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Coat of arms of the House of Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp

The house of Romanov-Holstein-Gottorp was the third dynasty after the Romanovs and the Rurikids from which the Russian tsars emerged . "Romanow" is stressed on the second syllable ( ro'ma: nof ).


The progenitor of the family is Karl-Friedrich von Holstein-Gottorp (1700–1739) from the Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf family , who was married to Anna Petrovna from the Romanow family. Your son Peter III. succeeded Empress Elisabeth , the last Romanov, to the Russian throne.

The official descendants of Peter ruled the vast Russian Empire until the February Revolution in 1917. In 1918 the last emperor, Nicholas II , was shot with his family by the Bolsheviks .

After the death of the tsarist family , the surviving Romanovs went into exile. The successor as head of the family was Kyrill Vladimirovich Romanov in exile in Paris, followed after his death in 1938 by his son Vladimir Kirillowitsch Romanov . After his death in 1992, he was followed by Georgi Michailowitsch Romanow von Prussia , the son of his daughter Maria Wladimirowna Romanowa and Franz Wilhelm von Prussia .

Other people appeared with the claim to be the legal heirs and successors of Nikolai II, including Nikolai Dalski, who in 1996 as Tsar Nikolai III. let crown.

Anna Karl Friedrich von Holstein-Gottorp Peter III. Katharina II. Paul Sophie Dorothea von Württemberg Alexander I. Konstantin Nikolaus I. Charlotte von Preußen Michail Marie von Hessen-Darmstadt Alexander II. Konstantin Nikolai Michail Nikolai Alexander III. Dagmar von Dänemark Wladimir Alexei Sergei Pawel Nikolaus II. Alix von Hessen-Darmstadt Georgi Michail AlexeiRomanov tree 2 simple de.png

The emperors of the House of Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp

Name (life data) Reign title Remarks
Coronation portrait of Peter III of Russia -1761.JPG Peter III
(February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762)
1762 Emperor Grandson of Peter I and Katharinas I, founder of the Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp line. Made peace with Prussia and switched to his side in the Seven Years' War . He was ousted by a plot that put his wife Katharina on the throne. Partisans of the Empress murdered him in July 1762.
Grand Duchess Catherine Alexeevna by IP Argunov after Rotari (1762, Kuskovo museum) .jpg Catherine II, "the great"
(* May 2, 1729; † November 17, 1796)
1762-1796 empress Mrs. Peters III. Disempowered her husband and was proclaimed empress. It promoted the settlement of foreigners in Russia. It was able to expand Russia's sphere of influence to such an extent that, after two wars against the Turks, Russia had access to the Black Sea. She also played a decisive role in the three partitions of Poland and in 1788 waged war against the Swedes.
Paul i russia.jpg Paul
(October 1, 1754 - March 23, 1801)
1796-1801 Emperor Officially the son of Peter III. and Katharinas II., most likely the biological son of Count Saltykow and Katharinas II. He made an alliance with France, the enemy of his previous allies. Conspirators wanted to force him to abdicate. Paul refused and was murdered.
Alexander I by S.Shchukin (1809, Tver) .png Alexander I.
(23 December 1777 - 1 December 1825)
1801-1825 Emperor Son of Paul I fought against Napoleon in the Bund and brokered the peace of Tilsit. Participated in the wars of liberation that ended with the fall of Napoleon. He also participated in the Congress of Vienna in the reorganization of Europe
Franz Krüger - Portrait of Emperor Nicholas I - WGA12289.jpg Nicholas I
(July 6, 1796 - March 2, 1855)
1825-1855 Emperor Son of Paul I Domestically, the Decembrists attacked him. He also faced the November uprising of the Poles. In terms of foreign policy, he waged war against Persia and Turkey, among others. Nikolaus wanted to conquer Turkey again in 1853 and thus triggered the Crimean War , the end of which he never lived to see.
Alexander II by Alexei Harlamov (1874, GIM) .jpg Alexander II
(April 29, 1818 - March 13, 1881)
1855-1881 Emperor Son of Nicholas I. He agreed to the Peace of Paris in 1856, thus ending the Crimean War. The abolition of serfdom earned him the name Liberator Tsar. In 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire due to the Bulgarian April Uprising . He began many reforms, but had opponents of the regime monitored and persecuted. He died in an explosives attack.
Tsar Alexander 3º.jpg Alexander III
(March 10, 1845 - November 1, 1894)
1881-1894 Emperor Son of Alexander II. After coming to power, he lifted many of his father's liberalizations. He strengthened the autocracy in Russia and founded the secret police Okhrana .
Nicholas II by E. Lipgart (1914, Russian museum) - detail.jpg Nicholas II
(May 18, 1868 - July 17, 1918)
1894-1917 Emperor Son of Alexander III. Last crowned emperor of Russia. The defeat in the war against Japan sparked a revolution in 1905 - after a peaceful demonstration on St. Petersburg's Bloody Sunday was suppressed . The tsar had to accept the formation of a Duma . 1914–1917 Russia fought in the First World War . Nikolaus abdicated in 1917 as a result of the February Revolution and was shot and killed by the Bolsheviks with his family in the summer of 1918. He has been venerated as a saint by the Russian Orthodox Church since 2000.


Coat of arms of the tsars of all Russia


See also

Individual evidence

  1. Katja Tichomirowa: Even in the next generation, the revenants of the Russian monarchs do not give the Berliner Zeitung of July 18, 1998
  2. Повивальные бабки с Любянки Совершенно секретно, March 1, 1998