|flag||coat of arms|
|Situation in Prussia|
|Provincial capital||Schleswig / Kiel|
|area||19,018.8 km² (1910)
15,682.0 km² (1939).
|Population density||101 inhabitants / km² (1939)|
|administration||Administrative district and districts|
Duchy of Schleswig
Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Saxony-Lauenburg
|Today part of||
The Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein emerged in 1867 after the German War from the two former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein . After the Second World War , the state of Schleswig-Holstein was founded on August 23, 1946, and the status of a province of the Free State of Prussia ended .
Around the Duchy of Schleswig concentrated in the 12th / 13th. Century both Danish and Holstein power politics; dynastically it was noticeably breaking away from the Danish crown. Holstein had been a county under the German Duchy of Saxony since 1111 , but after its dissolution it increasingly played an independent role under the Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein . Nevertheless, Schleswig remained a Danish and Holstein a German fiefdom . 1326 was the Holstein count Gerhard III. de facto ruler also over Schleswig and Denmark, and in 1386 the Holstein count Gerhard VI succeeded. to gain the ducal dignity of Schleswig. After some conflicts between the counts and the royal family, Schleswig and Holstein formed an independent principality under Count Adolf VIII from 1435 until his death in 1459, although Schleswig remained a fiefdom of the Danish Empire and Holstein as a fiefdom of the Roman-German Empire. In 1460 the estates elected the Danish King Christian I as their common sovereign. Despite some long-term division of states, the position of Schleswig and Holstein, which was elevated to a duchy in 1474, remained untouched as parts of the Danish monarchy until 1848.
The political and economic influence z. B. of the Holstein nobility in Schleswig had a long-term linguistic effect as the German language gained increasing importance. For example, under the Danish kings, German became the legal and church language in southern Schleswig, and in the 18th and, above all, the 19th century, there was a change in the language of the colloquial languages, with Danish and Frisian dialects gradually giving way to Low and High German.
This development was overshadowed by the emerging nationalism and the question of succession after the imminent extinction of the male line of the royal family. This led to the March Revolution in Copenhagen and the Schleswig-Holstein uprising in the duchies. The German-minded Schleswig-Holstein national liberals wanted a united Schleswig-Holstein independent of Denmark within the German Confederation , while the Danish national liberals wanted to integrate Schleswig into the kingdom (surrendering Holstein). In 1851 the status quo ante of the entire Danish state was restored.
The conflict between the two nationalities was to continue and was reflected in a constitutional conflict between the two Schleswig Wars. The common constitution for the entire state passed in 1855 was rejected in the same year by the Holstein assembly and three years later also repealed by the Bundestag in Frankfurt for the national Holstein. The November constitution drafted in 1863 was only valid for Denmark and Schleswig, but not for Holstein and Lauenburg and thus violated the London Protocol of 1852 on the belonging together of the duchies within the state as a whole. The German Confederation called for the November constitution to be withdrawn and in December 1863 imposed a federal execution against the Duchy of Holstein, which was occupied by federal troops from Lauenburg, Saxony and Hanover . On January 16, 1864, Prussia and Austria gave Denmark a 48-hour ultimatum to repeal the November constitution and evacuate Schleswig, which Denmark let slip. On February 1, 1864, despite criticism from the German Confederation, Austrian and Prussian troops finally crossed the Eider , the historic border river between Holstein and Schleswig, and within a few months occupied the Duchy of Schleswig and parts of the rest of Jutland. At the end of the war, the Danish monarchy had to renounce all three duchies: Denmark transferred sovereignty to Austria and Prussia jointly. From 1865 Prussia administered Schleswig and Austria Holstein.
In 1866 Austria had to renounce its claims after the German War, and Prussia annexed the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The province of Schleswig-Holstein was created. The Duchy of Lauenburg was ruled in Prussian personal union as early as 1865 and was incorporated into the province as the District of Duchy of Lauenburg in 1876 . The seat of the high president of the new province (superordinate to the district president in Schleswig) was initially Kiel , from 1879 Schleswig and from 1917 again Kiel. Administratively, the province of Schleswig-Holstein was divided into urban and rural districts . There was only one administrative district (Schleswig), which was consequently territorially identical to the entire province.
