. The adaptation of the Landungsbrücken and Sternschanze stations was seen as particularly costly, as they are each located in a curve with particularly large distances between the platform and doors surrender. The elevated railway did not rule out the construction of new stations to straighten the course of the rails. However, an alternative was found for landing stages: movable rubber slats that can be walked on shorten the distance between the platform and the train. The U1 platform on Jungfernstieg is also classified as complicated. These three stations are among those whose start of expansion was not yet included in the preview (until 2018) of December 2015.
The current barrier-free expansion status is given in the table List of Hamburg's underground stations .
Equipped with WiFi
The Hochbahn aims to equip the subway stations with WiFi internet access by the end of 2018 . As the first stop, wilhelm.tel equipped the Norderstedt Mitte station with WiFi, operations started in May 2015. A so-called pilot phase began in April 2016 at the Hamburger Hochbahn in the Borgweg and Mönckebergstraße stations. In 2017, all 25 stations on the U3 line were supplied. in spring 2018 also all stops of the lines U2 and U4. In May 2018, the western part of the U1 between Norderstedt and Jungfernstieg was completely covered. The network offered by the Hochbahn can be used without prior registration and free of charge.
After Berlin (1902) and Schöneberg (1910, today U4 of the Berlin subway ), Hamburg was the third German city to have its own subway. It was not until 1968 that the Frankfurt subway was added, followed by the Munich subway in 1971 and the Nuremberg subway in 1972 .
The development history of the Hamburg elevated and underground railway is essentially divided into the following phases:
- from 1890 planning and construction of the first routes
- from 1912 commissioning of the first section of the route
- from 1923 merging to form a rapid transit system
- from 1955 replacement of the tram by omnibus and subway (so-called broken traffic )
- from 1975 expansion of the route network
At the end of the 19th century, the idea of fast urban transport came up. The route and the type of transport were discussed well into the 20th century - among other things, a suspension railway was discussed. In 1906 the Hamburg Senate then issued a construction contract for the elevated and underground railways to Siemens & Halske and AEG in Berlin. The groundbreaking ceremony was carried out on October 7, 1906 for a ring line with the route Hauptbahnhof - Berliner Tor - Barmbeck - Kellinghusenstraße - Schlump - Landungsbrücken - City Hall - Hauptbahnhof with three branches to Eimsbüttel , Ohlsdorf and Rothenburgsort . In 1911 the operating company " Hamburger Hochbahn AG " was founded.
On February 15, 1912, ten years after the commissioning of the Berlin subway and two years after the commissioning of the municipal subway Schöneberg , the third German subway with the first part of the ring line between Barmbeck (today Barmbek ) and Rathausmarkt was opened (today town hall ) opened. The route consisted of tunnel, dam and viaduct sections. Further routes were gradually opened until the ring was closed on June 29, 1912 and the planned basic network with ring line and branch lines to Hellkamp in Eimsbüttel (tunnel), Ohlsdorf (dam) and Rothenburgsort (viaduct) were completed in 1915 . From 1918 the route network was extended further, for example from Ohlsdorf to Ochsenzoll on the Langenhorner Bahn and the new Walddörferbahn from Barmbeck with branches to Groß Hansdorf (now Großhansdorf ) and Ohlstedt , before the last network expansion before the 1931 with the KellJung line as a fast inner-city connection Second World War ensued.
Due to the damage caused by the heavy bombing in World War II , the subway had to be temporarily suspended in the summer of 1943. The viaduct route from the main train station to Rothenburgsort was not rebuilt due to the complete destruction of the districts crossed through. It took five years until the entire network - with the exception of the route to Rothenburgsort - was intact again.
It was not until 1960 that the first network expansion took place after almost 30 years with the extension of the KellJung line in the city center. In several intermediate steps, the line to Wandsbek-Gartenstadt was put into operation in 1963 . The route network of the subway now covered a length of 67.9 km. In the following years, also in connection with the progressive shutdown of the tram network , further route sections were opened at short intervals until 1973. In 1962, the construction of a diameter line between Stellingen and Billstedt began. The Eimsbüttel branch, which was extended to Hagenbeck's zoo in 1966, forms its western section . The eastern section of the route went into operation until 1970 after gradual extensions from Berliner Tor to Horner Rennbahn (January 2, 1967), Legienstrasse (September 24, 1967), Billstedt (September 28, 1969) and Merkenstrasse (May 31, 1970).
