district of Hamburg
|Residents||40,838 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density||3216 inhabitants / km²|
|Post Code||22453, 22455, 22457, 22459, 22529|
|Source: Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein|
Niendorf is located in the northwest of Hamburg on the border with Schleswig-Holstein . The area covers 12.7 square kilometers. Eidelstedt and Schnelsen join in the west, Stellingen and Lokstedt in the south . To the east, Niendorf is bordered by the airport in Fuhlsbüttel .
The center of Niendorf is the Tibarg. Retail, trade and gastronomy are concentrated in the former village street, now a pedestrian zone . The district is mainly used as a residential area and is largely built on with single-family and row houses; But there are also apartment blocks and a high-rise estate in Niendorf-Nord. The peripheral areas are primarily used for local recreation. In addition to the Niendorf enclosure and some allotment gardens, there are also areas used for agriculture. The southern and western borders of Niendorf form the Kollau , which flows into the Tarpenbek in Groß Borstel . After heavy rainfall, the Kollau lowlands are regularly flooded. There were three large moors in the north : the Ohmoor , the Rahmoor and the Schippelsmoor. The areas have been pitted, cultivated and built on in the 20th century. Only small remnants are left of the Ohmoor.
The local area had been populated at least since the Middle Stone Age. Two large settlements existed from the Middle to the Neolithic in the north near the moorland. Old land maps also show Bronze Age burial mounds; these have not been preserved. If they did not stand in the way of agriculture or new construction projects, they were leveled at the latest when the airport was expanded. During the Iron Age , the settlement moved south. In the old cemetery there were pot shards, iron slag and a millstone. A parcel to the northeast was still called "Ohl Dbod" in the 18th century. When the settlement located here perished in the 14th century, Niendorf (the "new village") arose on Tibarg, today's center of the district.
Middle Ages and Early Modern Times
The oldest written document about the Niendorf area dates from 1184 and mentions the Kollauer Hof, a homestead at the confluence of the Kollau and Tarpenbek rivers, as the property of the Archbishop of Bremen, Siegfried . Niendorf itself was first mentioned in a document in 1343. That year, citizen Hinrich Halstenbeke donated his property in the said village to the Hamburg cathedral chapter . The place was part of the parish Eppendorf . In 1347 the register of the Eppendorfer parish in Niendorf recorded six taxable farm positions. The secular authorities of the Niendorfer were a sideline of the house of Schauenburg , the lords of the county of Holstein-Pinneberg . From 1640 it was part of the Pinneberger Waldvogtei in the rule Pinneberg and was under the sovereignty of Denmark.
At the end of the 18th century, the small town gained a certain importance when King Christian VII separated the Danish border villages from the Hamburg church organization by comparison with Gottorp and founded a new parish in Niendorf in 1768 . This also included Hummelsbüttel , Lokstedt, Schnelsen, Eidelstedt, Stellingen and Langenfelde . The church was consecrated on the market in 1770, and since 1795 there have been two large cattle and junk markets. In addition to agriculture, the extraction of peat from the large moors on the Niendorf district was a lucrative source of income. The engravers sold the peat to Hamburg and Altona, where the brewers, vinegar and brandy distillers needed large quantities of it. Eleven neighboring towns took part in the dismantling and divided the moor areas among themselves.
From the 19th century until today
The change from a farming village to an urban suburb began in the 19th century. At first, Niendorf only served the people of Hamburg as a destination. The topography of the Duchy of Holstein from 1841 describes the place as a “large, handsome village with several buildings designed for city dwellers to stay”. For the excursions to the Danish Niendorf, the national border still had to be crossed. When the Schleswig-Holsteiners tried in vain to rise up against Danish rule in 1848, the Niendorf farmers also took part in the uprising. After the German-Danish War of 1864, Niendorf became Prussian in 1867 and belonged to the Pinneberg district in the province of Schleswig-Holstein . When the volunteer fire brigade was founded in 1889 , Niendorf had 1,125 inhabitants.