With the Greater Hamburg Law of 1937, the former Free Imperial City of Lübeck and the former Principality of Lübeck - from 1919 onwards Lübeck (capital Eutin ) of the Free State of Oldenburg - were incorporated into the Province of Schleswig-Holstein. At the same time, the districts of Altona and Wandsbek were spun off and incorporated into the city of Hamburg .
After the Second World War , due to the Barber-Lyaschtschenko Agreement, a small part east of Ratzeburg was assigned to the state of Mecklenburg and the province of Schleswig-Holstein with some Mecklenburg exclaves became part of the British zone of occupation . By ordinance of the military government , with effect from 23 August 1946, the province of Schleswig-Holstein became the state of Schleswig-Holstein , which has been a state of the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949 . By dispensing with the reporting obligation on the part of the British occupation forces and the attraction of the special area Mürwik to Schleswig-Holstein developed into a "safe haven" for countless NS - war criminals who have the rat line north into hiding there.
Population development and area
From 1867 to the First World War , the province covered an area of 19,019 km². After the cession of North Schleswig and the area changes through the Greater Hamburg Law , the area was reduced to 15,682 km².
On the part of the Prussian government, upper presidents were appointed, who represented the government in the province and supervised the execution of Central Prussian tasks.
- 1867–1879: Carl von Scheel-Plessen
- 1879–1880: Karl Heinrich von Boetticher
- 1880–1896: Georg von Steinmann
- 1897–1901: Ernst von Köller
- 1901–1906: Kurt von Wilmowsky
- 1906–1907: Kurt von Dewitz
- 1907–1914: Detlev von Bülow
- 1914–1918: Friedrich von Moltke
- 1919–1932: Heinrich Kürbis , SPD
- 1932–1933: Heinrich Thon
- 1933–1945: Hinrich Lohse , NSDAP
- 1945: Otto Hoevermann (provisional)
- 1945–1946: Theodor Steltzer , CDU
The United Provincial Parliament and (from 1876) the Provincial Association elected the state director to head the self-government of all districts and cities in the province. The Duchy of Lauenburg formed its own Lauenburg regional association according to the Unification Act . The Crown of Prussia introduced the title of Governor in 1902 . In the time of National Socialism , the governors were appointed from 1933 according to the leader principle and subordinated to the chief president. The provincial parliament was dissolved in 1934.
- State directors and governors
- 1872–1895: Wilhelm von Ahlefeldt
- 1895–1907: Hermann von Graba (September 17, 1833 to June 15, 1908), from 1902 under the new title of Governor
- 1907–1922: Karl von Platen-Hallermund
- 1923–1932: Reinhard Pahlke
- 1932–1935: Otto Röer , acting
- 1935–1938: Otto Röer, as appointed governor
- 1938–1945: Wilhelm Schow , as appointed governor
- 1945–1946: Hans Müthling
1925: SPD 32.7% - 19 seats | Reconstruction 31.8% - 18 seats | Agriculture 12.7% - 7 seats | KPD 7.3% - 5 seats | DDP 5.5% - 4 seats | WP 2.6% - 2 seats | Agreement 1.6% - 1 seat | Crafts, trade and commerce 1.4% - 1 seat | Home ownership 1.2% - 1 seat
1929: SPD 33.3% - 21 seats | Home and Business 25.3% - 17 seats | NSDAP 10.3% - 7 seats | KPD 7.3% - 5 seats | DDP 3.7% - 3 seats | Volkswohl 3.5% - 3 seats
1933: NSDAP 54.9% - 34 seats | SPD 22.4% - 15 seats | DNVP 11.7% - 7 seats | KPD 7.8% - 5 seats
100 percent missing vote = nominations not represented in the provincial assembly.
Administrative division of the province of Schleswig-Holstein
From October 1, 1868, there was only one administrative district (Schleswig). The parts of the country denote the former administrative districts.