The division of the subway network into three lines became possible in 1963 after the Wandsbeck route was completed. From 1967, after the formation of the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund (HVV), line numbers were introduced for the first time on the U- and S-Bahn. In May 1969 the extension of the U1 from Ochsenzoll to Garstedt went into operation. The continuous inner city crossing between Schlump and Berliner Tor followed in 1973 , after the sections Hauptbahnhof Nord - Berliner Tor (- Barmbek ) were served by the U21 line from 1968 and Schlump - Gänsemarkt from 1970 by the U22 line. From then until 2009, the ring route was no longer continuously served by one line.
Due to the economic recession, the expansion of the underground network stagnated since 1973, despite numerous plans. It was not until 1985 that the network was extended to the north with the northern extension of the U2 to Niendorf Markt . This route has continued to Niendorf Nord since 1991 . In 1990 the U3 reached the eastern edge of the city with the renewed extension between Merkenstrasse and Mümmelmannsberg . In 1996 the part of the Alsternordbahn between Garstedt and Norderstedt Mitte was replaced by the extended U1.
In June 2009, the east branches of the U2 and U3 lines were exchanged so that the high-demand connection between Billstedt and the city center can be served by long trains. From 2007, the line from Jungfernstieg (outside tracks on the lowest platform level) to HafenCity was built for the new U4 line and went into operation on November 28, 2012.
The subway has two workshops for maintaining the trains. You are in Barmbek and Farmsen. From 2017 a third underground workshop was built between the Legienstrasse and Billstedt stops. The area had been earmarked for this since the line was built. The workshop is scheduled to go into operation in August 2020. The trains on lines U2 and U4 in particular are to be serviced here.
For the first decades, ticket sales at Hamburger Hochbahn were carried out by staff in ticket issuers at the station entrances. The entrances and exits to and from the platforms were checked by staff. Most of the time, the tickets were punched on passimeters at the entrance and checked and collected upon leaving. From the early 1960s, new, standardized barrier systems with mechanical barriers were introduced at the exits . Due to the weight of the passenger approaching from the platform side on a push button placed under a rubber mat, the barrier was released and closed again after the passenger had passed through by spring pressure. Usually there were three of these passages side by side, separated by steel grids, which had a wooden handrail at the top, in which a slot was made for inserting the departed tickets, which were collected in the box below.
In addition to the barriers to the exit, there were - at station entrances with a larger number of passengers - several ticket offices, mostly one on the right side of the entrance, where tickets were sold from a room via a counter. The individual cards of the different price levels were printed from the roll from several printing units controlled electrically by pushbuttons (until the mid-1960s in differently colored) thin cardboard and then cut and ejected. The time appeared (in 5-minute jumps) on the center of the back. At the HHA no multi-trip tickets have (until today) been issued, and there has been practically no advance sale. So there were never validators . Time tickets (weekly and monthly tickets) were also issued. Between the right side wall and the curfews there was usually a box, where initially two more ticket issuers were placed one behind the other, one for the right and one for the left passage. The corresponding passageways were only open when these ticket issuers were occupied by staff, otherwise they were closed with a barrier.
In 1962/1963 a new tariff for the use of the means of transport of the Hamburger Hochbahn AG and the HADAG was introduced, whereby the basic structure of the zoning for the season ticket tariff in Hamburg still exists today at the HVV. The aim was to increase the proportion of season ticket customers in order to reduce the sale of single tickets and to relieve the staff, which was also achieved. Now the access barriers in the middle of the check-in facilities could remain unoccupied and could be opened for unimpeded passage for season ticket customers during rush hour at entrances with a high number of passengers. To further ease the burden of selling single tickets at the underground stations, the industry commissioned the development of ticket machines for coins with remaining money. From the mid-1960s onwards, the less-used ticket issuers were increasingly replaced by several single-price ticket machines, one for each price level. Also, platform tickets were sold. From 1976 these were in turn replaced by - depending on the number of passengers, several, but at least two - surcharge ticket machines that could issue (almost) all single tickets (20 types) and accept coins from 10 pfennigs to 5 DM. The type of card was selected using selection buttons. The buttons for the price levels were marked with different colors, on a rapid transit network map hung up next to the machines, the destination stops were marked with the color of the respective price level, so that the selection was very easy and clear. The different information on the type of ticket has now been printed on specially printed paper. These machines also gave change. In the first few years these devices only accepted coins, later newer machines were used that also accepted banknotes. The boxes in the entrance for the earlier ticket issuance were dismantled from the end of the 1970s, later also the curfews, the barriers of which had not been functional since the end of the 1960s, but were fixed when they were open. This made the entrance and exit areas considerably more spacious. The border to the area where a ticket is required (“lock”) is now only indicated by markings in the floor and ceiling.
