Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein
The noble family of Counts von Schauenburg and Holstein originally came from the Schauenburg (today: Schaumburg) near Rinteln ( district of Schaumburg ) on the Weser . In addition to the county of Schaumburg , known since around 1480 , the family was enfeoffed with the counties of Holstein and Stormarn in the year 1110, with its residence towns of Bückeburg and Stadthagen . In 1640 the family died out.
In 1110, Duke Lothar von Supplinburg appointed his feudal man Adolf von Schauenburg to succeed Count Gottfried von Hamburg , who had died fighting the Slavs. With this appointment, a period of rule in Schauenburg began in the county of Holstein , which then lasted for almost 350 years. In 1130 Adolf I died and he was followed by his son Adolf II, who fell against the Slavs in 1164 in the battle of Verchen in Western Pomerania.
Adolf I to his grandson Adolf III. initially neither referred to themselves as Counts of Holstein nor were they so dubbed by their contemporaries. Adolf IV did not take over the title Graf until 1225 from his predecessor, the temporarily appointed Danish feudal lord Count Albrecht von Orlamünde . Until the beginning of Albrecht's rule, only the Holstein Overbode was referred to as "von Holstein" .
Adolf III. von Schauenburg and Holstein temporarily lost Holstein to Denmark in the battle of Stellau in 1201 and withdrew to the county of Schauenburg. It was not until his son Count Adolf IV. Succeeded in recapturing Holstein in the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227 . After this victory, the Counts of Holstein not only consolidated their rule in Holstein, which belonged to the Holy Roman Empire , but also soon gained influence in the neighboring Duchy of Schleswig , which was under the Danish crown.
From 1261 the family divided into several, partly short-lived lines over the decades . As a result, there were several rulers in Holstein at the same time:
- Holstein-Itzehoe (1261-1290)
- Holstein-Kiel (1261-1316, inherited by Plön -1390, divided again: Count Albrecht II. 1397-1403)
- Holstein-Segeberg (1273–1308 / 1315)
- Holstein-Plön (1290-1390)
- Holstein-Pinneberg or Holstein-Schauenburg (1290–1640)
- Holstein-Rendsburg (1290-1459)
The division ended in 1390, when the Rendsburg line occupied most of Holstein. Since 1326 it has been enfeoffed several times with the Danish Duchy of South Jutland or Schleswig . Only the small county of Holstein-Pinneberg, which was connected to the county of Schauenburg, continued to exist.
The following counts were the most important for Holstein and Stormarn:
- (1110–1130) Adolf I, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein († November 13, 1130)
- (1130–1164) Adolf II. Count of Schauenburg and Holstein (* 1128; † July 6, 1164 near Demmin )
- (1164-1203) Adolf III. Count of Schauenburg and Holstein (* approx. 1160; † January 3, 1225)
- Adolf IV. Count of Schauenburg and Holstein (* before 1205; † July 8, 1261 in Kiel )
- (1239–1290) Gerhard I, Count of Holstein-Itzehoe (* approx. 1232; † 1290)
- (1290-1315) Adolf VI. Count of Schauenburg and Holstein-Pinneberg (* approx. 1256; † 1315)
- (1290–1304) Heinrich I, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg (* approx. 1258; † 1304)
- (1304-1340) Gerhard III. the Great Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, Duke of South Jutland (* approx. 1293; † 1340)
- (1312-1359) John III. the mild Count of Holstein-Plön, Lord of Fehmarn (* approx. 1294; † 1359)
- (1340–1384) Heinrich II the Iron Count of Holstein-Rendsburg (* approx. 1317; † 1384)
- (1340–1397) Nikolaus Graf von Holstein-Rendsburg, heir of Schleswig (approx. 1321; † 1397)
- (1359–1390) Adolf VII. Count of Holstein-Plön, Lord of Fehmarn (* 1329; † 1390)
- (1384-1404) Gerhard VI. Count of Holstein-Rendsburg or after division in 1397 Holstein-Plön, Duke of Schleswig (* approx. 1367; † 1404)
- (1385–1403) Albrecht II. Count of Holstein-Kiel (* approx. 1369; † 1403)
- (1388–1421) Henry III. Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, Bishop of Osnabrück 1402–1410 (* approx. 1372; † 1421)
- (1404–1427) Heinrich IV. Count of Holstein, pretender to the Duke of Schleswig (* 1397; † 1427)
- (1421–1459) Adolf VIII. Count of Holstein, Duke of Schleswig (* 1401; † 1459)
- (1427–1433) Gerhard VII. Count of Holstein (* 1404; † 1433)
Since Adolf VIII died without an heir, the Holstein nobility elected his cognatic nephew, King Christian I of Denmark , who had ruled since 1448 , as the new Duke of Schleswig and, contrary to the Salian feudal inheritance, as Count of Holstein and Stormarn. With this, the House of Oldenburg came to power in Schleswig and Holstein as the successor to the Schauenburgs and ruled here until 1864.