The following administrative districts also belonged to the administrative district of Schleswig before October 1, 1868:
- City district of Flensburg (from 1889, separated from the district of Flensburg)
- Aabenraa district (until 1920)
- Eckernförde district
- District of Eiderstedt (district administration in Tönning ; 1932–1933 merged with the district of Husum)
- District, from 1889 district of Flensburg
- Hadersleben district (until 1920)
- Husum district (1932–1933 merged with Eiderstedt district)
- Husum-Eiderstedt district (district administration in Husum ; only 1932–1933; before and after the districts of Eiderstedt and Husum)
- Schleswig district
- District of Sonderburg (until 1920)
- Südtondern district (district administration in Niebüll ) (from 1920)
- District of Tondern (1920, for a short time, district administration in Niebüll ) (until 1920)
The administrative district of Holstein was incorporated into the administrative district of Schleswig with effect from October 1, 1868. He was based in Kiel. The following administrative districts therefore also belonged to the administrative district of Schleswig from October 1, 1868:
- Stadtkreis Altona (until 1937, then city in the state of Hamburg and from 1938 its district)
- City district of Kiel (from 1883, separated from the district of Kiel)
- City of Lübeck (from 1937 to Schleswig-Holstein)
- Stadtkreis Neumünster (from 1901, separated from the district of Kiel)
- Wandsbek district (from 1901, separated from the Stormarn district; until 1937, then city in the state of Hamburg and from 1938 its district)
- District of Bordesholm (1907-1932; before that district of Kiel, then area distribution to the districts of Rendsburg, Segeberg and Plön)
- District of Dithmarschen (district administration in Heide (Holstein) ; only 1932–1933; before and after the districts of Norder- and Süderdithmarschen)
- District of Eutin (from 1937, previously belonged to the Grand Duchy or Free State of Oldenburg )
- District of Helgoland (1922–1932; before that district of Süderdithmarschen, then district of Pinneberg)
- District of the Duchy of Lauenburg (district administration in Ratzeburg ) (from 1876)
- District of Kiel (district administration in Bordesholm ) (until 1907, then district of Bordesholm)
- District of Norderdithmarschen (district administration in Heide (Holstein) ; 1932–1933 merged with the district of Süderdithmarschen)
- District of Oldenburg in Holstein (district administration in Cismar )
- Pinneberg district
- Plön district
- District of Rendsburg
- Segeberg district
- Steinburg district (district administration in Itzehoe )
- District Stormarn (district administration 1867–1873 in Schloss Reinbek , 1873–1943 in Stormarnhaus in Wandsbek (today district office Wandsbek), from 1943/1944 in the new Stormarnhaus in Bad Oldesloe )
- District of Süderdithmarschen (district administration in Meldorf ; 1932–1933 merged with the district of Norderdithmarschen)
- Robert Bohn: History of Schleswig-Holstein . Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-406-50891-2
- Schleswig-Holstein Province
- Province of Schleswig-Holstein (counties, municipalities and manor districts) 1910
- Province of Schleswig-Holstein (counties, municipalities and manor districts) 1910
- Statistical Yearbook for the German Reich 1939/40 (digitized version)
- Karl N. Bock: Middle Low German and today's Low German in the former Danish Duchy of Schleswig. Studies on the lighting of language change in fishing and Mittelschleswig . In: Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab (ed.): Historisk-Filologiske Meddelelser . Copenhagen 1948.
- Manfred Hinrichsen: The development of language conditions in the Schleswig region . Wachholtz, Neumünster 1984, ISBN 3-529-04356-7 .
- Jürgen Müller: The German Confederation 1815–1866 . Oldenbourg, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-486-55028-3 , pp. 46-47 .
- Gerhard Paul : Zeitllauf: Flensburg comrades. In: Die Zeit , from September 8, 2013, accessed on April 21, 2019.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. p_schleswig.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Law on the unification of the Duchy of Lauenburg with the Prussian monarchy of June 23, 1876. Constitutions of the World ; Retrieved July 6, 2012