For a long time, trains in Hamburg were handled by supervisors (stop attendants) on the platform. They monitored the change of passengers and initially transmitted the door closing and departure orders via a trowel to the accompanying train attendant, who passed them on to the train driver. Door closers operated with compressed air were not introduced until the late 1930s, until then they had to be closed by hand, which was often not done in the summer months. After the introduction of electrically operated signals ("close doors" as "T", "depart" as a circle), the train attendants could be saved. The driver now received the door closing and departure orders directly from the bus stop attendant via these signals. In addition, there was a raised desk for each direction of travel on the platform - usually right next to the stop attendant's booth - with a switch box with a clock (with a second hand), a microphone , various lamps for function control and the one - initially operated with the elevated railway triangular key - Switch was provided. After shouting “stay back, please!”, The stop attendant turned his key first in one direction (“close doors”), then in the other direction (“exit”). There was another signal a few meters behind the platform so that the stop attendant could send a brake command to the driver in an emergency. Due to rationalization efforts, this procedure was gradually changed. As early as the 1960s, many platforms were "cleared remotely" using cameras and monitors; clearance was carried out from the opposite platform or from ticket issuers. The publicly accessible check-in boxes were converted to operate with security keys, and platforms to be newly equipped received check-in systems in lockable boxes.
At the end of the 1980s, the stations of the U1 line remained unmanned in late traffic (from 10:30 p.m. and until 5:30 a.m.). Instead, handlers now drove on the trains as train attendants. Since there were fewer trains on the way than stops on this line at that time, it was possible to save personnel. Now, however, the stops had to be locked by staff equipped with cars after the last train had passed. In the 1990s, the current process was gradually changed over. The images from the cameras mounted on the platform are transmitted wirelessly to a screen in the driver's cab of the train using a tube installed in the platform area between the rails, and the drivers handle their train themselves. The only exceptions are for large events with high passenger numbers, where additional supervisors are deployed on the platform. Many of the stalls originally on almost every platform for the station attendants have since been demolished, as have previously been the kiosks.
Since February 2014, immediately before the doors are closed, instead of the announcement “Stay back, please!”, A beep has been given to the car by loudspeakers, and a red flashing light signal appears in the interior above every door .
The first self- block system in Germany was set up in 1913 by Siemens on the Dehnhaide – Barmbeck section. In 1923 the self-block was introduced in the entire network of the elevated and underground railway in Hamburg. In 1928 the control of the line trains was tested by Siemens, in 1929 the interlockings for automatic operation with electrical point locks were set up at the HHA. From 1938 the relay technology was used in the HHA signal boxes.
In 1966, Hamburger Hochbahn was the first transport company in Germany to test automated operation of the underground. On December 5, 1967, two differently equipped DT2 units were presented. The unit 9388/9389 was equipped by AEG , the unit 9426/9427 by Siemens . Automated driving was tested on a 6-kilometer section of the U1 between the Ritterstraße and Trabrennbahn stops. This route was equipped with line cables, which also enabled train telephony. The trains in the direction of the Trabrennbahn were controlled with the AEG equipment, in the direction of Ritterstraße with that of Siemens. At the end of the 1960s , automated train sequences were tested together with the DT3 prototype 9600/01/02, whose two driver's cabs were each equipped with AEG or Siemens equipment. In addition, the third track between the Farmsen and Berne depot was available for test drives.
The HHA subsidiary Hamburg Consult developed in the 1970s with funding from the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT), the PUSH - P rozessrechnergesteuertes U -Bahn-automation S ystem H amburg . The following goals were specified: increasing the quality of traffic and operations, increasing the number of trains , reducing energy consumption, reducing operating costs through low-staff operation and improving the working conditions of the staff. PUSH comprised the three levels of scheduling, operations and operations arranged one above the other. At the disposition level, the dispatcher monitors the entire operational sequence with the help of a process computer that is connected to all line control centers and can intervene in the event of malfunctions and special incidents. The route control centers form the operations level and each monitor a route section of around six kilometers in length. They are responsible for controlling the signals and points , regulating the operational sequence with centralized train dispatching and monitoring the stops as well as for the development of the sweeping and parking facilities based on the timetable . At the operating level, doors are closed, acceleration and braking are controlled with the help of train control via track and vehicle devices. The lines are equipped with line cables. The reference system consisted of the two 10-kilometer sections Volksdorf - Großhansdorf and Volksdorf - Hoisbüttel with the Volksdorf center and the remote-controlled Schmalenbeck sub-center. It served 19 turnouts, 4 double crossing points and 53 main and block signals.