At the beginning of the 20th century, numerous villas and town houses were built when wealthy Hamburgers discovered Niendorf, first as a summer residence and later as a place of residence. Since 1907, the tram from Hamburg also went to Niendorf. It remained in operation until 1978 and was replaced by buses and - albeit a few years later - the extension of the U2 underground line.
In 1927, Niendorf was united with the neighboring communities of Lokstedt and Schnelsen to form the Prussian rural community of Lokstedt through the Lower Elbe Law , in order to prevent it from being incorporated into the city of Altona ( Groß-Altona Law ). In the following years the development towards an urban settlement accelerated. The population grew from 2,750 in 1921 to 7,940 in 1939. The Tarpenbek was regulated in 1930/32 and the Kollau from 1934 onwards. As a result, the water table sank by several meters and previously impassable meadows could be designated as building land. The first connected apartment blocks were built. The large community lasted until January 26, 1937. On this day it was separated from the Prussian district of Pinneberg by the Greater Hamburg Act and assigned to the Hanseatic city. In the devastating bomb attack on Hamburg , 11 people died in Niendorf and 89 buildings fell victim to the flames, including almost all thatched houses in the center of the village. The follow-up attack cost a further 13 lives on the night of August 3 to 4, 1943.
In the post-war period the settlement area widened again. On the one hand, the residents cut down parts of the Niendorf enclosure because they needed firewood, which is why the Hamburg Tree Protection Ordinance was introduced as early as 1948. The areas were then built on. On the other hand, the Hamburg Senate decided in 1946 to harvest and cultivate the 300 hectare Niendorf part of the Ohmoor. There were already plans for this in the 1930s, but they failed due to unclear ownership. In the 1980s, the Niendorf-Nord settlement was built on the site of the former Ohmoor.
- Minor quota: 15.7% [Hamburg average: 16.3% (2017)].
- Old age quota: 26.1% [Hamburg average: 18.2% (2017)].
- Proportion of foreigners: 10.3% [Hamburg average: 17.1% (2017)].
- Unemployment rate: 2.9% [Hamburg average: 5.2% (2017)].
The average income per taxpayer in Niendorf is 41,651 euros a year (2013), the Hamburg average is 39,054 euros.
Politics and administration
Niendorf does not have its own coat of arms . In addition to the water tower in the Sternschanzenpark and an elephant's head , which symbolizes Hagenbeck's zoo , the market church is part of the Eimsbüttel temporary district coat of arms.
Culture and sights
Church on the market
The church on the market , consecrated in 1770, is considered to be the most important baroque building in Hamburg after the Michel . The architect Heinrich Schmidt designed the octagonal central building based on the model of the Rellinger church and the church in Brande-Hörnerkirchen . The Hamburg sculptor Hans Kock designed the free-standing marble altar . Noticeable is the baptismal angel floating halfway up, which can be lowered with a hand crank. The church was extensively renovated and restored between 1977 and 1986.
The Alte Niendorfer Friedhof adjoins it to the south . There you will find the small mausoleum of the Heymann family , artistic tombs and large family tombs . Several personalities from Hamburg's history are buried in the cemetery, including Adolph Godeffroy and John von Berenberg-Gossler . The actors Axel von Ambesser , Evelyn Hamann and Günther Jerschke were also buried here, as well as the footballer Josef "Jupp" Posipal , a member of the 1954 World Cup team. The singer Friedel Hensch is buried in the nearby New Niendorfer Friedhof .
Sootbörn artist house
The artist's house of the same name with studios and changing exhibitions has existed in the street “Sootbörn” since 1993 . The building was built as a school between 1927 and 1929 and housed a middle school and the Lokstedt high school . The architects were the Hamburg brothers Langloh. After the Second World War, lessons became impossible because of the aircraft noise from the almost adjacent Fuhlsbüttel Airport. Because of flight safety, two of the original three floors had to be removed.
