|title|| Emperor of Russia King of Denmark King of Norway King of Sweden King of Greece Grand Duke of Oldenburg Duke of Schleswig Duke of Holstein
|States|| Russian Empire Kingdom of Denmark Kingdom of Norway Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Greece Grand Duchy of Oldenburg Duchy of Schleswig Duchy of Holstein
|Headquarters|| Manor house Güldenstein
|Head of house||Christian Duke of Oldenburg|
|motto||One god, one right, one truth.|
The House of Oldenburg is one of the most important families of the ruling European nobility . It is based on an old north German dynasty whose origins lie in the north of Osnabrück . It was first reliably attested with Egilmar I in 1091. The eponymous castle Aldenburg ( Oldenburg ) was located on the Hunte , was first mentioned in 1108 and served the Counts of Oldenburg as a residence from the middle of the 12th century.
In 1448 an Oldenburg count was elected to the Danish royal throne and ceded the county to his younger brother. The Danish line, which has ruled uninterrupted since then, later branched out many times, ruled at the same time in the Duchy of Schleswig and in the County of Holstein , at times also in Sweden and (to this day) in Norway, in 1667 the County of Oldenburg fell to it - after it was extinguished the younger line - closed again, in 1762 then the Russian Tsar's throne and in 1863 the crown of Greece. All branches form the entire Oldenburg house .
The Grand Dukes of Oldenburg, who ruled until 1918, as well as the Russian tsars from the House of Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp and the Swedish kings until 1818 belong genealogically to the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , also a branch of the Danish line of the entire House of Oldenburg. The Grand Ducal Line of Oldenburg is the oldest surviving line and is the head of the house. The royal houses of Denmark and Norway still ruling today belong genealogically to the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg branch , as do the former Greek royal family and the descendants of the husband of Queen Elizabeth II (who came from the Greek royal family) .
The Oldenburg family of counts gained European importance when Christian I , the eldest son of Count Dietrich von Oldenburg († 1440), was elected King of Denmark and in 1457 King of Sweden and Norway . He founded the line that ruled Denmark and Norway to this day. His younger brother Gerhard IV. Called Gerd the Courageous (ab. 1482) (around 1430–1500) continued the ruling line of the counts in the county of Oldenburg , which expired in 1667 with the death of Count Anton Günther , who was outstanding in regional history . Anton, the illegitimate son of Anton Günther, becomes the founder of the semi-sovereign house of Aldenburg-Bentinck , while the county of Oldenburg falls to the older, royal Danish line. From this branch u. a. the lines Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (also Holstein-Gottorp, from 1762 Russian tsarist Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp ) and Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg .
King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426–1481)
Count Anton Günther von Oldenburg (1583–1667)
The Sonderburg line split into numerous branches: The Augustenburg branch Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg went out in 1931. In contrast, the younger Glücksburg line - Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg , actually the line of the Dukes of Beck - came in 1863 with Christian IX. on the Danish throne and holds it to this day. King Christian IX second son became King of Greece as George I in 1863 . His descendants ruled there until 1967.
Karl, grandson of Christian IX., Became King of Norway as Håkon VII in 1905 , where the Oldenburgs are still king to this day. The Greek branch is Charles , son of Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philippos Andreou of Greece and Denmark ), the British heir to the throne.
Even before the Glücksburg line received the Danish royal dignity, the older line Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp with Karl Peter Ulrich as Peter III. Obtained the Russian Tsar's throne. His descendants ruled Russia under the name Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp until 1917 .
In 1751 Adolf Friedrich , a member of the Gottorper line, acquired the crown of Sweden and became the founder of the Swedish royal line, which held the throne until 1818, which then passed to the Bernadotte family through adoption . With Friedrich August von Holstein-Gottorp (1711–1786), the prince-bishop of Lübeck , a brother of Adolf Friedrichs of Sweden received in the Treaty of Tsarskoe Selo in 1773 the county of Oldenburg and in 1776 was raised to duke. The Grand Dukes (since 1815) of Oldenburg (younger line Holstein-Gottorp), who ruled until 1918, descended from him.
Overview of the most important lines of the Oldenburg house as a whole
- Oldenburg (originally the count's line, represented the kings of Denmark from 1448, expired in 1863)
- Oldenburg (Count's line from 1448, expired 1667)
Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (provided dukes in Schleswig-Holstein since 1544)
- Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp (founded by Karl Peter Ulrich, who became Russian tsar as Peter III ) provided the tsars of Russia until 1918
- Holstein-Gottorp, older line (established the Swedish kings from 1751 to 1818, died out in 1877 with the death of the last male descendant of King Gustav IV Adolf, who was deposed in 1809 )
- Holstein-Gottorp, younger line (represented the (Grand) Dukes of Oldenburg from 1773 to 1918 ), see below
- Schleswig-Holstein-Hadersleben (1544–1580)
- Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg , with numerous other lines, u. a.