From October 31, 1982 to January 8, 1985, six DT3 units converted to LZB operation ran on the north-eastern section of the U1 line between the Volksdorf and Großhansdorf stations . This technology was developed by HHA, Hamburg Consult and Siemens , and the BMFT contributed 23 million DM to the costs of 34 million DM. The trial run served to provide technical operational safety, which the technical supervisory authority also granted. Afterwards, the automated operation in Hamburg was discontinued due to a lack of acceptance by the passengers. The elevated railway was not planning a reintroduction. On other railways - such as the Docklands Light Railway in London or the Nuremberg Underground - driverless trains with advanced technology are now being used in regular passenger service.
Optimization of the shutdown speed
Since timetables contain certain buffers for delays, if a train departs on time, a lower speed is necessary in order to arrive at the next stop on time. At the Hamburg U-Bahn, a computer is used to calculate a reasonable speed for each train when dispatching, depending on the timetable and the delay, and is displayed to the driver. In this way, energy consumption can be reduced.
In the Hamburg subway network, there is an automatic connection protection, especially at stops with a level crossing between two lines. The driver of a train is instructed to wait when a connecting train is expected to arrive at the transfer hub within a specified maximum delay. This information is displayed on the monitor in the driver's cab.
All trains in daily passenger service have a voice memory for the announcements, most of which are spoken by Anke Harnack . Until June 2013, the announcements were spoken by Ingrid Metz-Neun , while special texts and English announcements were spoken by Dennis Ross. Ross continues to speak individual special texts, for example on construction sites.
T-car, TU1-car, TU2-car
The first carriages had a riveted steel girder chassis with two bogies and a car body made of an oak frame with an outer panel made of sheet steel, the roof was covered with impregnated canvas. Only a few cars had driver's cabs on both ends, most were only equipped with them on one side. Each car body had two - except for the last series - single-leaf sliding doors running in door pockets on each side. Up until 1920 there was a class division at the Hamburger Hochbahn, in 2nd class the benches were upholstered, in 3rd class there were benches with dark wooden slats. After that, there was no longer any class division, the benches were no longer upholstered, but the smoking ban in some (parts of) cars was lifted. It was not until 1964 that the smoking compartments were abolished.
Of the 383 railcars (T-cars, later referred to as "A-cars") used by the elevated railway, 125 cars were used during the Second World War. T. considerably destroyed. 118 chassis of partially destroyed wagons were extended after the Second World War by the building's own vehicle workshop in Falkenried and fitted with new wagon bodies. These cars, now provided with a lantern roof, were given the designation "B-Wagen" (later "TU1"). At the end of the 1950s / beginning of the 1960s, 102 other A-cars were reconstructed with a modernization of the interior. These were given the designation "TU2", because of their unpainted car body with new stainless steel sheeting, they were also called "Silberlinge". Since after a change in the ordinance on the construction and operation of trams (BOStrab) - which legally also includes subways - no structures with wooden scaffolding were allowed in passenger service, the elevated railway gradually shut them down and had them largely scrapped. Individual cars were used as work cars for a longer period of time. A total of four of the T-cars are still on the road today as museum vehicles, two of them in their original state and two of the TU1 and TU2 conversion cars.
The T-wagons were braked mechanically with a compressed air- operated block brake acting on the wheel tires . When braking, abrasion occurred on the brake blocks , which swirled through the air and settled on the track bed. In the tunnel stops, attempts were made to keep the dust exposure within limits by regularly pouring the platform surface. Between the dispatch of trains, the stop attendant walked along the platform with a watering can full of water and blew it up with a great and practiced swing. This explains the damp platforms on old photographs of the tunnel stops. The use of brake pads made from different materials did not solve this problem either. Tests with electric brakes (motor as generator) were carried out on individual T-cars at the end of the 1930s / beginning of the 1940s.