Villas in the Niendorfer Gehege
In 1903, on behalf of the director of the Hamburg-America Line , Johann Theodor Merck , a large villa with a park was built in the Niendorfer Gehege. Nearby, the Berenberg-Gossler banking family built a summer house in the style of a hunting lodge from 1909 to 1911, which was expanded into permanent residence in 1923/24. Both buildings are now under monument protection.
Berenberg Gossler House
An association has been running the “Berenberg-Gossler-Haus - Bürgerhaus für Niendorf” since 1997 and offers a cultural program and health courses. Numerous groups also use the house for their meetings. The building in Niendorfer Kirchenweg was built in 1913 by the banker John von Berenberg-Gossler and made available to the community as a “waiting school”, ie as a day nursery, and was used until 1995 for preschool children.
Double oak on the Tibarg
A double oak on the Tibarg has been a reminder of the unsuccessful rebellion of the Schleswig-Holsteiners against the Danes since 1898 . Next to her there is a memorial stone with the inscription: "1848–1898 Up forever ungedeelt" (High German: "Forever undivided").
Memorial "Table with 12 chairs"
On a small green area on Kurt-Schill-Weg in Niendorf-Nord stands the memorial, inaugurated in 1987, to commemorate Hamburg's resistance fighters against National Socialism . Twelve chairs and an oval table made of bricks were built according to a design by the Düsseldorf artist Thomas Schütte . Signs with the names of Nazi victims are attached to eleven backrests: Georg Appel , Clara and Walter Bacher , Rudolf Klug , Curt Ledien , Reinhold Meyer , Hanne Mertens , Ernst Mittelbach , Joseph Norden , Margaretha Rothe , Kurt Schill and Magda and Paul Thürey . In 1984, eleven streets in the vicinity of the memorial were named with these names. The twelfth chair is an invitation to the visitor to join this circle and to remember the dead.
- Oak next to a supermarket with a chest height of 7.95 m (2016).
The center of Niendorf is the Tibarg ( pedestrian zone with retail, gastronomy and services in the service and health sector, the bus station and the Niendorf Markt underground station . The name of the former "Hauptstraße" was given in 1948. On the "Theeberg", the old field name for today's Niendorf market square, the Thieplatz , the village's meeting place and court , was likely to have been. The shops only came into existence after the destruction of the Second World War. Before that, the streets were dominated by farms and houses, until 1963 there was still a farrier. The conversion into a pedestrian zone has long been debated. The Federal Constitutional Court had to decide in 1985 about the legality of the development plan (BVerfGE 70, 35 ff.). At the northern end of the Tibarg, the Tibarg shopping center , which opened in 2002, has developed into a point of attraction, the southern area of the Tibarg is characterized by established specialist shops. In order to continuously improve the attractiveness for all residents, visitors and the many employees and to adapt it to the growing demands, a large number of citizens, landowners and the local interest group are committed to the interests of the Tibarg. For several years, future-oriented activities have been bundled under the leadership of the Tibarg district management. With the establishment of a Business Improvement District (BID) in 2010, the basis for numerous short-term and long-term restructuring measures was laid. In addition, large events such as B. the traditional Tibargfest, the farmers market with wine festival or the Nordic Christmas take place.), a
The subway line U2, which was inaugurated in 1985 and extended to Niendorf Nord in 1991, and the MetroBus line 5, the district is well connected to the city center. Other bus lines serve the various districts of Niendorf and connect the subway and bus station Niendorf Markt am Tibarg with other parts of the city. The proximity to Hamburg Airport and the busy federal highway 447 , which leads to the nearby federal highway 7 to Schnelsen, have a negative impact on the quality of living in parts of the district .
Education and sport
Niendorf has a well-developed network of schools , with five primary schools, two grammar schools and a district school. These include the Ohmoor grammar school, the largest grammar school in Hamburg, which is attended by 1284 students (as of 2019/20). In addition, there is the Niendorf vocational school, which focuses on training social pedagogical assistants.