Family coat of arms of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf
Coat of arms of the House of Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp
Coat of arms of the Grand Dukes of Oldenburg (younger line Holstein-Gottorp)
Coat of arms of the ducal house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Coat of arms of the kings of Denmark
Coat of arms of the kings of Greece
Coat of arms of the kings of Norway
The most important representatives of the Oldenburg House are currently:
- Glücksburg line
Queen Margrethe II of Denmark (* 1940)
King Harald V of Norway (* 1937)
Queen Sophia of Spain , Princess of Greece and Denmark (* 1938)
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , Prince of Greece and Denmark (* 1921)
The younger house in Oldenburg since 1776
Tsarina Catherine II of Russia, who held the guardianship of her son, the Grand Duke and Tsarevich Paul Petrowitsch , who was also the Hereditary Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (the older line of the House of Holstein-Gottorp ruled as House Romanov-Holstein since his father's accession to the throne in 1762 -Gottorp in Russia), after negotiations in 1767, in May 1773 exchanged the Holstein-Gottorpian hereditary lands for the Danish counties of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst ; Grand Duke Paul ceded this to the Prince-Bishop of Lübeck, Friedrich August , a member of the Holstein-Gottorp younger line and brother of the Swedish King Adolf Friedrich , through the Treaty of Tsarskoe Selo at the end of 1773 . Through this process, Russia renounced all claims to the Duchy of Schleswig, which is now fully arrived in the Danish possession, further was Bishopric of Lübeck , to date a gottorpische Sekundogenitur with direct imperial areas north of Lübeck and around Eutin virtually united, with Oldenburg in one. The county of Oldenburg , which has existed since the Middle Ages, was elevated to a duchy by imperial decree at the end of 1774 . In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803, the Lübeck bishopric was then converted into a hereditary secular principality and as the Principality of Lübeck the dukes of Oldenburg were awarded. In 1804, the Duke of Oldenburg Peter Friedrich Ludwig agreed in a settlement with the Hanseatic City of Lübeck on a distribution of the monastery properties in the city and the lands of the cathedral chapter, so that there was a reciprocal delimitation of the area, especially for the Lübeck exclaves .
In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, the duchy was elevated to the status of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg and shortly thereafter gained further territorial growth, namely the principality of Birkenfeld an der Nahe and the rule of Jever . In 1854 Oldenburg joined the German Customs Union and in 1867 the North German Confederation , in 1871 it became a federal state of the German Empire . As part of the November Revolution Grand Duke renounced Friedrich August the throne on 11 November 1918th The Oldenburg Residenzschloss and Schloss Jever passed into state ownership, the castles Rastede near Oldenburg and Eutin and Güldenstein in Ostholstein remained in the possession of the ducal house.
Head of the House of Oldenburg (German line) since 1776
- Friedrich August I of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , 1st Duke of Oldenburg (1776–1785)
- Peter Friedrich Wilhelm , titular duke (1785–1823)
- Peter I. Friedrich Ludwig , Prince Regent (1785–1810) and (1813–1823), Grand Duke (1823–1829, did not have the title)
- August I , Grand Duke (1829-1853)
- Peter II , Grand Duke (1853–1900)
- August II , Grand Duke (1900–1918), head of the house (1918–1931)
- Nikolaus von Oldenburg (1931–1970)
- Anton Günther Herzog von Oldenburg (1970-2014)
- Christian Herzog von Oldenburg (since 2014)
- List of the Counts of Oldenburg
- List of the kings of Denmark
- List of Russian rulers
- List of German noble families N – Z
- Genealogical manual of the nobility
- Master list of the House of Oldenburg
- Robert Bohn : Danish History. Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-44762-7 .
- Hans Friedl: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-428-00200-8 , pp. 511-513 ( version ). In:
- Egbert Koolman (Ed.): The Oldenburg House in Russia. Isensee, Oldenburg 2000, ISBN 3-89598-715-8 .
- Oldenburg landscape (ed.): Dedicated to the welfare of Oldenburg. Aspects of cultural and social work of the House of Oldenburg 1773–1918. Isensee, Oldenburg 2004, ISBN 3-89995-142-5 .
- Margarethe Pauly: Family tables of the Grand Dukes of Oldenburg and related princely houses in Europe. Isensee, Oldenburg 2004, ISBN 3-89995-146-8 .
- Hartmut Platte: The Oldenburg House. Börde, Werl 2006, ISBN 3-9810315-4-7 .
- Gerd Steinwascher : The Oldenburg. The story of a European dynasty. Urban pocket books vol. 703, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-17-021061-5 .
- Jörgen Welp (Red.): Dedicated to the well-being of Oldenburg: Aspects of the cultural and social work of the House of Oldenburg, 1773–1918 (= publications of the Oldenburg landscape . Vol. 9). Published by the Oldenburg landscape, Isensee, Oldenburg 2004, ISBN 3-89995-142-5 .