An A-car / T-car as a museum train
The B-car (later TU1) as a museum train
A TU2 as a museum train ("Silberling")
The existing fleet of A and B cars was not sufficient for the planned network expansion. That is why the companies Waggonfabrik Uerdingen , Siemens-Schuckert-Werke and AEG developed a new type of railcar, the DT1, on behalf of Hochbahn. In 1958 and 1959 100 DT1 cars (50 units) were delivered to Hamburg. Depending two carriages (A- and B-part) form an operationally non-separable unit, hence the name: D ouble t railcars ( DT ). Due to their all-steel construction, these wagons were heavy, which, given the required performance (high starting acceleration, top speed 80 km / h), caused a great deal of energy. From around 1970 the red / cream-colored paintwork of the DT1 was adapted to the appearance of the DT2 and DT3, they became dark / light gray with red-orange-colored fronts and doors. By 1991 the DT1s were shut down and most of them were scrapped, individual units were converted into work cars and one unit into the “Hanseat” party train. Two more units are still preserved. One serves as a spare part donor for the Hanseatic League, the other is to be restored as a museum car in its original state. However, this is not to be expected in the short term, because both cars are in poor condition due to the long parking in the tunnel.
Between 1962 and 1966, 186 units of the two-part type "DT2" were manufactured by LHB and Kiepe , which shaped the image of the railway until the 1990s. After two trial units (car 9000–9003), they were delivered in five production series (“DT2.1” to “DT2.5”). Due to their lightweight steel construction, but also because of their lower performance (starting acceleration, top speed only 70 km / h), they used significantly less electricity than their predecessors. After the delivery of the DT3 vehicles, the DT2 vehicles were mainly used on the U2 (as a 4, 6 or 8-car train) and U3 (as a 4 or 6-car train) lines in the 1970s and 1980s , after delivery of the DT4 vehicles in the 1990s, mainly on the U3 line.
To extend the life of the DT2, some maintenance efforts were made in the 1980s. The upgraded units of the 4th and 5th series were given new fronts and were then referred to as DT2E. In 1995 the DT2.3 units were then retired. The last units of the DT2.5 series were to be retired by 2000. However, the 15 remaining units served as part of the 2006 soccer World Cup , due to the construction work to convert the U3 line to the ring line in summer 2009, during the renovation of the viaduct at the port in 2010 and due to the delays in the delivery of the DT5 series wagons Operating reserve and were used in repeater traffic. The DT2E units did not have an automatic station announcement and video cameras (which, according to the Hochbahn, should be installed in every subway car). In 2012, some vehicles with this equipment reached their 50th anniversary. In November 2015, the use of the DT2 car series at Hamburger Hochbahn ended after around 53 years. On November 27, 2015, the last DT2 train was used in regular reinforcement operations on the U1 line. On November 28, 2015, the last units that had not yet been parked took a farewell trip across the entire underground network, including the U4 line to HafenCity University.
After the construction of a three-part test unit in 1966, the 126 three-part units of the DT3 were delivered by LHB, BBC and Kiepe from 1968 to 1971 . The DT3 cars looked like the DT2, but in terms of technology (starting acceleration 1.2 m / s 2 , top speed again 80 km / h and parking brake again with compressed air), they were more like the DT1, which were adapted to be coupled with the DT3 to be able to. Until the 1990s, these powerful units were used as standard vehicles on the U1 line, depending on the traffic time and route as a 3, 6 or 9-car train.
Tests were carried out with some DT3 vehicles while driving: DT3-LZB ( automated driving ) and DT3-DAT (test of three-phase drive in two units; car 931: 1995–1999 as a replacement for the DT1 at the training center of the Hamburg fire brigade in Billbrook; 932 : Scrapping 1995). While many units were retired and scrapped between 1994 and 2000, the HHA had the remaining 68 units upgraded to extend the service life. These units (referred to as "DT3-E") may receive a. new fronts, matched in appearance to the type DT4 and also a refresh of the interior. The remaining DT3 vehicles experienced a further freshening up of the interior (2009–2012). Until they were equipped with the new DT5, they now ran the main traffic on the U3 line, and individual journeys also took place on the U1 line.
It was originally planned that the DT5 vehicles should completely replace the DT3 by 2015. In June 2015, however, the elevated railway put the retrofitting and renovation measures to extend the service life until 2025 for some DT3 to tender. At this point in time, the oldest vehicles would be almost 60 years old. They are currently (2019) still in reserve.