The Niendorfer Turn- und Sportverein (NTSV) from 1919 has around 9,000 members and offers ball games, athletics and martial arts, among other things. The Hamburg Dodgers have been playing baseball and softball in the NTSV since 1990. The Langenhorst training ground is located at the Niendorfer Gehege and is used by FC St. Pauli and the Hamburg Stealers baseball team .
The Evangelical Lutheran parish Niendorf emerged from the old parish. The six originally belonging villages received their own parish churches in the course of time, so that since 1946 the parish only includes Niendorf itself. In addition to the market church from 1770, the church of promise built in 1966, a church at the community center northwest and the chapel at the new cemetery are available for services. The old cemetery at the Marktkirche, laid out in 1840, had become too small at the end of the 19th century. In 1903 the new cemetery was consecrated in the "Ohldbod" corridor. Today it is close to the airport and is 12.5 hectares in size.
Since 2004, the Catholic parish of St. Ansgar has united the formerly independent parishes of Niendorf, Eidelstedt and Stellingen. Their St. Ansgar Church on Niendorfer Kirchenweg was consecrated in 1934. The New Apostolic Church has also had its own house of worship since 1960, which was closed in 2014.
Green spaces and recreational areas
Since the beginning of the 1950s, the city of Hamburg acquired the private park areas of the Niendorfer Gehege and made it into today's city forest . The Niendorfer Gehege, the Eidelstedter and the Schnelsener Feldmark are centrally located leisure and recreation areas for everyone in Hamburg. In the north on the border with Schleswig-Holstein lies the Ohmoor landscape protection area , which with its meadows, forests and moorland forms a green belt between Niendorf and Norderstedt .
The 17 allotment garden associations also have a large share of the green spaces. The first allotment gardens were created in Niendorf in 1905; Many tenants converted the arbours for residential purposes, especially after the two World Wars, and in 1964 65 percent of all Niendorf allotments were permanently inhabited. Living in the makeshift home has fallen sharply since then, but is still there.
In the 1960s, the literary critic Marcel Reich-Ranicki lived in what he writes as "a modest and very cramped apartment" on Ubierweg in Niendorf. The writer Ilse Gräfin von Bredow ( potatoes with speck ) also lived in Niendorf until she moved to the Grindel skyscrapers in Hamburg-Harvestehude in 1976 . In the middle school at Sootbörn at the time, Hans Scheibner , who later became known as a cabaret artist, performed a self-written satirical play as a pupil. The actor Til Schweiger bought the old Merck villa in the Niendorfer Gehege in 2003 and lived there for a while with his family. Rock singer Suzi Quatro also has a house in Niendorf and actress Evelyn Hamann attended the local Bondenwald high school . She is buried in the old cemetery in Niendorf, near her mother's grave. The guitarists of the pop band Revolverheld , Niels Grötsch and Kristoffer Hünecke , grew up in Niendorf, Hünecke attended the Ohmoor grammar school. Likewise the music producer and composer Benni Dernhoff . Also Stefan Effenberg spent his youth in the district. He attended the Sachsenweg secondary school, but was not a player at the Niendorfer gymnastics and sports club , but began at the age of five at Bramfelder SV and then played for 12 years at SC Victoria Hamburg until his professional career . The guest appearance of the musician and comedian ("Ditsche") Olli Dittrich was only brief : he played football at Niendorfer TSV when he was seven . Another well-known Niendorfer is the former VfL Wolfsburg player Alexander Laas . The cabaret artist Nico Semsrott also grew up in Niendorf and attended the Sachsenweg primary school and the Bondenwald grammar school.