Significance of the count family in Lower Saxony
The Schauenburgers carried out an orderly expansion of the state with the establishment of towns, such as Stadthagen and Rinteln. The Schaumburg counts were in the 13th century Gografen the district Wennigsen (Deister) and for over a hundred years in the Deister wealthy -Vorland. This circumstance brought with it that the Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein were subordinated to the bailiwick of the Wennigsen monastery . The count family donated property to the monastery.
The County of Sternberg belonged to the Schauenburg property from 1377 to 1402/05, when it was pledged to the noble lords of the Lippe . Through his marriage to Cordula von Gehmen (today: Gemen ) in 1476, Count Johann IV. Von Schauenburg and Holstein-Pinneberg received the rule of Gemen from his son-in-law's father-in-law. After an inheritance dispute in 1635, Gemen fell to the Counts of Limburg-Styrum .
The Grafschaft Schaumburg existed until 1640, when with the death of Otto V from the Gemener branch the house of Schauenburg became extinct in the male line; the county was divided between the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel and the Counts of Lippe . The Hessian part was henceforth known as Grafschaft Schaumburg , the Lippe part as Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe (from 1807 principality). The county of Holstein-Pinneberg was affiliated to the Duchy of Holstein , which has meanwhile been upgraded from a county to a duchy .
Bückeburg Castle (1654)
- Helge bei der Wieden : Schaumburg Genealogy . Schaumburger Studies 14. Melle 1999.
- Oliver Auge , Detlev Kraack (ed.): 900 years of Schauenburger in the north. An inventory (= sources and research on the history of Schleswig-Holstein, 121). Wachholtz, Kiel a. a. 2015, ISBN 978-3-529-02221-0 ( review by H / Soz / Kult ).
- Manfred Jessen-Klingenberg : The Schauenburger. They created Schleswig-Holstein. In: Sea air. North and Baltic Sea , 1999, Issue 2, , pp. 36-43.
- Hans von Weissenbach: The coat of arms of the Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein. Bergas, Schleswig 1877 ( digitized version ).
- Rulers of Holstein. Miroslav Marek, accessed June 29, 2011 .
- Genealogy of Holstein (Part 1). Miroslav Marek, accessed June 29, 2011 .
- Genealogy of Holstein (Part 2). Miroslav Marek, accessed June 29, 2011 .
- The Schauenburgers: ruled Holstein for 348 years. Society for Schleswig-Holstein History, accessed on May 16, 2015 .
- Thorsten Dahl: The Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein ( Memento from July 26, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Günther Bock: The end of the Hamburg counts 1110. A historiographical construction. In: Oliver Auge, Detlev Kraack (Ed.): 900 years of Schauenburger in the north. An inventory. Wachholtz, Kiel a. a. 2015, pp. 7–75, here p. 19.
- 750 years of Wennigsen 1200–1950. Edited by the preparatory committee for the 750th anniversary of the Wennigsen community, Wennigsen (printed by the Hannover Book Printing Workshop) 1950, pp. 8–9.