From 1988 LHB and ABB produced 126 four-part units for the Hamburger Hochbahn. Important points included a modern design, low noise levels and a high level of security (e.g. passenger intercom systems), so a new fire protection concept with sprinkler system was introduced for the DT4 . Different points such as B. low-maintenance three - phase motors and energy return placed emphasis on high economic efficiency. The DT4 trains were first used on the U2 line, as a double or single unit, depending on the traffic time.
The actuation to control the compressed air-assisted opening of the swing-sliding doors on the DT4 units was initially done by means of swivel levers, on newer cars this is done by push buttons. The older units were retrofitted later, as were so-called "train screen monitors" for visual station announcements with current information, news and weather. Beginning in 2010, the interior of the DT4 cars was revised and adapted to the design of the new DT5 vehicle generation.
Starting in 2011, a pilot series of seven units ("DT5.1") of the new DT5 series was initially delivered by a consortium consisting of Alstom (delivery of the wagon construction part as with DT4) and Bombardier Transportation (delivery of the electrical part). Like the DT3, they were again designed as three-part vehicles with a total length of around 40 meters. For the first time, the DT5 have passages between the car bodies, air conditioning and better parking spaces for prams, wheelchairs and bicycles. By the end of 2014 almost all 20 units of the 2nd series ("DT5.2") had been delivered. There were also significant delays here. Another 80 units were ordered and delivered by 2019. The vehicle fleet will then be 107 units.
At the beginning of 2010 the first finished unit of the DT5, the multiple unit 301, was presented to the press. He then completed test drives on an operating track at the Hennigsdorf plant. In December 2011, the unit 306, the first DT5, came to Hamburg, where, from January 2012, it carried out test drives mainly on the test track between the Farmsen workshop and Berne. From November 2012, the trains ran with passengers throughout the network for test purposes. After these test drives have been completed, the DT5 will mainly be used on the U3 ring line. Since the end of 2015 it has also been used on the U4 line.
In November 2014 it was decided to have a new vehicle 40 and 80 meters long developed. It should be prepared for driver-assisted, computer-controlled and semi-automatic driving. It is planned to procure 40–80 vehicles with an option for up to a further 80 units. The first use of prototypes was originally planned for 2019, but has since been postponed until 2024 due to reorders of the DT5.
There are extensive considerations and, in some cases, far-reaching plans for various medium-term expansion projects for the subway network. The adjacent map gives an overview of the expansions that are currently being implemented and officially planned or more specifically being pursued.
U4 East: Horner Geest via Horner Rennbahn
|line||Connection and end station||Stations|
|Horner Rennbahn - Horner Geest||Horner Rennbahn - Stoltenstrasse - Horner Geest|
The U4 is to unwind east of Horner Rennbahn from the route used jointly with the U2 and to be led over a new section of around 1.9 kilometers to the northeastern adjacent Horner Geest. The route ran completely underground and essentially followed the course of Manshardtstraße, the two new underground stations Stoltenstraße east of the existing bus stop of the same name and Horner Geest west of the Dannerallee bus stop in the area of a local shopping center are planned . Following Horner Geest , the construction of a double-track parking facility is also planned, which is to be constructed in such a way that it will enable the line to be extended in the direction of Jenfeld at a later date . Overall, the extension to Horner Geest is intended to connect the households of around 13,000 people to the subway network for the first time; the Hochbahn expects 13,600 passengers on the route by 2030. With the opening of the line, instead of Billstedt, the line to Horner Geest would be used as the new eastern end point of the U4.
Construction is not expected to start until the end of 2019 at the earliest; the opening is planned for the mid-2020s.
U4 south: Harburg town hall via Elbbrücken and Wilhelmsburg
|line||Connection and end station||Stations (subject to change)|
|Elbbrücken - Harburg Town Hall||Elbe bridges - Veddel - Prager Ufer - Mannesallee - Wilhelmsburg hospital - Wilhelmsburg - village church - König-Georg-Deich - Blohmstraße - Harburg town hall|
The U4 line in HafenCity was extended to the Elbbrücken stop . Construction began in autumn 2013, and the opening took place in December 2018. A later continuation of the route in a southerly direction over the Norderelbe to Wilhelmsburg and Harburg is planned.
If Hamburg had been awarded the contract for the Olympic Summer Games in 2024 or 2028, which were also to be held on Kleiner Grasbrook , the U4 would have connected the Olympic Village to the city center as part of the subsequent use of the Olympic Village. However, this station would not have been used during the Olympic Games for safety reasons.