Niendorf in literature and music
The local poet Joachim Mähl described the rural Niendorf around 1840 in several Low German stories and novels. In the 1999 thriller With Closed Eyes by Helga Beyersdörfer , a main character lives in Niendorf and visits a riding stable in the enclosure. The description of the location differs from the actual situation. In her novel Herzsprung from 2001, Ildikó von Kürthy describes the Niendorfer Gehege as one of the “happiness and love places” of her heroine: “The forest clearing in the Niendorfer Gehege, where we thought we were unobserved - and only realized when we got dressed that we weren't were. ”In 2004, the thriller Im Gehege by Martina Borger and Maria Elisabeth Straub , a former author on Lindenstrasse , was published. The protagonist lives on Bansgraben Street in Niendorf. The Hamburg singer Niels Frevert released the song Niendorfer Gehege on his album You can let me out on the corner in 2008 . The author Katrin Seddig , who lives in Niendorf , set her novel Runterkommen in her district in 2010 . Dagmar Seifert has her novel The Wednesday Room (2016) set almost entirely in Niendorf, the main characters live in real streets. The fictional “Elementary School and High School Niendorf” is a setting in the crime thriller Lamprey (2017) by journalist Till Raether . The description of the school grounds is reminiscent of the Ohmoor grammar school and the neighboring Sachsenweg elementary school. Raether lived briefly in Niendorf in 1989. The musician Timo Blunck (including Palais Schaumburg ) grew up in Niendorf and writes about it in his book Didn't we even have sex in the 80s? .
- Jürgen Frantz: Lokstedt-Niendorf-Schnelsen - three Prussian rural communities become Hamburg districts . Forum Kollau, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-00-037681-8
- Karin Kuppig: Eimsbüttelbuch. With Eidelstedt, Hoheluft-West, Lokstedt, Niendorf, Schnelsen, Stellingen . Junius, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-88506-496-1
- Horst Grigat (Ed.): Hamburg-Niendorf from the Stone Age to the present . Self-published, Hamburg 1972
- Horst Grigat (Ed.): Hamburg-Niendorf from the Stone Age to the present. Volume II 1971-1991 . Self-published, Hamburg 1991
- Katharina Marut-Schröter / Jan Schröter : Niendorf Lokstedt Schnelsen in transition. Medien-Verlag Schubert, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-929229-03-X .
- Horst Moldenhauer: Hamburg-Niendorf . The archive pictures series, Sutton-Verlag, Erfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-86680-340-4
- Michael Voß: Niendorf - yesterday and today. From the village to the district - a little history . Niendorfer Wochenblatt Verlag, Hamburg 1985
- List of streets in Hamburg-Niendorf
- List of cultural monuments in Hamburg-Niendorf
- List of stumbling blocks in Hamburg-Niendorf
- Niendorf on hamburg.de
- Forum Kollau - Association for the history of Lokstedt, Niendorf and Schnelsen
- Commemorative publication of the Hamburg-Niendorf volunteer fire brigade on the occasion of the 125th anniversary, Hamburg, August 2014
- Prussian Law Collection 1927, p. 129
- Jürgen Frantz: Lokstedt-Niendorf-Schnelsen , p. 20
- minors in the Hamburg districts in 2017
- Proportion of 65-year-olds and older in the Hamburg districts in 2017
- foreigners in the Hamburg districts in 2017
- Unemployment rate in the Hamburg districts in 2017
- Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein (ed.): Hamburg District Profile 2016 (= NORD.regional . Volume 19 ). 2018, ISSN 1863-9518 ( Online PDF 6.6 MB [accessed February 12, 2018]).
- Result of the 2015 mayor elections in the Hamburg districts, voter turnout and share of votes (state votes - total votes) of the parties in percent. (PDF; 94.9 kB) Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, February 27, 2015, accessed on March 10, 2016 .
- Final result of the 2011 mayor election (state votes - total votes) in the Hamburg districts: voter turnout and votes of the parties in percent. (PDF; 60.6 kB) Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, May 18, 2011, accessed on March 10, 2016 .
- Entry in the directory of monumental oaks . Retrieved January 10, 2017
- Overview map of the noise protection area (PDF; 4.2 MB) at Hamburg Airport. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Pupils in Hamburg's general education schools in the 2019/2020 school year. (PDF, 530 KB) Hamburg Authority for Schools and Vocational Training, accessed on July 10, 2020 .
- Hamburger Abendblatt, July 2, 2012
- Scheibner interview in the Hamburger Abendblatt, June 9, 2012
- Die Welt, March 14, 2014