New line U5: Osdorf - Bramfeld
|Bramfeld - Osdorf||Osdorf - Lurup - Arenas - Hagenbeck Zoo - Hoheluftbrücke - Central Station - St. Georg - Uhlenhorst - Borgweg - City Nord - Sengelmannstraße - Nordheimstraße - Steilshoop - Bramfeld|
Also in April 2014 it was announced that an additional route would connect the peripheral districts of Bramfeld , Steilshoop and Osdorf and possibly the sports arenas in the Volkspark with the city center.
The start of construction is planned for 2021, the opening of the first section between Bramfeld and City Nord is planned for the period 2026 to 2027.
U2 East: Bergedorf via Mümmelmannsberg and Lohbrügge
|Mümmelmannsberg - Bergedorf||Mümmelmannsberg - Boberg / Boberger Drift - Schulenburgring - Perelsstraße - Binnenfeldredder - Lohbrügger Markt - Bergedorf|
* Station names in italics are taken from the nearest bus stop
The Hamburg Senate is planning to extend the U2 to Lohbrügge and Bergedorf if necessary . This extension is in last place, there is no time horizon for this yet. Initial plans envisage the construction of six new stations as a preferred option. More recent plans also provide for the newly built district of Oberbillwerder to be developed with the U2 extension before construction.
U2 West: Oldesloer Straße via Niendorf Nord
|line||Connection and end station||Stations|
|Niendorf Nord - Oldesloer Strasse||Niendorf Nord - Oldesloer Strasse|
There are plans to extend the U2 in the north via the current terminus Niendorf Nord to a new station at Oldesloer Straße on Ring 3. The planning has currently been postponed and will only be resumed when urban use is planned in this area.
Formerly planned projects
|line||Connection and end station||Stations *|
|Stephansplatz - Siemersplatz||Stephansplatz - Grindelhof - Eimsbüttel district office - Hoheluftbrücke - Gärtnerstraße - (approximately at the level of Behrkampsweg) - Siemersplatz|
* Names of the closest bus stops
The so-called "Grindel-U-Bahn" is still included in the Hamburg zoning plan (FNP). It should branch off from the U1 at the Stephansplatz underground station and then run along the route of today's Metrobus line 5 to Siemersplatz. The line is one of the busiest bus routes in Europe and, despite the use of double articulated buses, is often overcrowded. Several lines of a light rail to be introduced were already planned for the route . It is currently part of the plans for the U5 with six stops north of Stephansplatz.
Extension of the Walddörferbahn
The eastern branch of the Walddörferbahn was originally intended to continue northwards beyond what is now the Großhansdorf terminus. Two stations were planned in the exclave , which at that time belonged to Hamburg - the Beimoor stop was almost completed by 1918 - to connect the catchment area of a planned residential area and what was then known as an " insane asylum " to local public transport. As a result of the First World War and a lack of materials for electrification, the station was never put into operation, although tracks had already been laid on the embankment. As a result of the Greater Hamburg Law , these areas changed from Hamburg to Prussia in 1937 , so that there was no longer any interest in putting them into operation. The building was largely demolished after the Second World War to procure building materials. The remains of the facility that still exist today are used by bats as winter quarters.
Historical planning U4: Osdorf - City Nord
|line||Connection and end station||Stations|
|Sengelmannstrasse - Osdorfer Born||Sengelmannstraße - Jahnring (City Nord) - Borgweg - Jarrestraße - Beethovenstraße - Winterhuder Weg - Mundsburger Brücke - Lange Reihe - Central Station North - Jungfernstieg - Großneumarkt - St. Pauli - Brunnenstraße - Altona - Ottensen - Daimlerstraße - Von-Sauer-Straße - Ebertallee - Stadionstrasse - Rugenbarg - Lurup - Osdorfer Born|
Another fourth line was planned until the 1970s: It was to run from City Nord and Uhlenhorst via the city center and Altona to Lurup and the Osdorfer Born . In order to connect the new development area Osdorfer Born as quickly as possible, an island operation between Altona and Osdorfer Born was planned. Up for connection to the rest of the network, the subway trains were with low-loaders are brought for servicing in the company workshop Barmbek. For this route, track beds and platform edges have already been built in the stations of Sengelmannstraße, Hauptbahnhof Nord and Jungfernstieg. In the area of the Altona train station and under the A 7 motorway in Bahrenfeld, preliminary work was carried out for the construction of tunnels. Apart from the two platform edges on Jungfernstieg, these buildings are not used for traffic. The northern platform of the Hauptbahnhof Nord stop is now used for the art installation Hauptbahnhof Nord by Raimund Kummer and Stephan Huber . Here, on the northern side of the platform, several concrete stars lie as if they have fallen down.
Immediately before construction began in 1974, the then First Mayor Hans-Ulrich Klose canceled the project for financial reasons. At least the construction of the eastern part of the U4 (Hauptbahnhof Nord - Sengelmannstrasse) is still planned by the City of Hamburg. In addition, the route was also taken into account in 2009 as a "notional takeover" for all new development plans to be determined or changed .
|line||Connection and end station||Stations|
|Altona - Elbe bridges||Altona - Holstenstrasse - Schlump - Grindelhof - Hallerstrasse - Goldbekplatz - Winterhuder Weg - Mundsburg - Wartenau - Landwehr - Burgstrasse - Rothenburgsort - Hammerbrook - Elbbrücken|
The Alster Halbring is a route that first appeared in plans for expansion in the 1920s .
U4: Barmbek - Bramfeld
|line||Connection and end station||Connection and end station|
|Barmbek - Bramfeld||Barmbek - Schwalbenplatz - Elligersweg - Steilshoop - Borchertring - Bramfeld|
The first drafts for the new U4 were not to run the line on the existing route of the U3 (today U2) to Billstedt , but to develop the line in Barmbek and develop the Steilshoop and Bramfeld districts via a new line . However, the Bramfeld branch was omitted in the further planning phase due to the unexpectedly rapid increase in implementation costs for the southern branch. Instead, the U4 reinforces the U2 on the route to Billstedt. As a replacement, the U3 should take over this section with a reciprocal operation of the new Bramfelder branch and the one to Wandsbek-Gartenstadt.
For the Steilshoop section, the coalition agreement between the CDU and GAL provided for the construction of a new light rail system , which would also have made this planned underground route unnecessary. With the plans for the U5 line, this route is no longer under discussion.
Elbe bank line
In the 1950s there were considerations to run a stretch from Teufelsbrück via Neumühlen, Fischmarkt and Landungsbrücken to the Meßberg. In 1950 it was considered to continue this route near the former route to Rothenburgsort via Rothenburgsort and Veddel to Wilhelmsburg. In 1955 the plan was to run the route via Rothenburgsort, Burgstraße, Landwehr, Wartenau, Mundsburg, Winterhude, Borgweg and Stadtpark to Barmbek. Later the planning was given up due to the poor financial situation in favor of the old U4 (which later fell victim to the red pen policy) and the City S-Bahn. When the Meßberg station was built for the U1 at the end of the 1950s, they wanted to expand it to four tracks. To do this, however, the gas, electricity and water lines on the neighboring quay wall would have had to be relocated by 50 cm. Because of the high costs, the stop was designed so that another platform could be added later.
Even before the First World War, a route to the free port was planned. For this purpose, a second level was drawn in during the construction of the Freihafen-Elbbrücke , on which the elevated railway should run. After the First World War, preliminary work for an underground station was already being built when the Sprinkenhof was being built.
The Billstedt stop has already been laid out with four tracks, as a branch was originally intended to be threaded from here via Kirchsteinbek to Mümmelmannsberg. The route to Merkenstrasse should be extended via Oststeinbek towards Glinde .
Redensification of the network
|university||Stephansplatz - Hallerstrasse|
|Fuhlsbüttler Strasse||Barmbek - Habichtstrasse|
Disused lines and stations
Disused and demolished routes
- Rothenburgsort: The former elevated railway to Rothenburgsort fell victim to an air raid in 1943 during World War II . The attack also destroyed the surrounding Hammerbrook district . The viaducts and train stations that were largely destroyed were demolished after the war. No need was seen for the reconstruction of the line in the now unpopulated area.
|Branch line to Rothenburgsort||Central station (south) - Spaldingstraße - Süderstraße - Brückenstraße - Rothenburgsort|
Disused train stations
- Hellkamp: The former terminus in Eimsbüttel was closed in 1964 when construction work began to extend today's U2 via the new Lutterothstraße stop in the direction of Hagenbeck's zoo.
- Berliner Tor (old): This station, which was located on a hillside with open side platforms directly west of the Lübeck railway line, was also closed in 1964 and replaced by a new four-track tunnel station further south-west, which could accommodate the threading in / out of the new line to Billstedt . The Berliner Tor parking and turning facility is located in the area of the old bus stop.
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